مصطلحـات المشاركـة المدنيــة

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مصطلحـات المشاركـة المدنيــة

  1. 1. Civic Participation Terminology A Guide to Frequently Used Terms and Phrases ed ‫ﻣـﺼـﻄـﻠﺤـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸـﺎﺭﻛـﺔ ﺍﳌـﺪﻧـﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺼـﻄـﻠﺤــﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟـﻌـﺒــﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﺋــﻌــﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻟـﻴـﻞ ﺍﻟـﻤـﺼـﻄـﻠﺤــﺎﺕ‬ G Governance Campaign Plan p g M Majority R l Election n J dicial Pow Judicial PoweBias i NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTE
  2. 2. The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) is a nonprofit organization working to strength-en and expand democracy worldwide. Calling on a global network of volunteer experts, NDI provides practicalassistance to civic and political party leaders advancing democratic values, practices, and institutions. NDI workswith democrats in every region of the world to build political and civic organizations, to safeguard elections, and topromote citizen participation, openness, and accountability in government.Copyright © National Democratic Institute (NDI) 2009. All rights reserved. Portions of this work may be repro-duced and/or translated for noncommercial purposes provided NDI is acknowledged as the source of the materi-al and is sent copies of any translation. National Democratic Institute for International Affairs 2030 M Street, NW, 5th Floor Washington, DC 20036-3306 tel: (202) 728-5500 fax: (202) 728-5520 website: www.ndi.orgTranslated by Nathalie Sleimane, Designed by Marc Rechdane.For any comments or suggestions please contact: arabictranslation@ndi.org~¡©ŸG ôaƒjh .⁄É©dG ‘ ™°SGh ¥É£f ≈∏Y Égô°ûfh á«WGô≤Á~dG ~«WƒJ π«Ñ°S ‘ πª©J á«ëHQ ÒZ ᪶æe ƒg á«dh~dG ¿hDƒ°û∏d »æWƒdG »WGô≤Á~dG ~¡©ŸGá«ŸÉY áμÑ°ûH kÉæ«©à°ùe ,á«WGô≤Á~dG äÉ°ù°SDƒŸGh äÉ°SQɪŸGh º«≤dG ôjƒ£J πLCG øe Ú«°SÉ«°ùdGh Ú«f~ŸG IOÉ≤∏d á«∏ª©dG I~YÉ°ùŸG »æWƒdG »WGô≤Á~dG,äÉHÉîàf’G ágGõf ¿ƒ°Uh ,á«f~ŸGh á«°SÉ«°ùdG äɪ¶æŸG AÉæH ±~¡H ⁄É©dG AÉëfCG πc ‘ Ú«WGô≤Á~dG ™e kÉ° jCG ~¡©ŸG ¿hÉ©àjh .ÚYƒ£àŸG AGÈÿG øe .ºμ◊G ‘ ádAÉ°ùŸGh ìÉàØf’G õjõ©Jh ,ÚæWGƒŸG ácQÉ°ûe ™«é°ûJ ¤EG áaÉ°VE’ÉHÜÉàμdG Gòg øe AGõLCG êÉàfEG IOÉYEG øμÁ .¬d áXƒØfi ¥ƒ≤◊G ™«ªL .2009 á«dh~dG ¿hDƒ°û∏d »æWƒdG »WGô≤Á~dG ~¡©ª∏d ™Ñ£dG ¥ƒ≤M Oƒ©J © .~¡©ŸG ¤EG áªLÎdG øY áî°ùf ∫É°SQEGh IQƒ°ûæŸG IOɪ∏d Gk Q~°üe »æWƒdG »WGô≤Á~dG ~¡©ŸG ôcP •ô°T ájQÉŒ ÒZ mäÉjɨd É¡àªLôJ hCG/h .¿G~°TQ ∑QÉe »YÉÑW º«ª°üJ ,¿Éª«∏°S ‹ÉJÉf áªLôJ arabictranslation@ndi.org :ÊhÎμdE’G ~jÈdG ¤EG ÜÉàμdG Gòg áªLôJ ∫ƒM ∫GDƒ°S hCG ≥«∏©J …CG ∫É°SQEG AÉLôdG
  3. 3. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE Foreword This Glossary was developed by the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) as part of the Citizen Lebanon: Civic Education and Advocacy Program. Building on decades of experience working with citizens and civil society organizations, NDI has developed numerous tools and approach- es to enhance the quality and consistency of citizen input in political processes. Citizen Lebanon works to increase citizens’ understanding of democratic principles, facilitate their identification and conceptu- alization of issues that most affect them, and then support direct interaction between citizens and pub- lic officials to address these issues. The guiding principle of Citizen Lebanon is a spirit of partnership andrespectful dialogue - in order to achieve this, a common set of terms and agreement about their meaning is essential.This Glossary is part of NDI’s growing library of publications which form the basis for the Institute’s efforts to cre-ate a new and precise lexicon to convey the concepts central to democracy and governance. Putting some of theseprinciples into practice, the Glossary was developed through a consultative process with NDI’s staff in Lebanon,other field offices throughout the Middle East as well as the Institute’s Citizen Participation team. Special thanksalso to NDI’s civic partners in the Citizen Lebanon program, who served as the inspiration for this project and alsooffered valuable feedback throughout the process of development.While efforts to develop this Glossary have been exhaustive, it is by no means an authoritative resource. Userfeedback is essential - comments and thoughts on terms, definition, usage and regional application are desiredand actively encouraged. To make this process as simple as possible, please feel free to email any commentsto arabictranslation@ndi.org.
  4. 4. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE áÄWƒJèeÉfôH :øWGƒŸG ¿ÉæÑd èeÉfôH øe Gk AõL ¬àØ°üH Gòg äÉë∏£°üŸG π«dO OG~YEÉH (NDI) á«dh~dG ¿hDƒ°û∏d »æWƒdG »WGô≤Á~dG ~¡©ŸG ΩÉbäɪ¶æeh ÚæWGƒŸG ™e ÜhDh~dG ¬∏ªY øe Oƒ≤©dG ôe ≈∏Y ~¡©ŸG É¡Ñ°ùàcG »àdG á∏jƒ£dG IÈÿG π° ØÑa .á©aG~ŸG ¿hDƒ°Th á«f~ŸG á«HÎdG q.É¡JÉÑKh É¡à«Yƒf á¡÷ ,á«°SÉ«°ùdG á«∏ª©dG ‘ ÚæWGƒŸG ácQÉ°ûe õjõ©J ¤EG »eôJ äÉHQÉ≤eh äGhOCG I~Y ôjƒ£J øe øqμ“ ,Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛGôKDƒJ »àdG ÉjÉ° ≤dG ~j~– ‘ º¡J~YÉ°ùeh ,á«WGô≤Á~dG ÇOÉÑŸÉH ÚæWGƒŸG áaô©e ™«°SƒJ ¤EG ¤hCG á∏Môe ‘ øWGƒŸG ¿ÉæÑd èeÉfôH ≈©°ùjhÚæWGƒŸG ÚH ô°TÉÑŸG πYÉØàdG øe ´ƒf ≥∏N √ÉŒÉH ™a~dG ¤EG á≤M’ á∏Môe ‘h ,É¡æY áë°VGh Iôμa øjƒμJh ÒKCÉJ ~°TCG º¡JÉ«M ≈∏Y qìhQ ‘ ≈∏éààa É¡æe m »MƒH øWGƒŸG ¿ÉæÑd èeÉfôH πª©j »àdG á«¡«LƒàdG ÇOÉÑŸG ÉeCG .ÉjÉ° ≤dG √òg á÷É©Ÿ ΩÉ©dG π≤◊G ‘ ÚdhDƒ°ùŸGh .ájɨdG √ò¡d kÉ≤«≤– ,É¡«fÉ©e ≈∏Y ≥aGƒàdGh äÉë∏£°üŸG øe áeÉY áYƒª› ™°Vh øe ~H ’ ¿Éc ,∂dòd .ΩGÎM’G ≈∏Y ºFÉ≤dG QGƒ◊Gh ácGô°ûdG qπ«Ñ°S ‘ ~¡©ŸG É¡dòÑj »àdG Oƒ¡÷G É¡«∏Y õμJÎa ,»æWƒdG »WGô≤Á~dG ~¡©ŸG i~d á«eÉæàŸG äGQƒ°ûæŸG áÑàμe øe Gk AõL Gòg äÉë∏£°üŸG π«dO πμ°ûjh»ØXƒe ™e IOƒ≤©ŸG äGQhÉ°ûŸG øe Qm É°ùe IôªK π«d~dG Gòg AÉL ~bh .ºμ◊G IQGOEGh á«WGô≤Á~dG »ndÉ› ‘ ájQƒfi º«gÉØe π≤f ‘ ~«ØJ á≤«bO äGOôØe çG~ëà°SG rº¡©«ªL Gƒ©°Vh ¿CG ~©H ,á«f~ŸG ácQÉ°ûŸG ¿hDƒ°ûH »æ©ŸG ~¡©ŸG ≥jôa ™e ∂dòch ,§°ShC’G ¥ô°ûdG á≤£æe ‘ á∏eÉY iôNCG á«fG~«e ÖJÉμeh ¿ÉæÑd ‘ ~¡©ŸG,Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛG øª°V øWGƒŸG ¿ÉæÑd èeÉfôH ‘ ~¡©ŸG AÉcô°T ¤EG ¢UÉN ôμ°T ¬«LƒJ øe kÉ° jCG ~H ’ ,QÉWE’G Gòg ‘h .≥«Ñ£J ™°Vƒe ÇOÉÑŸG ∂∏J øe kÉ° ©H .kÉHÉéjEG hCG kÉÑ∏°S ¬«∏Y ≥«∏©àdG ¢Vô©e ‘ èeÉfÈdG πMGôe OG~àeG ≈∏Y áªq«b äÉeƒ∏©e Gƒe~bh ´hô°ûŸG Gò¡d »Mh Q~°üe Gƒ∏μ°T º¡fC’¿CG É檡j ,∂dòd .kÉ«FÉ¡fh kÉ«ª°SQ Gk Q~°üe πμ°T …CÉH ônÑà©oj ’ ƒ¡a ,´ƒ°VƒŸG Gòg ÖfGƒL qπμH §«– ¿CG âdhÉM äÉë∏£°üŸG π«dO OG~YE’ ádhòÑŸG Oƒ¡÷G ¿CG ™eh q q,É¡dɪ©à°SG á≤jôWh ,É¡JÉØjô©Jh ,äÉë∏£°üŸG øY º¡FGQBG hCG º¡JÉ≤«∏©J AG~HEG ¤EG ìÉ◊EÉH º¡qãëfh ,¬æY äÉYÉÑ£fG øe º¡j~d ¿ƒμàj Éà π«d~dG ƒe~îà°ùe ÉfOhõj q.arabictranslation@ndi.org :‹ÉàdG ÊhÎμdE’G ~jÈdG ÈY OOôJ ¿hO Éæà∏°SGôe AÉLôdG ,ºμJÉ≤«∏©J ∫É°üjE’ kÓ«¡°ùJh .≥WÉæŸG ‘ É¡dɪ©à°SG á«°Uƒ°üNh
  5. 5. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE 1 AAccountability The relationship between government ,øWGƒŸGh áeƒμ◊G ÚH ÉC °ûæJ »àdG ábÓ©dÉH ≈q∏éàJ and citizens. Acknowledgement and äGQGô˘≤˘dG ø˘Y ɢ¡˘ à˘ «˘ dhDƒ˘ °ùÃ á˘˘eƒ˘˘μ◊G ô˘˘≤˘ J å«˘˘MáÑ°SÉfi/ádAÉ°ùe e assumption of responsibility for deci- q sions, actions, and policies, in light of πªëàJh ,É¡æY Q~°üJ »àdG äÉ°SÉ«°ùdGh ∫ɪYC’Gh q agreed expectations, such as an agree- øe ±ôW πc ¬©bƒàj Ée Aƒ°V ≈∏Y á«dhDƒ°ùŸG √òg q ment between an elected official and ∫hDƒ˘ ˘°ùŸG ÚH Oƒ˘˘ ≤˘ ˘©ŸG ¥É˘˘ Ø˘ ˘J’G ¬˘˘ Ñ˘ ˘°ûj ÉÃh ,ô˘˘ NB’G his/her consituents. .¬«ÑNÉfh ÖîàæŸG nActivist A person who believes in or participates Gòg ‘ ∑QÉ°ûjh ,ô°TÉÑŸG ∑ôëàdÉH øeDƒj ¢üî°T πc q§°TÉf in direct action to make changes in gov- ºμ◊G äÉ°ù°SDƒe ‘ äGÒ«¨J çG~MEG ᫨H ,∑ôëàdG ernment or social conditions by cam- paigning in public or working for an º˘«˘¶˘æ˘J ∫Ó˘N ø˘e ∂dPh ,᢫˘Yɢª˘à˘L’G ±hô˘˘¶˘ dG hCG organization. An activist is described as .áæ«©e ᪶æe ìÉæL â– πª©dG hCG á«æ∏Y äÓªM q someone who pursues vigorous actions ‘ áã«ãM »YÉ°ùe ∫òÑj …òdG ¢üî°ûdG kÉ° jCG ƒgh to pursue a political or social end. .á«YɪàLG hCG á«°SÉ«°S äÉjÉZ ≥«≤– π«Ñ°SAd Hoc Committee Committee which may be formed to ç~◊ hCG áæ«©e á«° b á÷É©Ÿ ÉC °ûæJ »àdG áæé∏dG q address a particular issue or event, but äÉ«dhDƒ°ùŸÉH ´Ó£°V’G ‘ ôªà°ùJ ’ É¡æμdh ø«©e¢UÉN ¢Vô¨d ICÉ°ûæe áæ÷ æ does not have standing responsibilities. q .ɡડe AÉ¡àfÉH É¡∏ªY »¡àæj PEG É¡«dEG án∏cƒŸG nAdvocacy A process of influencing discussion, äÉ°SÉ«°ùdGh äGAGôLE’Gh ä’hG~ŸG ≈∏Y ÒKCÉàdG á«∏ªY procedures and policies of government. »àdG á«∏ª©dG √òg πqãªàJh .ºμ◊G äÉ°ù°SDƒÃ á≤∏©àŸGá©aG~e This process, usually guided by civil soci- ety and citizens, is a set of organized, ᢢ∏˘ °ù∏˘˘°ùH ¿ƒ˘˘æ˘ WGƒŸGh Ê~ŸG ™˘˘ª˘ àÛG kIOɢ˘Y ɢ˘gOƒ˘˘ ≤˘ ˘j strategic actions over a period of time áæ«©e á«æeR IÎa ≈∏Y º s¶æoJ á«é«JGΰSG äGƒ£N q directed at bringing about change ácQÉ°ûŸG ∫ÓN øe ܃∏£ŸG Ò«¨àdG çG~MEG ¤EG ±~¡Jh through political participation to address issues. Advocacy campaigns could be äÓªM º q¶æoJh .áMhô£ŸG ÉjÉ° ≤dG á÷É©Ÿ á«°SÉ«°ùdG organized to encourage change such as πμ°T kÓãe òNCÉj …òdG Ò«¨àdG √ÉŒÉH ™a~∏d á©aG~ŸG demanding access to information, exert- ᢢ°SQɇh ,äɢ˘eƒ˘˘∏˘ ˘©ŸG ¤EG ∫ƒ˘˘ °Uƒ˘˘ dG ≥˘˘ ë˘ ˘H ᢢ Ñ˘ ˘dɢ˘ £ŸG ing pressure to ensure accountability and ,á«aÉØ°ûdGh ádAÉ°ùŸG …CG~Ñe ¿ƒ°U πLCG øe •ƒ¨° dG transparency, and drawing public offi- cial’s attention to problems in democrat- »àdG πcÉ°ûŸG ¤EG Ú«ª°SôdG ÚdhDƒ°ùŸG √ÉÑàfG âØdh ic institutions. .á«WGô≤Á~dG äÉ°ù°SDƒŸG É¡æe ÊÉ©J
  6. 6. 2 N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTEAlien/Non-Citizen Individuals living in a country who are áØ°U πªëj ¿CG ÒZ øe ø«©e ~∏H ‘ ¢û«©j Oôa q not legal citizens of the nation or of the áj’ƒdG hCG ádh~dG ÉjÉYôd I~FÉ©dG »Yô°ûdG øWGƒŸG»ÑæLCG state in which they reside, and therefore do not have access to the same rights ¥ƒ˘≤◊ɢH ™˘à˘ª˘à˘dG ¬˘dƒ˘î˘j ’ ɇ ,ɢ¡˘«˘a º˘«˘≤˘ j »˘˘à˘ dG q and responsibilities as citizens. .É¡«æWGƒe ¤EG IOƒ¡©ŸG äÉ«dhDƒ°ùŸÉH ´Ó£°V’GhAlliance An association of groups, people, or ≈∏Y ≥aGƒàJ k’hO hCG kÉ°UÉî°TCG hCG äÉYƒª› º° j ™ªŒ q q nations who agree to cooperate to .∑ΰûe ±~g ≥«≤– πLCG øe É¡æ«H Ée ‘ ¿hÉ©àdG∞∏M/∞dÉ– achieve a common goal. An alliance is usually a formal agreement. .»ª°SQ ¥ÉØJG πμ°T kIOÉY ∞dÉëàdG òîàjhAlternative Process A decision-making process to change Ò«¨J ¤EG »eôjh äGQGô≤dG ™æ°U ¬μ∏°ùj …òdG QÉ°ùŸG policies that exist wholly outside the Qɢ˘WEG êQɢ˘N π˘˘eɢ˘μ˘ dɢ˘H ɢ˘¡˘ H ∫ƒ˘˘ª˘ ©ŸG äɢ˘°Sɢ˘ «˘ ˘°ùdGπj~H QÉ°ùe/á∏j~H á«∏ªY e official procedures stated by law or documented organizational policy. hCG ¿ƒfÉ≤dG É¡«∏Y ¢üæj »àdG ᫪°SôdG äGAGôLE’G .á≤KƒŸG ᫪«¶æàdG äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG ÉgO~– »àdGAssociation Group of individuals who organize kÉYÉaO º¡aƒØ°U ¿ƒª q¶æj øjòdG OGôaC’G øe áYƒª›á£HGQ/á«©ªL around a common idea or cause, with ¿ƒ∏ªëj GƒfÉcCG AGƒ°S ,ácΰûe á«° b hCG Iôμa øY either formal or informal status in a political system. Associations are con- .»°SÉ«°ùdG ΩɶædG πNGO ᫪°SQ ÒZ hCG ᫪°SQ áØ°U sidered civil society organizations and ™ªàÛG äɪ¶æe ΩÉ≤à Èà©oJ »àdG äÉ«©ª÷G √ògh can include non-governmental organi- hCG ᢢ«˘ eƒ˘˘μ◊G ÒZ äɢ˘ª˘ ¶˘ æŸG º˘˘° J ¿CG ø˘˘ μÁ Ê~ŸG q zations or labor unions. .á«dɪ©dG äGOÉ–’GAuction A fundraising technique in which objects ìôW ≈∏Y Ωƒ≤J äÉYÈàdG hCG ∫GƒeC’G ™ª÷ á«æ≤J»æ∏Y OGõe or services are donated to be sold and ‘ ¢UÉî°TC’G ºMGõàj ,™«Ñ∏d áæ«©e äÉe~N hCG OGƒe people bid against each other for a partic- q ular sale item. The person who bids the áMhô£ŸG IOÉŸÉH RƒØjh .É¡«∏Y ∫ƒ°üë∏d º¡æ«H Ée highest amount purchases that item. The ‘ ¢Vô˘Y π˘˘° aCɢ H Ω~˘˘≤˘ à˘ j …ò˘˘dG ¢ü°ûdG ™˘˘«˘ Ñ˘ ∏˘ d q o money raised, less expenses for the kÉ°übÉf ,ç~◊G Gòg øe á∏°üÙG ìÉHQC’G ÉeCG .I~jGõŸG q event, is the sponsoring group’s profit. ¤EG É¡©jQ Oƒ©˘«˘a ,¬˘æ˘Y á˘Ä˘°Tɢæ˘dG ∞˘«˘dɢμ˘à˘dG ɢ¡˘æ˘e .¬ª«¶æJ âYQ »àdG áYƒªÛGAudience A person or people to whom informa- hCG äÉeƒ∏©ŸG ¿ƒq≤∏àj øjòdG ¢UÉî°TC’G øe ¿ƒμàj q tion is conveyed or messages are .πFÉ°SôdG º¡«dEG ¬sLƒoJQƒ¡ªL directed.
  7. 7. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE 3Authority Quality that leads the judgments, deci- Aπà Gƒ∏Ñ≤àj ¿CG ≈∏Y øjôNB’G πª– »àdG áØ°üdGá£∏°S sions, recommendations, and orders of ô˘eGhC’Gh äɢ«˘°Uƒ˘à˘dGh äGQGô˘≤˘dGh Ωɢμ˘MC’G º˘¡˘JOGQEG certain individuals and institutions to be accepted voluntarily as right and there- ÉgQÉÑàYÉH äÉ°ù°SDƒŸG hCG OGôaC’G ¢ ©H øY IQOÉ°üdG fore to be implemented by others ∫ÓN øe Égƒ≤˘Ñ˘£˘j ¿CG ≈˘∏˘Yh ,á˘ë˘«˘ë˘°Uh á˘ª˘«˘∏˘°S through obedience and cooperation. í«ë°U .É¡©e ¿hÉ©àdG hCG äÉ°ù°SDƒŸG √ò¡d ´É«°üf’G l Authority is a main source of political øe ∫hC’G É¡Jƒb Q~°üe ~ªà°ùJ á«°SÉ«°ùdG á£∏°ùdG q¿CG power, but it is not identical to it. For q example, the State may be the main á¡éc á£∏°ùdG Ωƒ¡Øe qøμdh ,É¡d áMƒæªŸG á£∏°ùdG holder of authority, and therefore be á˘£˘∏˘°ùdG Ωƒ˘¡˘Ø˘e ø˘Y ™˘Ñ˘£˘ dɢ˘H ∞˘˘∏˘ à˘ î˘ j ᢢdhDƒ˘ °ùe the target of advocacy. á©aG~ŸG äÓªM ±~¡à°ùJ kÓãe Éæg øe .á«MÓ°üc o »àdG á«°SÉ°SC’G á¡÷G kÓãe ¿ƒμJ ~b É¡qfCG Éà ádh~dG n .á£∏°ùdG É¡«dEG πncƒoJAutonomy Political independence and self-govern- ,»JGòdG ºμ◊Gh á«°SÉ«°ùdG á«©ÑàdG Ω~©H ≈q∏éàJá«dÓ≤à°SG ment, the ability to operate without IôFGO øY Gk ~«©H πª©dG á°SQɇ ≈∏Y IQ~≤dÉH ∂dòch outside control. The capacity to make an informed, uncoerced decision. äGQGô≤dG PÉîJG ≈∏Yh êQÉÿG ¬°SQÉÁ …òdG PƒØædG .™°SGh ´ÓWG øY ºæJ »àdG Iô◊G q
  8. 8. 4 N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE BBias A leaning in favor of or against some- Ω~Yh ôNBG ¿hO ±ôW hCG á«° ≤d Ö°ü©àdG hCG ÜõëàdGRÉ«ëfG/õ«– thing or someone; partiality or prejudice. .ájOÉ«◊G qBicameral Parliament In government, bicameralism is the ¿CG ¤EG ºμ◊G á°SQɇ Qɪ° e ‘ í∏£°üŸG Gòg Ò°ûjÚ°ù∏› hP ¿ÉŸôH ∏ practice of having two legislative or par- Ú°ù∏› øe ¿Éfƒμàj ¿ÉŸÈdG hCG á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡dG liamentary chambers. Thus, a bicameral q parliament or bicameral legislature is a .ÚàæKG ÚàaôZ hCG ÚæKG parliament or legislature which consists of two chambers or houses.Bill Proposed act not yet passed by .~©H ¿ÉŸÈdG √ô≤j ⁄ ìÎ≤e ¿ƒfÉb q n¿ƒfÉb ´hô°ûe e Parliament.Bipartisan Consisting of, or supported by, mem- ¿GÈà˘©˘jo Ú«˘°Sɢ«˘°S ÚHõ˘M Aɢ° YCɢH ≥˘∏˘©˘à˘j ɢe π˘˘c qÚHõM øe ~js ƒe/ÚHõëH ≥∏©àe D bers of two parties, especially two major ø˘e qπ˘c hCG ,᢫˘ °Sɢ˘«˘ °ùdG ÜGõ˘˘MC’G Rô˘˘HCG ø˘˘e ᢠ°Uɢ˘N k political parties. .º¡ªY~H ≈¶ëjBloc Group with a shared interest/purpose; äÉjÉZ hCG ídÉ°üe º¡©ªŒ øjòdG ¢UÉî°TC’G øe áYƒª›á∏àc/πàμJ group of voters or politicians who share øjòdG Ú«°SÉ«°ùdG hCG ÚÑNÉædG øe áYƒª› hCG ;ácΰûe common goals, an alliance. .∞dÉëàdG øe ´ƒf ƒg .ácΰûe ±G~gCG º¡©ªŒ lBoard of Directors A governing body of a civil society ™ªàÛG äɪ¶æe ‘ IQGOE’G ¿hDƒ°T ¤ƒàJ »àdG áÄ«¡dGIQGOE’G ¢ù∏› ∏ organization, which is elected and volun- AÉ° YCG ø˘e á˘Ñ˘î˘à˘æŸG á˘Ä˘«˘¡˘dG √ò˘g ¿ƒ˘μ˘à˘Jh .Ê~ŸG tary, consisting of individuals who are n q committed to the mission of the organi- á˘Wƒ˘æŸG á˘ª˘¡ŸG ò˘«˘Ø˘ æ˘ à˘ H º˘˘¡˘ JOGQEG Aπà ¿ƒ˘˘eõ˘˘à˘ ∏˘ j zation. Board members responsibilities AÉ° YCG É¡H ™∏£° j »àdG äÉ«dhDƒ°ùŸG ÉeCG .᪶æŸÉH may include guiding the strategic plan of á«é«JGΰS’G á£ÿG ¬«LƒJ πª°ûàa IQGOE’G ¢ù∏› the organization, by involvement in ∫ÓN øe í«ë°üdG √ÉŒ’G ‘ ᪶æŸG É¡©° J »àdG strategic decisions about fundraising, staffing, and advocacy approaches. á˘≤˘∏˘©˘àŸG ᢫˘é˘«˘JGΰS’G äGQGô˘≤˘dG ‘ º˘¡˘à˘ cQɢ˘°ûe .á©aG~ŸG äÉHQÉ≤eh ∞«XƒàdGh äÉYÈàdG ™ªéH
  9. 9. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE 5Briefing A short and clear summary of a situa- ƒgh .ç~M hCG ™°Vh …CG øY í°VGhh õLƒe ¢üî∏e q≥Ñ°ùe ¢üî∏e e tion or an event. A briefing can be a πμ°T ≈∏Y ´ sRƒoj ¿CG hCG ´ÉªàLG πμ°T òîàj ¿CG øμÁ meeting or a set of written materials. .áYƒÑ£e OGƒeBudget Monitoring “A relatively new initiative whereby ¿ƒ£°TÉædG É¡ÑLƒÃ Ωƒ≤j kÉ«Ñ°ùf ~¡©dG áãj~M IQOÉÑeáfRGƒŸG áÑbGôe civil society activists or organizations áeƒμ◊G πªY áÑbGôà Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛG ‘ äɪ¶æŸG hCG monitor the government budgeting process - considered as a means to á˘Ñ˘bGô˘e π˘qμ˘°ûJh .ɢ˘gQGô˘˘bEGh ᢢfRGƒŸG OG~˘˘YEG ∫É› ‘ strengthen government accountability §Ñ°Vh áeƒμ◊G ádAÉ°ùe õjõ©J ¤EG kÓ«Ñ°S áfRGƒŸG and curb corruption in public finance .áeÉ©dG á«dÉŸG IQGOEG ‘ OÉ°ùØdG management.”By-Law A law or rule governing the internal ¿hDƒ˘°ûdG ≈˘Yô˘J ᢫˘fƒ˘fɢb Ωɢμ˘MCG á˘Yƒ˘˘ª› hCG ¿ƒ˘˘fɢ˘b»∏NGO Ωɶf affairs of an organization; or a second- á«fÉãdG áÑJôŸG πàëj ¿ƒfÉb hCG ;᪶æª∏d á«∏NG~dG q ary law. .¬à«ªgCG å«M øe
  10. 10. 6 N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE CCampaign Political activity, including meetings, ral- äÉYɪàL’G πª°ûJ á«°SÉ«°ùdG ᣰûfC’G øe á∏ªL lá∏ªM lies, speeches, demonstrations, parades, äɢ°VGô˘©˘à˘ °S’Gh äGÒ°ùŸGh Ö˘˘ n£oÿGh äɢ˘fɢ˘Lô˘˘¡ŸGh other events, and the use of the media, intended to inform citizens or govern- .᪠q¶æŸG äÉÑ°SÉæŸG øe ÉgÒZh IQÉ«°ùdG ÖcGƒŸGh q ment about the platform of a particular ΩÓYEG á«æH ΩÓYE’G πFÉ°Sh ΩG~îà°SG É¡«dEG ±É° jo q civic organization, coalition, or group of qp ᪶æe Ég~©oJ »àdG èeGÈdÉH áeƒμ◊G hCG ÚæWGƒŸG citizens to gather support. hCG ∞dÉ– hCG ,Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛG äɪ¶æe øe áæ«©e q .ºY~∏d Gk ~°ûM ÚæWGƒŸG øe ≥jôaCampaign Donation A contribution of money to fund a polit- á«°SÉ«°S á∏ªM πjƒªàd Ω~≤oJ »àdG á«dÉŸG áªgÉ°ùŸG sá∏ªë∏d äÉYÈJ ical or civic campaign. There are two :äÉYÈàdG øe ÚYƒæH äÓª◊G ≈¶–h .á«f~e hCG types of campaign donations: ‘hard money,’ which is regulated by campaign πjƒªàH á≤∏©àŸG ÚfGƒ≤dG ¬ª q¶æJ …òdG ~«≤ŸG ∫ÉŸG q finance laws, and ‘soft money’ which is ÚfGƒ≤∏d ™° îj ’ …òdG ~«≤ŸG ÒZ ∫ÉŸGh ,á∏ª◊G q not subject to campaign finance laws, í˘°Tô˘e …CG º˘Y~˘d ¬˘dɢª˘ ©˘ à˘ °SG Qqò˘ ©˘ à˘ j ɉEG IQƒ˘˘còŸG but cannot be used to diretly support a .kGô°TÉÑe kɪYO ‹GQ~a Ö°üæŸ candidate in federal office. The written document bringing together á˘eɢ¡˘dG çɢë˘HC’G ™˘ªŒ »˘˘à˘ dG ᢢHƒ˘˘à˘ μŸG ᢢ≤˘ «˘ Kƒ˘˘dGCampaign Plan the important research, the targeting, the á«é˘«˘JGΰS’Gh á˘dɢ°Sô˘dGh á˘na~˘¡˘à˘°ùŸG äɢYƒ˘ªÛGhá∏ª◊G á£N message, and the strategy of the advoca- cy campaign. This should be drafted at á£ÿG √òg áZÉ«°U Q~Œh .á©aG~ŸG á∏ªM ‘ á©ÑàŸG q the beginning of the campaign and pro- á«Ø«c Iƒ£N kIƒ£N ¢Vô©à°ùàa ,á∏ª◊G ájG~H ‘ vide a step-by-step outline of how the .á∏ª◊G √òg ±G~gCG ≥«≤– campaign will achieve its goal.Candidate This is the person running for a particular Ö°üæà Rƒ˘Ø˘∏˘d äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G ¢Vƒ˘î˘j …ò˘dG ¢üûdGí°Tôe elected position. The role of the candi- ™∏£° j …òdG Qh~dG QÉWEG ‘ ,í°TôŸG ~ª©jh .ø«©e date is to meet voters and potential q donors to the campaign and persuade øjòdG ÚëfÉŸGh ÚÑNÉædG ™e äGAÉ≤d ~≤Y ¤EG ,¬H them to support the candidate. The can- º¡YÉæbEG π«Ñ°S ‘ á∏ª◊G πjƒªàH GƒYÈàj ¿CG πªàëjo n didate cannot be the campaign manager, ≈∏Y Qqò©àj ,πHÉ≤ŸG ‘ ,øμdh .¬d ºY~dG Ë~≤àH responsible for the strategic development and day to day running of the campaign. øY ∫hDƒ°ùŸG á∏ª◊G ôj~e Qh~H ™∏£° j ¿CG í°TôŸG .á«eƒ«dG É¡fhDƒ°T ÒH~Jh É¡à«é«JGΰSG º°SQ
  11. 11. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE 7Canvass This is a type of citizen contact in which πq≤æàj å«M ,ÚæWGƒŸÉH ∫É°üJ’G ∫Éμ°TCG øe πμ°T(QGO ¤EG QGO øe) ±GƒW campaign organizers or volunteers go ç~ëà∏d QGO ¤EG QGO øe ¿ƒYƒ£àŸG hCG á∏ª◊G ƒª¶æe from one house or apartment to anoth- q er, talking directly to citizens. This can πFÉ°Sh ÌcCG »g á∏«°SƒdG √òg π©dh .º¡©e Iô°TÉÑe q be one of the most persuasive methods ºY~dGh á«bG~°üŸG Ö°ùc ≈∏Y kIQ~bh kÉYÉæbEG ∫É°üJ’G of gaining credibility and support, .¬Ñ∏£àJ …òdG å«ã◊G ~¡÷Gh âbƒdG ºZQ q though it is time and labor intensive.Caucus A meeting of party leaders or civic ᢫˘f~˘e á˘∏˘ª˘M »˘ª˘¶˘æŸ hCG Üõ◊G IOɢ≤˘d ´É˘ª˘ à˘ LG/Úª¶æŸG hCG äGOÉ«≤dG ´ÉªàLG organizers, the purpose of which may á˘æ˘«˘©˘e ᢫˘° b ø˘e ~˘˘Mƒ˘˘e ∞˘˘bƒ˘˘e AG~˘˘HEG ±~˘˘¡˘ H be to show unity for a particular issue q q»HõM ô“Dƒe (usually held privately) or to select a QÉ«˘à˘NG ±~˘¡˘H hCG (á˘≤˘∏˘¨˘e IQƒ˘°üH kIOɢY ~˘≤˘©˘æ˘j) candidate for office. .øq«©e Ö°üæŸ í°TôeCharacteristics A campaign message must be concise, »MƒJ ¿CGh ábOÉ°Uh IõLƒe á∏ª◊G ádÉ°SQ ¿ƒμJ ¿CG Öéjof Message truthful and credible, persuasive, easy kÉ° jCG Öéjh ;´ÉæbE’G ≈∏Y IQ~≤dÉH õ«ªàJh á«bG~°üŸÉH q to remember, and be important to citi-ádÉ°SôdG äÉeƒ≤e zens. A good message speaks to the ô¶f ‘ ᫪gCG πà– ¿CGh ádƒ¡°ùH ¿ÉgPC’G ‘ ≥∏©J ¿CG q heart, is targeted, and is repeated. ∑ô– »àdG ádÉ°SôdG »g áëLÉædG ádÉ°SôdÉa .ÚæWGƒŸG q .ÉgOGOôJ Ìμjh ±~¡dG ≈∏Y õqcôJh ôYÉ°ûŸGChange Agent A person or group of people who are øe ¿ƒæqμªàj øjòdG ¢UÉî°TC’G áYƒª› hCG ¢üî°ûdGÒ«¨àdG iƒb able to garner influence and shift pub- º˘¡˘cÓ˘à˘eɢH √Ò«˘¨˘ J hCG Ωɢ˘©˘ dG …CGô˘˘dG ≈˘˘∏˘ Y ÒKCɢ à˘ dG lic opinion through charisma, argu- mentation, or other methods for πFÉ°Sh hCG á©æ≤e áéM hCG (ÉeõjQÉc) Iqòa á«°üî°T encouraging change in a community or ‘ hCG »∏ÙG ™ªàÛG ‘ ä’ƒ– çG~MEÉH á∏«Øc iôNCG political process. .á«°SÉ«°ùdG á«∏ª©dGCharter Guiding principles and statement of äɢ°Sɢ˘«˘ °ùdG ø˘˘Y ¿Ó˘˘YE’G hCG ᢢ«˘ ¡˘ «˘ Lƒ˘˘à˘ dG ÇOɢ˘ÑŸGáYô°T/¥Éã«e policies on the nature of work within a äɪ¶æe É¡jODƒJ »˘à˘dG ∫ɢª˘YC’G ᢩ˘«˘Ñ˘£˘H á˘≤˘∏˘©˘àŸG civil society organization, association, or coalition. .äÉØdÉëàdG hCG äÉ«©ª÷G hCG Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛGCitizen An individual who is a naturalized or hCG kÉ°ùæ› ¿ÉcCG ,¿G~∏ÑdG øe m~∏H ‘ º«≤j …òdG øWGƒŸG qøWGƒe native-born resident of a state, displays á«°SÉ«°ùdG á£∏°ùdG √ÉŒ A’ƒdÉH ô©°ûjh ,√~«dGƒe øe allegiance to that state’s political and legal authority, and who is therefore ¥ƒ≤◊ÉH ‹ÉàdÉH ™àªàj ƒgh .¬ªμ– »àdG á«fƒfÉ≤dGh q entitled to the rights and protections of ≥M ∂dP ‘ Éà ) ~∏ÑdG Gòg ÚfGƒb É¡«∏Y ¢üæJ »àdG q its laws, including the right to political .É¡àjɪëH π¶à°ùjh (á«°SÉ«°ùdG IÉ«◊G ‘ ácQÉ°ûŸG q participation.
  12. 12. 8 N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTECitizen Journalism The act of non-professionals partici- ≈∏Y áaÉë°üdG Úæ¡àªŸG ÒZ Ú«f~ŸG ΩG~bEÉH πqãªàJ/áaÎfi ÒZ á«f~e áaÉë°U pating in the collecting, reporting, á˘Zɢ«˘°Uh ,äɢeƒ˘∏˘©ŸGh QÉ˘Ñ˘NC’G ™˘˘ª˘ L ‘ ᢢcQɢ˘°ûŸG analysis, and dissemination of newsÚaÎfi ÒZ Ú«f~e º∏≤H áaÉë°U and information. Citizen journalism π˘ª˘°ûJh .ɢgô˘°ûfh ,ɢ¡˘∏˘«˘∏–h ,ɢ˘¡˘ dƒ˘˘M ô˘˘jQɢ˘≤˘ à˘ dG incorportes a variety of mediums, π˘Fɢ°Sh ø˘e á˘Yƒ˘æ˘ à˘ e ᢢYƒ˘˘ª› ᢢ«˘ f~ŸG ᢢaɢ˘ë˘ °üdG q including blogging, SMS or text mes- áe~Nh ,âfÎfE’G ÈY äÉfh~ŸG Ωɶf É¡«a Éà ∫É°üJ’G saging, twitter, photography, video, ÈY π˘Fɢ°Sô˘dGh äɢfh~ŸG Ωɢ¶˘fh ,IÒ°ü≤˘dG π˘Fɢ°Sô˘˘dG and traditonal news pieces. Major broadcasting networks, such as Al- ,(ÎjƒJ ™bƒeh áe~N ΩG~îà°SÉH) ∫É≤ædG ∞JÉ¡dG Jazeera, BBC, and CNN, have ájQÉÑNE’G ä’É≤ŸGh ƒj~«ØdG ~gÉ°ûeh Qƒ°üdG ô°ûfh launched citizen journalism projects. ,ájQÉÑNE’G ∫É°SQE’G äÉμÑ°T á«Ñ˘dɢ¨˘a .á˘j~˘«˘∏˘≤˘à˘dG »˘°S »˘H »˘H ᢫˘fɢ£˘jÈdG á˘YGPE’G á˘Ä˘«˘gh Iô˘jõ÷ɢc ‘ ™jQÉ°ûe â≤∏WCG ~b á«cÒeC’G ¿G ¿G »°S áμÑ°Th .áaÎÙG ÒZ á«f~ŸG áaÉë°üdG ∫É›Citizen Jury A form of deliberative democracy in ºÄà∏J å«M ájQhÉ°ûàdG á«WGô≤Á~dG ∫Éμ°TCG øe πμ°TÚæWGƒŸG øe ÚØ∏fi áÄ«g which small groups of people are ¤EG ´É˘ª˘à˘°S’G ᢫˘¨˘H ¢Uɢ˘î˘ °TC’G ø˘˘e IÒ¨˘˘°U ᢢYƒ˘˘ª› brought together to hear evidence about a policy or legislative issue, πFÉ°ùe hCG äÉ°SÉ«°S ∫ƒM É¡«∏Y á°Vhô©ŸG äÉæq«ÑdG debate and determine a judgement É¡«a π°üØdGh É¡fCÉ°ûH ∫hG~àdG ºK ,áæ«©e á«©jô°ûJ based on the evidence received. They ¢UÉî°TC’G A’Dƒg QhO Ωƒ≤jh .äÉæ«ÑdG ∂∏J ¤EG Gk OÉæà°SG q are used to inform issue-based advoca- ÉjÉ° b ∫ƒM º s¶æoJ »àdG á©aG~ŸG äÓªM ~jhõJ ≈∏Y cy campaigns or public officials deci- sion making on complex policy mat- ¿ƒ«ª°SôdG ¿ƒdhDƒ°ùŸG Égòîàj »àdG äGQGô≤dG hCG áæq«©e ters. Also see Deliberative Democracy .áeRÓdG äÉeƒ∏©ŸÉH áμFÉ°ûdG á°SÉ«°ùdG ¿hDƒ°T ∫ƒM and Advocacy. .á©aG~ŸGh ájQhÉ°ûàdG á«WGô≤Á~dG »JQÉÑY kÉ° jCG ™LGQCitizenship Right of national identity bestowed by a ádh~dG É¡ëæ“ »àdG á«°ùæ÷G ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°ü◊G ‘ ≥◊Gá«æWGƒe/á«°ùæL æ state to individual members of that sys- ÖLƒÃ hCG IO’ƒdG ºμëH É¡eɶæd Ú©°VÉÿG OGôaC’G ¤EG tem by birth or application, which requests citizen allegiance. É¡d A’ƒdG πHÉ≤ŸG ‘ º¡æe »° à≤j ɇ ,á«°ùæ÷G Ö∏W .ÚæWGƒŸG A’hCivic Education Programs which introduce the basic ᢫˘°Sɢ°SC’G ~˘YGƒ˘≤˘dɢH ±ô˘©˘ J »˘˘à˘ dG è˘˘eGÈdG ´ƒ˘˘ª› qá«f~e á«HôJ rules and institutional features of a »˘˘ °Sɢ˘ «˘ ˘°ùdG Ωɢ˘ ¶˘ ˘ æ˘ ˘ dG ‘ äɢ˘ ˘°ù°SDƒŸG äɢ˘ ˘eƒ˘˘ ˘≤˘ ˘ eh democratic political system, and pro- vide knowledge about democratic ¥ƒ˘˘≤◊ɢ˘H ᢢ aô˘˘ ©ŸG ™˘˘ «˘ ˘°ûJ »˘˘ à˘ ˘dGh ,»˘˘ WGô˘˘ ≤Á~˘˘ dG rights and practices, such as under- ,ájQƒà°S~dG ¥ƒ≤◊G º¡Øc á«WGô≤Á~dG äÉ°SQɪŸGh standing constitutional rights, gender ‘h .»˘˘ Yɢ˘ ª÷G π˘˘ ˘ª˘ ˘ ©˘ ˘ dGh ,Ú°ùæ÷G ÚH IGhɢ˘ ˘°ùŸGh equity and collective action. By better º¡àaô©e ™«°SƒJ π° ØH ,¿ƒæWGƒŸG øqμªàj ,πHÉ≤ŸG understanding their constitutional rights and community organizing tech- º«¶æJ ‘ I~ªà©ŸG äÉ«æ≤àdGh ájQƒà°S~dG º¡bƒ≤ëH niques, citizens are able to more effectively πªY ‘ á«∏©a ácQÉ°ûe ácQÉ°ûŸG øe ,Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛG k
  13. 13. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE 9 participate in their government. Civic º˘˘ ˘°SQ ‘h º˘˘ ˘μ◊G äɢ˘ ˘°ù°SDƒ˘ ˘ eh »˘˘ ˘ ∏ÙG ™˘˘ ˘ ª˘ ˘ ˘àÛG education programs aim to impart the .»∏ÙG ™ªàÛG º«¶æJ kÉ° jCG ™LGQ .äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG necessary knowledge and skills needed to effectively participate in the commu- nity, government, and politics.Civic Engagement Involvement in or commitment of citi- ‘ Ê~ŸG ™˘˘ª˘ àÛG äɢ˘ª˘ ¶˘ æ˘ eh Úæ˘˘WGƒŸG ᢢcQɢ˘ °ûeá«f~e ácQÉ°ûe e zens and citizen’s organizations into the øY »Yɪ÷G πª©dG QÉ°ùe hCG á«°SÉ«°ùdG á«∏ª©dG political or community process as they fulfill their rights and responsibilities. .º¡JÉ«dhDƒ°ùà ´Ó£°V’Gh º¡bƒ≤ëH ™àªàdG ≥jôWCivic Journalism Professional media that has focuses on ≈∏Y √Oƒ¡L qÖ°üj …òdG ±ÎÙG ΩÓYE’ÉH πqãªàJ/áaÎfi á«f~e áaÉë°U putting the interest of citizens above Ú«°SÉ«°ùdG ídÉ°üe ≈∏Y ÚæWGƒŸG ídÉ°üe Ö«∏¨J that of politicians and journalists. It isÚaÎfi Ú«f~e º∏≤H áaÉë°U based on the understanding that jour- Ú«aÉë°üdG øq≤«J ≈∏Y õμJôJ »gh .Ú«aÉë°üdGh nalists have a fundamental responsibili- áaÉ≤ãdG õjõ©J ∫É› ‘ á«°SÉ°SCG á«dhDƒ°ùe øe º¡d ɪdp ty for strengthening civic culture and á«f~ŸG á˘aɢ뢰üdɢa .᢫˘WGô˘≤Á~˘dG º˘«˘Y~˘Jh ᢫˘f~ŸG democracy. Civic journalism seeks to É¡«a ¢Vô©à°ùj »àdG á≤jô£dG ¤EG »¨°üJ áaÎÙG listen to how citizens frame their prob- lems and what citizens see as solutions á≤aGƒe É¡fhôj »àdG ∫ƒ∏◊G ¤EGh º¡∏cÉ°ûe ¿ƒæWGƒŸG to those problems. The civic journalism ~≤a á«f~ŸG áaÉë°üdG ácôM ÉeCG .πcÉ°ûŸG ∂∏J π◊ q movement began in the 1988 U.S. elec- ΩÉ©dG ‘ á«cÒeC’G äÉHÉîàf’G ¿ÉHEG QƒædG äô°üHCG tions when journalists and scholars began looking for a better way to cover øY ¿ƒãëÑj ¿ƒ°SQG~dGh ¿ƒ«aÉë°üdG ìGQ ÚM 1988 politics. Today, it is practiced by news- ∞ë°üdG âJÉHh .äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG á«£¨àd ™‚CG πFÉ°Sh papers, radio, and television stations in øe ≥WÉæe I~Y ‘ á«fƒjõØ∏àdGh á«YGPE’G äÉ£ÙGh many parts of the world. .áaÉë°üdG øe ´ƒædG Gòg Ωƒ«dG ¢SQÉ“ ⁄É©dGCivil Liberties Protections from the power of govern- ,ºμ◊G äÉ£∏°S É¡æeDƒJ »àdG ájɪ◊G ∫Éμ°TCÉH πqãªàJ qá«f~e äÉjôM ments. Examples include freedom of ájôMh ,ÒÑ©àdG ájôM ∫ÉãŸG π«Ñ°S ≈∏Y É¡æe ôcòfh speech, freedom of assembly, and trial by jury. Civil liberties are usually pro- .ÚØ∏fi áÄ«g ΩÉeCG áªcÉëª∏d ´ƒ° ÿGh ,™ªéàdG q tected by a constitution. .kIOÉY Qƒà°S~dG É¡«ªëj äÉjôM »g á«f~ŸG äÉjô◊Gh lCivil Registry A list of all national citizens maintained I~˘¡˘Y ‘ ߢnØ˘ ë˘ oJh Úæ˘˘WGƒŸG ™˘˘«˘ ª˘ L º˘˘° J ᢢª˘ Fɢ˘b q/¢SƒØædG πé°S/Ê~e πé°S ° ° by the government. Civil registries are Gòg ≈∏Y kIOÉY ÚÑNÉædG íFGƒd ~æà°ùJh .áeƒμ◊G sometimes used as the basis of a voter list,~«≤dG πé°S ° however, they may not contain all infor- á∏°üàŸG äÉeƒ∏©ŸG πc øª° àj ’ ~b ¬fCG ™e πé°ùdG q q mation relevant to the voting process. .´GÎb’G á«∏ª©H
  14. 14. 10 N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTECivil Society Refers to all sorts of voluntary collective É¡ª q¶æJ »àdG á«Yƒ£àdG ᣰûfC’G ´GƒfCG πc ¤EG Ò°ûjqÊ~e ™ªà› activities organized around shared inter- πª°ûJh .ácΰûe ±G~gCGh º«bh ídÉ°üe ∫ƒM áYɪ÷G ests, values, and objectives. These civil society activities can be very diverse and ɢ¡˘«˘a •ô˘î˘æ˘j »˘à˘dG á˘jɢ¨˘∏˘d á˘Yƒ˘æ˘àŸG á˘£˘°ûfC’G √ò˘˘g may include providing services, sup- º˘˘«˘ ∏˘ ©˘ à˘ dG º˘˘YO hCG ,äɢ˘e~ÿG Ë~˘˘≤˘ ˘J Ê~ŸG ™˘˘ ª˘ ˘àÛG porting independent education, or QÉWEG »Øa .áeÉ©dG äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG ≈∏Y ÒKCÉàdG hCG ,π≤à°ùŸG affecting public policy. In the last exam- ple, citizens may come together outside ¿ƒæWGƒe ™ªàéj ¿CG Rƒéj ,kÓãe ÒNC’G •É°ûædG Gòg of government to inform, bring pres- ∫ƒM äÉeƒ∏©ŸG ô°ûæd »eƒμ◊G πª©dG IôFGO êQÉN sure to bear on, or reinforce policies Égõjõ©J hCG ,É¡fCÉ°ûH •ƒ¨° dG á°SQɇ hCG ,äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG (punish or reward policymakers). .(º¡JCÉaÉμe hCG äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG »©fÉ°U áÑbÉ©e)Civil Society Comprised of people who form associ- Iô˘°üæ˘d π˘ª˘©˘J äɢ«˘©˘ª˘L ¿hDƒ˘°ûæ˘jo kɢ°UɢTCG º˘˘° J qOrganization ations to work for a common cause. ÒZ äɢ˘ ª˘ ˘¶˘ ˘æŸG π˘˘ ª˘ ˘°ûJ »˘˘ gh .ᢢ cΰûe ᢢ «˘ ˘ ° b This includes Non-GovernmentalÊ~ŸG ™ªàÛG äɪ¶æe Organizations (NGOs) and Community- É¡æe wπc õeôj »àdG á«∏gC’G äɪ¶æŸGh á«eƒμ◊G Based Organizations (CBOs) both of ™˘ª˘àÛG ‘ äɢª˘ ¶˘ æŸG ∫ɢ˘μ˘ °TCG ø˘˘e O~fi π˘˘μ˘ °T ¤EG which are specific types of CSOs. äɪ¶æe ÚH ™ªŒ »àdG ácΰûŸG Iõ«ŸG ÉeCG .Ê~ŸG Although extremely diverse, the one πãªàJ »¡a ,É¡YƒæJ I~°T ≈∏Y ,káaÉc Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛG commonality between all forms of q CSOs is their autonomy, in principle at øe ¬∏bCG ¢UÉÿG ´É£≤dGh áeƒμ◊G øY É¡dÓ≤à°SÉH least, from government and private sec- Ée ƒg ‹Ó≤à°S’G ™HÉ£dG Gòg π©dh .CG~ÑŸG å«M q tor. It is this independence that allows ¢VQC’G ≈˘∏˘Y π˘ª˘ ©˘ J ¿Cɢ H äɢ˘ª˘ ¶˘ æŸG √ò˘˘¡˘ d í˘˘ª˘ °ùj for such organizations to exist and play an important role in a democracy. See kÉ° jCG ™LGQ .»WGô≤ÁO Ωɶf …CG ‘ ΩÉg Qh~H ™∏£° Jh also Non-Governmental Organization .á«∏gC’G äɪ¶æŸGh á«eƒμ◊G ÒZ äɪ¶æŸG and Community-Based Organization.Coalition An alliance, temporary or permanent, áYƒæàe áYƒª› ,áªFGO hCG áàbDƒe IQƒ°üH ,º° j ∞dÉ– q l of different persons or organizations º˘gOƒ˘¡˘L ¿h~˘Mƒ˘j ø˘jò˘dG ¢UÉ˘î˘ °TC’G hCG äɢ˘ª˘ ¶˘ æŸG ø˘˘e±ÓàFG that unify for a common cause or to engage in a joint activity, usually •É˘˘°ûf ‘ ᢢcQɢ˘°ûŸG hCG ᢢ cΰûe ᢢ «˘ ˘° b ø˘˘ Y ´É˘˘ a~˘˘ ∏˘ ˘d focused on advocating to government ™a~J »àdG á©aG~ŸG ∫ɪYCG ≈∏Y kIOÉY ¿hõqcôjh ,»æeÉ° J for change. .Ò«¨àdG ƒëf áeƒμ◊ÉHCode of Ethics A set of general rules of civil society äɪ¶æe ÉgÉYôJ »àdG áeÉ©dG ~YGƒ≤dG øe áYƒª›πª©dG ÜGOBG/äÉ«bÓNCG organizations, their members, and sup- ≥˘∏˘©˘à˘j ɢe ‘ ,ø˘jô˘°Uɢæ˘eh Aɢ° YCG ,Ê~ŸG ™˘˘ª˘ àÛG porters relating to their participation in k the organization or its activities, to which ≥aGƒj »àdGh ,ɡࣰûfCG ‘ hCG ᪶æŸG ‘ º¡àcQÉ°ûà parties ideally will voluntarily agree and »gh ,∫GƒMC’G ø°ùMCG ‘ º¡JOGQEG Aπà ±GôWC’G É¡«∏Y which may, subsequent to that agree- áfh~ŸG √òg ø∏©Jh .¿ƒfÉ≤dG ‘ ∂dP ~©H êQ~oJ ~b n ment be incorporated in law. Proclaims guidelines of behavior and standards that äÉ«cƒ˘∏˘°ùdɢH á˘≤˘∏˘©˘àŸG ᢫˘¡˘«˘Lƒ˘à˘dG ÇOÉ˘ÑŸG kɢ° jCG are difficult to embody in a statute. .ÚfGƒ≤dG ‘ É¡LGQOEG Ö©°üj »àdG ÒjÉ©ŸGh
  15. 15. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE 11Commission A formal group of experts brought ¿ƒ˘©˘ª˘à˘é˘j ø˘jò˘dG Ú«˘ª˘ °Sô˘˘dG AGÈÿG ø˘˘e ᢢYƒ˘˘ª›áæ÷/á«°VƒØe together on a regular or ad hoc basis to ¿hDƒ°ûdG ‘ ∫hG~àdG ±~¡H ¢UÉN ¢Vô¨d hCG ΩɶàfÉH debate matters within that sphere of expertise, and with regulatory or quasi- √òg ™àªàJh .º¡°UÉ°üàNG IôFGO øª°V ™≤J »àdG judicial powers such as the ability to πãe á«FÉ° b ¬Ñ°T hCG ᫪«¶æJ äÉ«MÓ°üH áÄ«¡dG license activity or to subpoena witness- hCG ø˘˘«˘˘©˘ e π˘˘ª˘ Y ᢢdhGõà ¿PE’G í˘˘æ˘ e ≈˘˘∏˘ Y IQ~˘˘≤˘ dG q es. Commissions usually also have advi- øY kÓ° a .áªμÙG ΩÉeCG ∫ƒãª∏d ~gÉ°T AÉY~à°SG sory powers to the government. The organizational form of a commission is äɢ˘e~ÿG Ë~˘˘≤˘ J ᢢ«˘ MÓ˘˘°üH kɢ ° jCG ™˘˘ qà˘˘ ª˘ ˘à˘ ˘J ,∂dP often resorted to by governments to ¤EG äÉeƒμ◊G ÉC é∏J Ée kÉÑdÉZ .áeƒμë∏d ájQÉ°ûà°S’G exhaustively investigate a matter of AGôLEG πLCG øe πμ°ûdG Gòg ≈∏Y äÉÄ«¡dG º«¶æJ national concern, and is often known as a “commission of inquiry.” This legal ∑GòfBG ±ô˘©˘à˘a ,᢫˘æ˘Wh á˘dCɢ°ùe ∫ƒ˘M π˘eɢ°T ≥˘«˘≤– n o structure can be contrasted with a á«∏μ«¡dG √òg áfQÉ≤e øμÁh .≥«≤ëàdG áæé∏H council, the latter not enjoying quasi- ™˘à˘ª˘à˘j ’ …ò˘dG ¢ù∏ÛG ᢫˘∏˘μ˘«˘g ™˘e ᢫˘fƒ˘˘fɢ˘≤˘ dG judicial or regulatory powers. .á«FÉ° b ¬Ñ°T hCG ᫪«¶æJ äÉ«MÓ°üHCommunity State of being shared or held in com- .áYƒª› ÚH kÉcΰûe ¿ƒμj hCG ™ªéj Ée qπc ádÉM»∏fi ™ªà›/áYɪL mon. With regard to participation, com- ≈∏Y ácQÉ°ûŸG Ωƒ¡Øe å«M øe áØ°üdG √òg ≥Ñ£æJh munity can apply to spatial communities (a body of people living and/or working áYƒª› …CG) áæ«©e áMÉ°ùe º°SÉ≤àJ »àdG äÉYɪ÷G in the same area), which can come (¬JGP ¿ÉμŸG ‘ πª©J hCG/h ¢û«©J »àdG ¢UÉî°TC’G together at any spatial scale for the local »∏ÙG ¥É£ædG øe ~àÁ ⁄É©dG øe m¿Éμe …CG ‘ ™ªàŒh q q to the global. .»ŸÉ©dG ¥É£ædG ¤EGCommunity Based Organization made up of individuals in áYɪL øª°V ¿ƒ°û«©j OGôaCG øe ¿ƒμàJ äɪ¶æe q lOrganization a self-defined community at the local É¡°ùØf º q¶æJh ,»∏ÙG ~«©°üdG ≈∏Y ⁄É©ŸG IO~fi level, who have organized around com-á«∏gCG äɪ¶æe mon interests. Examples include sports, ∂dP ≈˘˘∏˘ Y k’ɢ˘ã˘ e ô˘˘cò˘˘fh .ᢢcΰûe í˘˘dɢ˘°üe ∫ƒ˘˘ M youth and student clubs, women’s ,ᢢ«˘ HÓ˘˘£˘ dGh ᢢ«˘ Hɢ˘Ñ˘ ˘°ûdGh ᢢ «˘ ˘°Vɢ˘ jô˘˘ dG …OGƒ˘˘ æ˘ ˘dG groups, cooperative and farmers associ- äÉ«©ªLh ,äÉ«fhɢ©˘à˘dGh ,᢫˘Fɢ°ùæ˘dG äɢYƒ˘ªÛGh ations. CBOs can be either informal ™ªŒ øe á«∏gC’G äɪ¶æŸG ¿ƒμàJ ~bh .ÚYQGõŸG associations of individuals or have for- q q malized rules, policies, and procedures. ÚfGƒb ™ÑqàJ ~b hCG kÉ«ª°SQ kÉ©HÉW πªëj ’ OGôaCG m .kÉ«ª°SQ kÉ©HÉW É¡«∏Y »Ø° J äGAGôLEGh äÉ°SÉ«°ShCommunity Mapping A social network assessment tool used to ~j~ëàd í∏°üJ á«YɪàL’G áμÑ°ûdG º««≤àd IGOCGäÉLÉ«àMG/äÉeƒ≤e ~j~– determine stakeholders and power bro- .ø˘«˘©˘e »˘∏fi ™˘ª˘à› ‘ Pƒ˘Ø˘æ˘dGh í˘dɢ°üŸG ÜÉ˘ë˘ °UCG kers in a particular community. This tech- q»∏ÙG ™ªàÛG nique for collecting information is often á«æ≤àdG √òg á«f~ŸG äɪ¶æŸG Ω~îà°ùJ Ée kÉÑdÉZ used by civic organizations in order to äÉLÉ«àMG ~j~– ¢Vô¨H äÉeƒ∏©ŸG ™ª÷ á°ü°üıG determine community needs, identify ‘ Iƒ˘˘≤˘ dG QOɢ˘°üe ¤EG ±ô˘˘©˘ à˘ dGh ,»˘˘ ∏ÙG ™˘˘ ª˘ ˘àÛG community assets or resources, identify ÜÉë°UCG ájƒg ~j~–h ,√OQGƒe hCG »∏ÙG ™ªàÛG stakeholders, and design appropriate responses, including advocacy campaigns. ᢢ«˘ Ñ˘ ∏˘ à˘ d á˘˘Ñ˘ °Sɢ˘æŸG äGƒ˘˘£ÿG Pɢ˘ î˘ ˘JGh ,í˘˘ dɢ˘ °üŸG .á©aG~ŸG äÓªM É¡«a Éà ,äÉLÉ«àM’G
  16. 16. 12 N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTECommunity Needs The key priorities or concerns of a øe m ≥jôa äÉeɪàgGh äÉjƒdhCG º∏°S ‘ êQ~æj Ée ∫hCG»∏ÙG ™ªàÛG äÉLÉ«àMG group of citizens in a specific geograph- hCG ᢢ«˘ aGô˘˘¨˘ L ᢢYƒ˘˘ª› ø˘˘ª˘ °V ¿ƒ˘˘YRq ƒ˘˘à˘ j Úæ˘˘ WGƒŸG ic, demographic, or other classified group. These needs can be collected áØæ°üŸG äÉÄØdG øe áÄa …CG øª°V hCG IO~fi á«aGôZƒÁO through a community mapping exercise ∫Ó˘N ø˘e äɢ˘Lɢ˘«˘ à˘ M’G √ò˘˘g ~˘˘°UQ ø˘˘μÁh .iô˘˘N’G C to determine possible policy reform èeGÈdG QGôbEG ¤EG kÉ«©°S »q∏ÙG ™ªàÛG äÉeƒ≤e ~j~– platforms. .äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG ìÓ°UEG ∫É› ‘ É¡≤«Ñ£J øμÁ »àdGCommunity Method to gather community resources √Oƒ¡L ¬«LƒJh Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛG OQGƒe ™ª÷ á∏«°ShOrganizing and efforts around a common issue or O~Y ΩɪàgG π¨°ûJ ácΰûe á«° b hCG ádCÉ°ùe ƒëf cause that a significant number of peo-»∏ÙG ™ªàÛG º«¶æJ ple care enough about to take action, ∑ô˘ë˘à˘dG ¤EG º˘¡˘©˘a~˘jm π˘μ˘°ûH ¢Uɢ˘î˘ °TC’G ø˘˘e ÒÑ˘˘c with the long term goal of building sus- AÉæH ‘ ~«©ÑdG i~ŸG ≈∏Y º¡æe kÉ©ªW ,É¡à÷É©Ÿ tained citizen-based movements to Oƒ¡L ≈∏Y ~æà°ùJ »àdG áeG~à°ùŸG äÉcô◊G äGQ~b improve the quality of life and enhance º˘FɢYO ï˘«˘°Sô˘Jh ¢û«˘©˘ dG iƒ˘˘à˘ °ùe ™˘˘aô˘˘d Úæ˘˘WGƒŸG the democratic environment. .á«WGô≤Á~dG áÄ«ÑdGCompetition The process of different groups or hCG í˘dɢ°üŸG Üɢ뢰UCG ɢ¡˘«˘a π˘N~˘j »˘à˘dG ᢫˘ ∏˘ ª˘ ©˘ dGá°ùaÉæe/¢ùaÉæJ a a interests engaging with one another. ~°V má¡LGƒe ‘ ,º¡aÉ«WCG ±ÓàNG ≈∏Y ,äÉYƒªÛG Competition is legitimized through democratic practice (one of the best ~˘˘ª˘ à˘ °ùj …ò˘˘dG ,¢ùaɢ˘æ˘ ˘à˘ ˘dGh .¢ ©˘˘ Ñ˘ ˘dG º˘˘ ¡˘ ˘° ©˘˘ H q examples being elections), and can gen- IQÉ°TE’G ™e) á«WGô≤Á~dG äÉ°SQɪŸG øe ¬à«Yhô°ûe erate higher quality solutions and poli- √ò˘˘g ≈˘˘∏˘ Y ∫ɢ˘ã˘ e ™˘˘£˘ °SCG »˘˘g äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ ˘à˘ ˘f’G q¿CG ¤EG cy platforms which respond to com- π° aCG èeGôHh ∫ƒ∏M ¤EG »° Øj ¿CG øμÁ ,(äÉ°SQɪŸG munity needs. .»∏ÙG ™ªàÛG äÉLÉ«àMG »Ñ∏J äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG ¿CÉ°ûHConflict of Interest A situation in which someone in a posi- ‘h á≤K ™°Vƒe ¿Éc øe ÊÉ©j ÚM ádÉ◊G √òg RÈJ nídÉ°üŸG ÜQÉ° J tion of trust or authority, has competing á«æ¡ŸG ¬◊É°üe ÚH Ée mÜQÉ° J øe á£∏°ùdG ™bƒe professional or personal interests, which can make it difficult to fulfill duties impar- πμH ¬JÉÑLGh AGOCG ¬«∏Y Ö©°üj å«ëH ,á«°üî°ûdGh tially. A conflict of interest exists even if ‘ ≈˘˘à˘ M kɢ ° jCG í˘˘dɢ˘°üŸG ‘ lÜQɢ˘° J RÈjh .ᢢjOɢ˘«˘ M no unethical or improper act results from hCG ¥ÓNCÓd m±Éæe π©a …CG É¡æY ÉC °ûæj ’ »àdG ä’É◊G it and can create an appearance of impro- p ~≤ØoJh π©ØdG Gòg áë°U ‘ ∂qμ°ûoJ ~b ɉEG ,∫ƒ°UCÓd priety that can undermine confidence in the person/position/office. For example, ~ª©j ¿CÉc ,øjôNB’G á≤K Ö°üæŸG hCG ™bƒŸG hCG ¢üî°ûdG if a board of directors or staff of a civic ᪶æe i~d ¿ƒ∏eÉ©dG ¿ƒØXƒŸG hCG IQGOE’G ¢ù∏› kÓãe organization or campaign take actions ÒHG~àdG ¢ ©H PÉîJG ¤EG äÓª◊G QÉWEG ‘ hCG á«f~e in the name of the organization or coalition for personal interest of the hCG á«°üî°T ídÉ°üŸ áe~N ±ÓàF’G hCG ᪶æŸG º°SÉH k interests of a third party. Clear guide- ÇOɢ˘ÑŸG í˘˘∏˘ ˘°üJ ∂dò˘˘ d .ådɢ˘ K ±ô˘˘ W …CG ᢢ ë˘ ˘∏˘ ˘°üŸ lines spelled out in bylaws and memo- á«∏NG~dG ᪶fC’G ‘ OpônJ »àdG áë°VGƒdG á«¡«LƒàdG randa of understandings serve to pre- ‘ ÜQÉ° J …CG ´ƒbh ¿hO ∫hDƒë∏d ºgÉØàdG äGôcòeh vent actual, potential, or perceived con- q flicts of interest. .πÑ≤à°ùŸG ‘ kÉ©bƒàe hCG kÓªàfi hCG kÉægGQ ¿EG ,ídÉ°üŸG
  17. 17. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE 13Consensus General agreement that involves seek- ±GôWC’G πc AGQBG ‘ åMÉÑàdG ≈∏Y ™«ª÷G ¥ÉØJG q≥aGƒJ ing and taking into account the view of ÚH ≥«aƒàdG ∂dòch ,QÉÑàY’G Ú©H ÉgòNCGh Ú«æ©ŸG all parties concerned, and reconciling any conflicting arguments. Consensus »æ©j ’ ¥ÉØJ’G Gòg qøμdh .áHQÉ° àŸG ô¶ædG äÉ¡Lh does not imply unanimity. Consensus π«Ñ°ùdG ƒg πH ,~MGh …CGQ ≈∏Y ´ÉªLE’G IQhô° dÉH is a way of making decisions which ‘ ™«ª÷G ∑Gô°TEÉH íª°ùj ƒëf ≈∏Y äGQGô≤dG PÉîJ’ m aims to include everyone in the process .Ú©fɪŸG I~≤Y πMh ºFÉ≤dG QÉ°ùŸG and resolve any objections. qConsolidation The consolidation of democracy is the ™°ShCG á«Yhô°ûe »WGô≤Á~dG ΩɶædG Ö°ùμoJ á«∏ªY k p lof Democracy process by which democracy becomes ≈∏Y π¡°ùj ’ ƒëf ≈∏Y ÚæWGƒŸG ±ƒØ°U ÚH ≥ªYCGh q m so broadly and profoundly legitimatizedá«WGô≤Á~dG ~«WƒJ among its citizens that it is very unlike- ≈∏Y ∫~j ɉEG á«WGô≤Á~dG ï«°SÎa .¬∏«£©J íLQC’G q ly to break down. When democracy is ¿hO áÑ©∏dG √òg ~YGƒb ≈∏Y ÚæWGƒŸG º¶©e á≤aGƒe consolidated, it has been accepted by äÉ«cƒ∏°ùdG ‘ Ò«¨J çG~MEG »° à≤j ƒgh ,ÉgGƒ°S most citizens as the only game in town. á«WGô≤Á~dG äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG ™«Ñ£J πLCG øe äÉ°ù°SDƒŸGh The consolidation of democracy involves behavioral and institutional ɢ˘eGC .ɢ˘¡˘ dƒ˘˘M Ωƒ˘˘ë˘ j …ò˘˘dG ∂°ûdG ¢ûeɢ˘g ¢ü«˘˘∏˘ ≤˘ Jh changes that normalize democratic pol- á˘cQɢ°ûŸG ´É˘°ùJG Ö∏˘£˘à˘à˘a √ò˘g ™˘«˘Ñ˘£˘à˘dG ᢫˘∏˘ª˘ Y itics and narrow its uncertainty. This á˘aɢ≤˘ã˘dGh ᢢ«˘ æ˘ WGƒŸG º˘˘«˘ gɢ˘Ø˘ e ô˘˘jƒ˘˘£˘ Jh ,ᢢ«˘ f~ŸG normalization requires the expansion of citizen access, development of demo- õ˘˘cGôŸG ¤EG ∫ƒ˘˘°Uƒ˘˘dG ¢Uô˘˘a Ú°ù–h ,ᢢ«˘ ˘WGô˘˘ ≤Á~˘˘ dG cratic citizenship and culture, broaden- ,∂dP øe ºgC’Gh ,m ´Gh Ê~e ™ªà› øª°V ájOÉ«≤dG ing of leadership recruitment of a .»˘°Sɢ«˘°ùdG π˘ª˘©˘dG ≈˘∏˘Y »˘Jɢ°ù°SDƒ˘e ™˘Hɢ˘W Aɢ˘Ø˘ °VEG mature civil society, and more impor- ÒjÉ©ŸÉH ¢SôªàdG á«WGô≤Á~dG oï«°SôJ Ö∏£àj ∂dòch tantly, political institutionalization. q Consolidation requires that habituation π˘Fɢ°Sƒ˘dɢH äɢYGõ˘æ˘dG π˘M ≈˘Yô˘J »˘˘à˘ dG äGAGô˘˘L’Gh q E to the norms and procedures of demo- ìÉ‚ ô°S q¿GE ∫ƒ≤dG øY »æZh .Égôjƒ£Jh á«WGô≤Á~dG q w cratic conflict regulation be developed. ÒÑc ~M ¤EG äÉ°ù°SDƒŸG OÉ«àYG ‘ øªμj á«∏ª©dG √òg A high degree of institutional routiniza- x tion is key to such process. .äÉ°SQɪŸG øe §ªædG Gòg ≈∏YConstituency A portion of the population represent- hCG Öîàæe ø«©e ∫hDƒ°ùà πs㇠¿Éμ°ùdG øe AõL n qÚÑNÉædG Qƒ¡ªL ed by a particular elected leader or .äɪ¶æŸG i~MEÉH organization.Constituent A citizen who lives in a legislator’s area ~˘MCɢH π˘ã˘ª˘à˘J á˘≤˘£˘æ˘e ø˘ª˘°V ¿ƒ˘°û«˘©˘j ¿ƒ˘æ˘ WGƒ˘˘ehCG ¿ƒÑNÉf of representation. A CSO constituent º¡∏qã“ øjòdG ¢UÉî°TC’G ÉeCG .ÜGƒædG ¢ù∏› AÉ° YCG may be physically located in the organi-äɪ¶æŸG øe á∏㇠äÉÄa zations area of work, or share common kÉ«∏ªY Gh~LGƒàj ¿CG Rƒé«a Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛG äɪ¶æe interests which the organization advo- hCG É¡dɪYCG ᪶æŸG É¡«a ¢SQÉ“ »àdG IôFG~dG øª°V cates towards. .É¡æY á©aG~ŸG ¤ƒàJ ácΰûe ídÉ°üe É¡H º¡©ªŒ
  18. 18. 14 N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTEConstitution Set of basic rules by which the govern- πªY º˘ q¶˘æ˘J »˘à˘dG ᢫˘°Sɢ°SC’G ÚfGƒ˘≤˘dG ø˘e á˘Yƒ˘ª›Qƒà°SO ment of a state is organized, regulating ÚH äɢ˘bÓ˘˘©˘ dG ∂dò˘˘ch ∫h~˘˘dG ‘ º˘˘μ◊G äɢ˘°ù°SDƒ˘ e the relationships between the legisla- ture, the executive, and the judiciary. .á«FÉ° ≤dGh ájò«ØæàdGh á«©jô°ûàdG äÉ£∏°ùdGContingency A percentage of a budget that is unas- ‘ ¢VôZ …C’ ¢ü°üîJ ’ »àdG ∫GƒeC’G øe áÑ°ùf nÇQGƒ£dG »WÉ«àMG hCG ¢ü°üfl signed and can be used for unexpected á©bƒàŸG ÒZ äÉ≤Øæ∏d É¡dɪ©à°SG øμÁh ,áfRGƒŸG expenses or increases in costs that were not considered in the original budget. á˘fRGƒŸG ɢgò˘NCɢJ ’ »˘à˘ dG I~˘˘FGõ˘˘dG ∞˘˘«˘ dɢ˘μ˘ à˘ dG hCG .¿ÉÑ°ù◊G ‘ á«∏°UC’GCounterpart, peer Someone who is of equal standing as ôNBG ¢üî°T ¬∏¨°ûj …òdG ¬JGP ΩÉ≤ŸG π¨°ûj ¢üî°T lÒ¶f another person in a group and who has .É¡JGP ΩÉ¡ŸÉH ™∏£° j ƒgh ,áYƒªÛG øª°V a similar funciton.Court A branch of government established ≥˘«˘Ñ˘£˘J ≈˘∏˘Y ô˘¡˘°ùJ »˘à˘dG º˘μ◊G äɢ£˘ ∏˘ °S i~˘˘MEGá°ù∏L/áªμfi ∏ to adminster the civil and criminal law. kÉ° jCG í∏£°üŸG Gòg Opôjh .á«FÉæ÷Gh á«f~ŸG ÚfGƒ≤dG This is also a session of an official body that has the authority to try πncƒJ ᫪˘°SQ á˘Ä˘«˘g ɢg~˘≤˘©˘J »˘à˘dG ᢰù∏÷G ≈˘æ˘©Ã cases, resolve disputes, or make other ‘ π˘°üØ˘dG hCG ,ihɢY~˘dG ‘ ô˘¶˘æ˘dG ᢫˘MÓ˘°U ɢ˘¡˘ «˘ dEG legal decisions. .iôNC’G á«fƒfÉ≤dG äGQGô≤dG PÉîJG hCG ,äÉaÓÿGCredibility The positive or negative view citizens ɢ¡˘«˘a ô˘¶˘æ˘j »˘à˘dG ᢫˘Ñ˘∏˘°ùdG hCG ᢫˘ Hɢ˘é˘ j’G Iô˘˘¶˘ æ˘ dG Eá«bG~°üe have of a civic organization or cam- ¿CG øμÁh .á«f~ŸG äÓª◊G hCG äɪ¶æŸG ¤EG ¿ƒæWGƒŸG paign. Credibility may be generated in a number of ways, including a track ‘ Éà ,πFÉ°Sh I~©H É¡à«bG~°üe IÒNC’G √òg Ö°ùàμJ record of proven action, prestige in a ,É¡d Oƒ¡°ûŸG äGRÉ‚E’G øe πaÉM ïjQÉàH »∏ëàdG ∂dP community as a result of familial or »∏ÙG ™ªàÛG •É°ShCG ÚH á©«aQ áfÉμà ™àªàdG hCG ethnic ties, or other types of seniority hCG ,É¡ª«≤J »àdG á«æKE’G hCG á«∏FÉ©dG §HGhôdG áé«àf such as age or gender. By creating contrast through outreach and effec- øY ≈JCÉàJ »àdG á«≤Ñ°SC’G ∫Éμ°TCG øe πμ°T …CG π° ØH tive message development, campaigns øe ,äÓª◊G ™«£à°ùJh .»YɪàL’G ´ƒædG hCG ôª©dG can use the message to raise their ∫ɢ°üJ’G π˘Fɢ°Sh ÈY ɢ¡˘ª˘«˘≤˘J »˘à˘dG äɢfQɢ˘≤ŸG ∫Ó˘˘N credibility, lower their opponents’ credibility, or both. ‘ IÒNC’G √òg ∞ qXƒJ ¿CG ,á«∏©ØdG ádÉ°SôdG ôjƒ£Jh ᢫˘bG~˘°üe º˘«˘£– hCG ɢ¡˘à˘ «˘ bG~˘˘°üe õ˘˘jõ˘˘©˘ J π˘˘«˘ Ñ˘ °S .kÉ©e Úa~¡dG øjòg ≥«≤– π«Ñ°S ‘ hCG ,É¡eƒ°üN
  19. 19. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE 15 DDebate Face-to-face discussion between or ±ƒØ°U øª°V hCG ÚH ¬Lƒd kÉ¡Lh Qh~j …òdG ¢TÉ≤ædGIôXÉæe/¢TÉ≤f á°ù∏L ∏ among citizens, candidates, and/or ÚÑîàæŸG ÚdhDƒ°ùŸG hCG/h ,Úë°TôŸG hCG/h ,ÚæWGƒŸG elected officials on issues of concern where different sides of an argument ≈æ°ùàj å«Mh ,º¡eɪàgG ÒãJ »àdG ¿hDƒ°ûdG ∫ƒM q are presented and defended. Debates á˘æ˘jÉ˘Ñ˘à˘e ô˘¶˘f äɢ¡˘Lh Gƒ˘˘°Vô˘˘©˘ à˘ °ùj ¿CG ±Gô˘˘WCÓ˘ d can occur at all levels of government or á˘aɢc ≈˘∏˘Y äɢ°Tɢ≤˘æ˘dG ~˘n≤˘©˘ oJ .ɢ˘¡˘ æ˘ Y Gƒ˘˘©˘ aG~˘˘«˘ a a community, and serve as one tactic of advocacy campaigns. ,Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛG hCG ºμ◊G äÉ°ù°SDƒe ‘ äÉjƒà°ùŸG .á«μ«àμJ á∏«°Sƒc á©aG~ŸG äÓªM Ég~ªà©JhDecency Degree to which formation and stew- ≈˘∏˘Y ô˘¡˘°ùdGh ~˘YGƒ˘≤˘ dG ™˘˘°Vh ≈˘˘∏˘ Y IQ~˘˘≤˘ dG i~˘˘e∫ƒ°UC’G hCG ÜGOB’G IÉYGôe ardship of rules are undertaken with- .¢UÉî°TC’ÉH ádòŸG hCG iPC’G ¥É◊EG ¿hO øe É¡≤«Ñ£J out harm or humiliation to people. The concept is often applied when áÄ«¡dG AÉ° YCG ô¶æj ÚM GC ~ÑŸG Gòg ≥Ñ£jo Ée kÉÑdÉZ s legislators consider reform or new I~˘˘j~÷G äGQOɢ˘ÑŸG hCG äɢ˘MÓ˘˘°UE’G ‘ ᢢ«˘ ©˘ jô˘˘°ûà˘˘dG policy initiatives. .äÉ°SÉ«°ùdÉH á≤∏©àŸGDecision-Maker A person who has the authority to cre- hCG çG~˘ë˘à˘°SG á˘£˘∏˘°S ¬˘«˘ dEG ~˘˘¡˘˘©˘ oJ …ò˘˘dG ¢ü°ûdG nQGô≤dG ™fÉ°U ate or change communal, organiza- á≤∏©àŸG ÚfGƒ≤dG hCG èeGÈdG hCG äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG πj~©J tional, or governmental policies, pro- .ºμ◊G äÉ°ù°SDƒe hCG äɪ¶æŸG hCG »∏ÙG ™ªàÛÉH grams or laws.Delegate An individual authorized to act as a ‘) ÖFÉædÉc ,ôNBG ¢üî°T π«ã“ ¢VƒØŸG ¢üî°ûdG sÜh~æe representative for another, as a deputy ô“Dƒe ‘ ∑QÉ°ûj …òdG 烩џG hCG ,π«cƒdG hCG (¿ÉŸÈdG or an agent, or as a representative to a conference or convention; .áæ«©e á¡L hCG áÄa øY π㪪c »ª°SQ ´ÉªàLG hCG q A representative, usually chosen äGô“DƒŸG QÉWEG ‘ ÉeEG kIOÉY √QÉ«àNG ºàj …òdG π㪟G either in state caucuses or presidential äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G hCG äɢ˘j’ƒ˘˘dG iƒ˘˘à˘ °ùe ≈˘˘ ∏˘ ˘Y ᢢ «˘ ˘Hõ◊G primaries, who will be responsible for QÉ«àNG øY k’hDƒ°ùe ¿ƒ˘μ˘«˘a ,á˘j~˘«˘¡˘ª˘à˘dG ᢫˘°SɢFô˘dG choosing presidential and vice presiden- tial nominees at the national party con- ô“DƒŸG ‘ ¢ù«FôdG ÖFÉfh ¢ù«FôdG »Ñ°üæŸ ¬ë°Tôern ventions every four years. Most delegates º¶©e ~¡©àjh .äGƒæ°S ™HQCG πc Üõë∏d »æWƒdG
  20. 20. 16 N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE are pledged to support a specific candi- »°SÉFôdG í°TôŸG q¿GC kɪ∏Y ø«©e í°Tôe ºY~H ÚHh~æŸG q date. A majority of the delegates’ votes äGƒ°UCG ájÌcCÉH RÉa GPEG ’EG Üõ◊G í«°TÎH ≈¶ëj ’ at the convention is needed for a presi- dential candidate to receive the party’s í∏£°üŸG Gòg ∫ɪ©à°SG ™«°ûj .ô“DƒŸG ‘ ÚHh~æŸG nomination. This term is used specifically .I~ëàŸG äÉj’ƒdG ‘ »HÉîàf’G ΩɶædG øª°V Gk ~j~– within the U.S. electoral system.Delegation When public decisions are transferred äÉÄ«g ¤EG áeÉ©dG äGQGô≤dG PÉîJG á«MÓ°U ádÉMEG ƒg¢ jƒØJ to lower levels of government, civil hCG ,Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛG äɪ¶æe hCG ,káÑJôe ≈fOC’G ºμ◊G society organizations, or any authority outside the regular political administra- á˘jQGOE’G ᢫˘∏˘ μ˘ «˘ ¡˘ dG êQɢ˘N ø˘˘e iô˘˘NCG ᢢ£˘ ∏˘ °S …CG tive structure to implement programs èeGÈdG ≥«Ñ£J ÉgQh~H ¤ƒààd ,IOƒ¡©ŸG á«°SÉ«°ùdGh on behalf of the government. .áeƒμ◊G º°SÉHDeliberative Based on the principle that legitimate ~ªà°ùJ á«WGô≤Á~dG q¿ÉC H πFÉ≤dG GC ~ÑŸG ≈∏Y õμJôJ qDemocracy democracy arises from the public delib- ÚH á˘jQÉ÷G ᢢeɢ˘©˘ dG äGQhɢ˘°ûŸG ø˘˘e ɢ˘¡˘ à˘ «˘ Yhô˘˘°ûe eration of citizens. Activities associatedájQhÉ°ûJ á«WGô≤ÁO J with this process include citizen juries, ᢫˘∏˘ª˘©˘dG √ò˘¡˘H á˘£˘Ñ˘JôŸG á˘£˘°ûfC’G ɢ˘eCG .Úæ˘˘WGƒŸG town hall meetings, public debates, and ,Úæ˘˘WGƒŸG qº˘˘° J »˘˘à˘ dG ÚØ˘˘∏ÙG ᢢĢ «˘ g π˘˘ª˘ °ûà˘˘a citizen forums. ,™˘˘«˘ ª÷G Ωɢ˘eCG ᢢMƒ˘˘à˘ ØŸG ᢢeɢ˘©˘ dG äɢ˘Yɢ˘ª˘ à˘ L’Gh .á«f~ŸG äÉj~àæŸGh ,áeÉ©dG ¢TÉ≤ædG äÉ°ù∏LhDemocracy Political system in which the people ᣰûfCG ¬«LƒàH Ö©°ûdG ¬«a º¡°ùj »°SÉ«°S Ωɶf lá«WGô≤ÁO share in directing the activities of the É¡«∏Y ô£«°ùJ »àdG ºμ◊G ᪶fC’ kÉaÓN ,ádh~dG state, as distinct from governments controlled by a single class, select .§q∏°ùàe ºcÉM hCG áæ«©e áYƒª› hCG I~MGh á≤ÑW q group, or autocrat. The definition of á«Ø°ù∏a º«gÉØe πª°û«d ™°SƒJ ∞jô©àdG Gòg q¿GC ÒZ q democracy has been expanded to º˘˘qμ˘ ë˘ à˘ dG ‘ Ö©˘˘°ûdG ᢢ«˘ ˘∏˘ ˘gCGh ≥˘˘ M ≈˘˘ ∏˘ ˘Y O~˘˘ °ûJ q describe a philosophy that insists on ¬˘«˘∏˘ã‡ á˘£˘°SGƒ˘H hCG ô˘°TÉ˘Ñ˘em π˘μ˘°ûH ɢeEG ,¬˘Jɢ˘°ù°SDƒÃ the right and the capacity of a people, acting either directly or through repre- .á°UÉÿG ¬aG~gC’ kÉ≤«≤– sentatives, to control their institutions for their own purposes.Disclosure The release, transfer, provision of hCG ,É¡H øjôNB’G ~jhõJ hCG ,É¡∏≤f hCG ,äÉeƒ∏©ŸG ô°ûføY ∞°ûc c access to, or divulging in any other ¥É£f êQÉN âfÉc á∏«°Sh áqjCÉH ∫hG~àdG ‘ É¡©°Vh manner of information outside the enti- ty holding the information. .É¡H ßØà– »àdG áÄ«¡dGDisenfranchise(ment) Explicit or implicit revocation of, or ≥◊G Gòg íæe øY ´Éæàe’G hCG âjƒ°üàdG ≥M AɨdEGâjƒ°üàdG ≥M øe ¿ÉeôM/~jôŒ failure to grant, the right to vote to a á«æ∏Y á≤jô£H ¢UÉî°TC’G øe áYƒª› hCG ¢üî°T ¤EG person or a group of people. .á«æª°V hCG
  21. 21. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE 17Districting Generally, the process of marking off or ≈∏Y É¡©jRƒJ hCG ≥WÉæŸG ~j~– á«∏ªY ,ΩÉY m¬LƒHá«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG º«°ù≤J ≤ dividing into districts - for example, into »˘∏˘ã‡ Üɢî˘à˘fG ±~˘¡˘H ᢫˘HÉ˘î˘ à˘ f’G ô˘˘FGh~˘˘dɢ˘c ô˘˘FGhO electoral districts for the purposes of electing representatives to a legislature. á˘Ä˘«˘¡˘∏˘d Oƒ˘©˘j ~˘bh .᢫˘©˘jô˘°ûà˘dG á˘Ä˘«˘¡˘dG ‘ Ö©˘˘°ûdG .á«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG º«°ù≤J ≥M É¡JGP ~ëH á«©jô°ûàdGDiversity Situation in which a multiplicity of ¿CG øμÁ »àdG AGQB’G ájO~©àH íª°ùJ mádÉM øY ºæj q´ƒæJ perspectives exist - possibly based hCG á«°SÉ«°ùdG hCG ᢫˘æ˘j~˘dG äɢæ˘jÉ˘Ñ˘à˘dG ≈˘∏˘Y õ˘μ˘Jô˘J q on religious, political, racial, or other differences. .É¡«dEG Ée hCG á«bô©dG
  22. 22. 18 N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE EEfficiency Characteristic of participation which á«HÉéjE’G èFÉàædG ≈°übCG ≥q≤– »àdG ácQÉ°ûŸG Iõ«eá«∏YÉa gives maximum positive outcomes for ∫òH AÉ≤d ÚæWGƒŸG i~d ¢û«©dG iƒà°ùe Ú°ù– á¡÷ improving citizens quality of life, for a minimum level of effort, time, or .OQGƒŸG hCG âbƒdG hCG Oƒ¡÷G øe Q~b πbCG q resources.Election Decision-making process through Ú∏gDƒŸG ÚæWGƒŸG ∫ƒîJ »àdG QGô≤dG PÉîJG á«∏ªY qÜÉîàfG which citizens of a State who are eligi- ¢üî°T QÉ«àNG πLCG øe º¡JGƒ°UCÉH A’OE’G âjƒ°üà∏d ble to vote choose an individual or group of individuals to hold public á˘eɢ©˘dG Ö°UɢæŸG π˘¨˘°ûd ¢UɢTC’G ø˘e ᢢYƒ˘˘ª› hCG office and work on their behalf. .º¡ª°SÉH πª©dGhElection Day/ The day on which the voters come to ´GÎb’G õcGôe ¤EG ¿ƒÑNÉædG ¬«a ¬Lƒàj …òdG Ωƒ«dGPolling Day the polls and cast their votes to elect .º¡JOÉb ÜÉîàfGh º¡JGƒ°UCÉH A’OEÓd their leaders.´GÎb’G Ωƒj/ÜÉîàf’G ΩƒjElection Monitoring/ Gathering of information regarding an á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG øY mäɢeƒ˘∏˘©˘e ™˘ª˘é˘H π˘ã˘ª˘à˘JObservation electoral process by an organization √òg ‘ πN~àdÉH kÉ«F~Ñe É¡d íª°ùjo ’ m᪶æe ~j ≈∏Y which is not inherently authorized to q näÉHÉîàf’G áÑbGôe intervene in the process. Unbiased ,¿h~jÉfi ¢UÉî°TCG ᪡ŸG √òg ‘ ∑QÉ°ûjh .á«∏ª©dG l accredited persons, domestic or inter- …CG øY ∞°ûμ∏d ‹h~dGh »∏ÙG ™ªàÛG º¡H~àæj q national, participate to detect any fraud .á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG ‘ ¢ûZ hCG ôjhõJ or cheating in the electoral process.Election Monitor/ Accredited person participating in elec- .äÉHÉîàf’G áÑbGôe á«∏ªY ‘ ácQÉ°ûª∏d Ü~àæoj ¢üî°T nObserver tion observation. Can be domestic or .‹h~dG hCG »∏ÙG ÖbGôŸG áØ°U πªëj ¿CG øμÁh international.äÉHÉîàf’G ÖbGôe
  23. 23. N ATIONAL D EMOCRATIC I NSTITUTE 19Elector/Voter Person who is eligible and registered to áëF’ ‘ ¬ª°SG êQ~ŸGh âjƒ°üà∏d πgDƒŸG ¢üî°ûdG nÖNÉf/´Î≤e vote. .ÚÑNÉædGElectoral/Election Authority responsible for the conduct á«∏ª©dG Ò°S ≈∏Y ô¡€

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