Human Rights Training for Adults


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Human Rights Training for Adults

  1. 1. R H R E P Research in Human Rights Education Papers Human Rights Training for Adults: What Twenty-Six Evaluation Studies Say About Design, Implementation and Follow-Up Katharine Teleki Series, No. 1 - August 2007 Human Rights Education Associates, Inc.
  2. 2. R H R E P Research in Human Rights Education Papers About the Series The Research in Human Rights Education Paper Series intends to foster and disseminate research and evaluation in the practice of human rights education, training and learning. Human Rights Education Associates (HREA) invites authors to submit research for publication by contacting the editor, Ms. Felisa Tibbitts at Copyright © 2007, Human Rights Education Associates, Inc. (HREA) All rights reserved. This paper may be quoted or distributed for non-commercial purposes as long as HREA is duly acknowledged as the source. No part of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes without permission in writing from HREA. E-mail: Web: Design and layout: PureVisual
  3. 3. Abstract The field of human rights education and training continues to mature and diversify, demon- strating its potential impact in promoting the global human rights movement. As practitioners develop a shared vision for standards, documented practice is a promising resource from which to draw guidance and to improve practice. To date, few written research has been carried out that comparatively examines training programs in the human rights education field. The first paper in HREA’s Research in Human Rights Education Papers Series reviews twenty- six evaluation reports of human rights training programs, as well as supportive literature. The programs examined are focused on trainings for adults, including target groups such as human rights defenders, police officers, government officials and the general public. Based on the recommendations of the referenced program evaluations and the independent analysis of all reports, the author identifies challenges and makes recommendations for improving the quality of human rights training programs at the stages of design, implementa- tion, follow-up and evaluation. The following cross-cutting recommendations stand out as being particularly important for guaranteeing successful and effective trainings: Programs need to more consistently deliver the interactive, experiential and transformative adult education methodologies that they all agree are essential to effective human rights training. Programs need to emphasize comprehensive mechanisms to follow-up with participants after the formal training program is complete. Programs should explore how they might carry out reliable and comprehensive research and documentation of their work as the field as a whole lacks solid longitudinal evaluation data of the long-term impact of human rights trainings on participants.
  4. 4. Table of Contents I. Introduction (5) IV. Follow-up Stage of Trainings (19) A. Purpose A. Accountability B. Sources B. Support C. Limitations C. Recommendations for Meeting C. Follow-up Challenges II. Design Stages of Trainings (8) V. Evaluation (22) A. Initiation of Project A. Design B. Trainings Goals B. Application of Evaluation Data C. Participants C. Recommendations for Meeting D. Methodology C. Challenges of Evaluation Stage E. Trainers VI. Conclusion (26) F. Recommendations for F. Meeting Design Challenges Endnotes (28) III. Implementation Stage of Trainings (17) A. Training Site Appendix (32) B. Scheduling C. Recommendations for C. Meeting Implementation C. Challenges
  5. 5. I. Introduction1 Human rights education is a relatively young field, rooted in the promotion of hu- man rights standards set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international treaties. Recently, human rights education has been increasingly emphasized by the United Nations (UN) “as a strategy to prevent human rights violations and to foster respect for human rights as well as the aims and goals of the work of the United Nations.”2 Notably, the UN declared 1995-2004 the Decade As its practitioners develop a shared vision for of Human Rights Education. Other UN forums standards, there are a multitude of resources and such as the World Conference against Racism, experiences from which to draw guidance, as well Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related as a future that promises the increased inclusion Intolerance also emphasized human rights educa- of human rights values and vocabulary in daily life tion “as a powerful strategy to combat racism and and political discourse around the world. This discrimination in all spheres of education, e.g. report explores the developing practices in one in schools, in vocational training and in-service subset of the field: human rights training pro- education of various professions, like teach- grams targeting adults. ers, lawyers, or police officers.”3 Human rights Not surprisingly, training programs in education (HRE) programs target a wide range of human rights that target adults are extremely di- participants, from schoolchildren to community verse. Month-long intensive courses on the inter- leaders to top government officials. Although national human rights legal framework for human human rights education has been defined and rights advocates, weekend seminars for police promoted recently in official forums like the UN, officers, and online courses that bring together its origins stretch far back to popular educa- participants from around the globe all fall into the tion and community activist methods developed category of human rights training. around the world.4 Research in Human Rights Education Papers 5
  6. 6. Human Rights Training for Adults - Introduction These trainings occur in university settings, in A. Purpose the field, at conferences, or in the virtual online The purpose of the following analysis was to com- world and are often disconnected from each pare and analyze a varied sample of human rights other. They each offer specific topics and teach- trainings in order to initially identify the common ing methodologies to adult participants who have challenges that these programs face. Although a range of needs. These trainings are different the programs studied for this report are extremely from other professional education not only in diverse, they face surprisingly similar challenges. content but also in goals. Participants in human In addition to summarizing the common challeng- rights trainings are expected to become person- es that these programs face, the report provides ally and collectively empowered to take action on specific examples of and general conclusions behalf of human rights, and to ultimately create about best practices in design, implementation, social and political change. Therefore, the design follow-up and evaluation of training programs. and delivery of human rights trainings face unique The recommendations presented are based on challenges that require unique solutions. the observations of the evaluators whose reports are referenced, as well as the judgment of the au- thor. This paper is intended to be a resource for those planning human rights education trainings The process of developing for adults, one that will enhance the effectiveness and delivering a human rights of these trainings. training program can be B. Sources divided into four general steps: The author researched primarily English-language reports and journals published by training orga- design, implementation, nizations and funders that involved human rights education of adults. The primary source of data follow-up, and evaluation. for this study is evaluation reports of twenty-six training programs located in twenty-two different countries. About half of the studies were carried out by external evaluators; the others were pro- The process of developing and delivering a duced internally by the sponsoring organizations. human rights training program can be divided All of the reports are either available for public into four general steps: design, implementation, viewing on the Internet or were provided in hard follow-up, and evaluation. Design refers to the copy by the organizations upon request. planning that occurs before the training takes Examples of the human rights trainings places. Elements of this step include for example: studied for this report include: the Raoul Wal- setting of project goals, recruitment and selection lenberg Institute’s programs targeting police of participants, determining learner goals, choice officers and public officials in Uganda, Vietnam, of training methodology, and selection of trainers. and Ethiopia; Equitas’ (formerly Canadian Human Implementation refers to important logistical Rights Foundation) annual three-week Interna- issues such as the training site and scheduling tional Human Rights Training Program for human considerations. Follow-up refers to contact with rights advocates; and the Women for Women’s the participants after the training to support their Rights Women (WWHR)’s Human Rights Train- work and increase the impact of the training pro- ing Program in Turkey. gram. Evaluation is the final step and involves collecting participant feedback in a systematic way so that the training can be assessed and improved. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 6
  7. 7. Human Rights Training for Adults - Introduction Table 1 summarizes the different types of programs that were analyzed for this report by target group. Out of the twenty-six programs studied for this report, two targeted the general population, ten were intended for human rights defenders, seven targeted local law enforcement/ government officials, and three were academic programs for graduate students. These programs range from one-day workshops to year-long academic programs. Most were between three days and two weeks in length. A detailed listing is available in the Appendix. Table 1. Evaluation Reports Referenced for Working Paper Number of Programs Target Group Analyzed for this Report Locations Local law enforcement/ 11 Uganda, Vietnam, Ethiopia, government officials Georgia (former USSR), (police officers, lawyers, judges, Sri Lanka, Nothern Ireland, ministry officials, etc.) Tanzania Human rights advocates 10 Canada, Thailand, Costa Rica, (international or regional USA, India, Croatia, Russia, programs) Nepal, South Africa, Internet Master’s degree students 3 Malta, South Afica, Italy General population (human 2 Turkey, Peru rights awareness programs) C. Limitations The studies represent only a sub-section of all human rights trainings carried out. This paper is based almost exclusively on English-language evaluations. It can be assumed that only organizations that are fairly well established or sufficiently large have the capacity to carry out evaluations. Thus the reports relied upon on for this analysis likely are not representative of trainings carried out worldwide in the hu- man rights education field, as many trainings are organized by smaller NGOs, and if available, may not be produced in English. Additional challenges were presented by attempting to compare evaluations of training programs that differ in terms of internal structure; external context; and evaluation method employed. Despite these methodological challenges, the evaluation reports revealed a striking similarity of patterns in terms of design, implementation and follow-up across trainings. This paper attempts to capture these. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 7
  8. 8. II. Design Stages II. of Trainings The design of any training sets the foundation for every step that follows. Many problems that surface in the evaluation reports stem from a failure to successfully address one or more challenges in the design phase. Therefore, the following analysis of design issues is the most substantive of the four components of de- sign, implementation, follow-up and evaluation. A. Initiation of Project each were challenged to coordinate training of How the training is initiated, including collaborat- government and law enforcement officials in ing with other organizations, securing funding, delicate political climates. RWI mitigated this and performing an analysis of the training’s con- challenge by forming successful partnerships with text are key design issues at a program’s “ground local human rights organizations.6 zero.” A.2. North-South Coordination A.1. Collaboration Many human rights training projects have the Several organizations reported challenges associ- added challenge of coordinating between “north- ated with collaboration. This challenge was most ern” (from “developed” countries) and “south- pronounced for programs that targeted local law ern” (“developing”) organizations, which often enforcement or government officials for human raises questions of power dynamics and control. rights training. For example, the human rights This issue was discussed in detail at the 2002 training program for police officers in Northern Roundtable on Capacity Building by Human Ireland faced challenges in integrating human Rights Organizations hosted by Columbia Uni- rights topics and skills into an already established versity. At this meeting, “a number of sources of and busy police training schedule.5 In another ex- power were cited in influencing relations between ample, the Raoul Wallenberg Institute’s (RWI’s) Northern and Southern organizations.”7 These programs in Ethiopia, Uganda and Vietnam sources include access to information and Research in Human Rights Education Papers 8
  9. 9. Human Rights Training for Adults - Design Stages funding, language skills, and use of jargon. In flexibility with which they have been employed. addition, the political context can be an important The funding has been very responsive to changing source of power, even for non-governmental orga- political circumstances, and has not been ad- nizations. For example, the Training Program for ministered in a bureaucratic fashion . . . Many of Community Leaders in Human Rights, Democ- the most effective initiatives must be undertaken racy and Citizen Participation in Peru (founded quickly in response to changing circumstances . . . in the late 1980s) was accused of being “agents With the expenditure of relatively limited financial of the American imperialists,” in part because of resources, significant benefits can be achieved.”11 “total dependency on outside sources of fund- Therefore, funding mechanisms that are able to ing.”8 In some cases the perception develops that match the needs of host organizations are a key powerful, Northern organizations will crowd-out, component of successful training design. co-opt, or undermine the work of locally based groups.9 In the evaluations analyzed for this A.4. Contextual Analysis report, programs based in “southern” countries Finally, an important element of training design were most likely to face these types of challenges. reflected in many of the training evaluations is Program designers can not be aware of side-effects unless they make a specific effort while designing the program to analyze the range of possible consequences the training could produce. A.3. Funding Issues Securing adequate funding is an obvious obstacle background research, sometimes referred to as that every program must overcome in order to “contextual analysis,” that takes into account exist. Less apparent is the challenge of managing political and institutional factors that could and distributing the funds. In cases where large promote or impede social change. Contextual funders such as private foundations or govern- analysis includes background research into “the ment entities collaborate with smaller, locally- overall political and social environment in which a based organizations, problems with disbursement process takes place.”12 This analysis should occur of funds can cause major logistical problems for on many levels, from the overall international situ- training programs. An example is the University ation to observing cultural differences or stan- of Malta Human Rights Masters Program, which dards as they relate to specific human rights and was funded 80% by the European Union. Howev- training methodologies (including use of language er, the funding cycle did not match the program’s and vocabulary). needs: the program began incurring expenses Most training programs did summarize in January but funds were not available until July. the broad political and human rights context of The external evaluators of this program wrote their trainings in the evaluation reports. However, that, “[a]s a consequence, the host institution few programs reported a more in-depth analysis [was] forced into financial uncertainty verging on that considered the possible short-term unintend- the brink of irresponsibility.”10 In another exam- ed side effects of the human rights training (posi- ple, evaluators praised the Canadian International tive and negative). Program designers can not Development Agency’s Human Rights Programs be aware of these side-effects unless they make in Sri Lanka for their funding mechanisms. “One a specific effort while designing the program to of the great strengths of the human-rights funding analyze the range of possible consequences the mechanisms used in Sri Lanka has been the training could produce. This inquiry is especially important for country-based programs, where Research in Human Rights Education Papers 9
  10. 10. Human Rights Training for Adults - Design Stages “the larger context for the human rights learner Connected to the issue of specific versus is a political and social one, marked by inequi- general goals is the persistent confusion between ties in power and justice.”13 One aspect of this outcomes and outputs. An example of outputs is type of inquiry is examining the possibility that “number of judges trained” or “number of human the training itself may put certain participants at rights trainings conducted.” Output-related goals risk of experiencing human rights violations. For are important, but they do not get at the heart of example, the Women for Women’s Human Rights what human rights trainings are meant to accom- – New Ways (WWHR) Women’s Human Rights plish. Training outcomes are much more difficult Training Program in Turkey found that “some to measure, such as “improvement in human neighbors reacted negatively, and tried to ex- rights culture” or “effective human rights advo- clude and blame the participant.” Although most cacy by participants.” The inherent methodologi- women who participated in the program reported cal difficulty in evaluating long-term outcomes greater power in and control over their lives, a related to short-term trainings is a major chal- small number (1%) experienced increased vio- lenge for programming and an inhibitor for setting lence, usually from husbands “when the wife no long-term impact goals, but should not prevent longer acquiesces automatically to the husband’s training designers from creating outcomes-based wishes, and applies her right of freedom of move- goals altogether. ment by leaving the house.”14 By understanding For example, the Raoul Wallenberg this issue beforehand, the program was able to Institute and the Vietnamese Research Centre for both prepare for and mitigate the occurrence of Human Rights collaborated on a series of human these possible negative outcomes. rights training initiatives from 1997-2001. The stated goal of Phase I of the project was simply B. Training Goals “human rights awareness and competence- raising” targeted at “high-level decision makers” A surprising number of training programs did in the media, government and law enforcement. not state clearly defined or measurable goals in Progress on this goal was primarily evaluated by their evaluation reports. This weakness creates the number of training seminars held and the problems for every subsequent stage of these establishment of a human rights library.15 By con- training programs, from selection of participants trast, Equitas developed an overall goal for their to evaluation. Setting appropriate and meaningful training program: “to strengthen the capacity of goals is particularly challenging for human rights human rights organizations to undertake human training programs for two main reasons. First, rights education efforts (e.g., training, awareness when setting goals, program designers often con- campaigns, information dissemination, and advo- fuse outcomes (e.g., “human rights situation im- cacy) aimed at building a global culture of human proves”) with outputs (e.g., “five people attended rights.” In addition to this broad goal, they also program”). Second, this confusion extends to the developed specific program objectives which field as a whole, which does not have a widely ac- focused on enabling participants to “analyze the cepted vocabulary to describe appropriate goals issues and situations encountered in the work of and/or methods to measure success. their organizations using a framework based on internationally accepted human rights values and B.1. Outcomes versus Outputs principles; explore ways in which human rights Human rights trainings often have a range of education can increase the effectiveness of their possible effects, from impact on one individual’s human rights work; increase their capacity to specific skills as an advocate to a more general apply their learning within their organizations and effect of strengthening an entire community their society; and facilitate networking and part- or group’s general awareness of human rights. nership activities essential to furthering the cause When programs did not differentiate these layers, of human rights.”16 they did not have a clear method to understand or evaluate their success. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 10
  11. 11. Human Rights Training for Adults - Design Stages Although these program objectives may be dif- C. Participants ficult to measure, they get at the core of what the The success of human rights trainings ultimately training program is attempting to accomplish. depends on the recruitment and selection of These goals also provide a rationale and frame- individuals who will be willing and able to use the work that link up methodology, follow-up and information and skills they learn. Several organi- evaluation strategies. zations reported challenges in finding these types To guarantee genuine participation in the development of effective . . . programs it is important to develop a common language; this ensures that individuals and institutions can clearly communicate their needs as well as their vision for change. B.2. Lack of Common Language and Methods The second, more theoretical challenge to ef- of participants within their target audience or of fective goal setting within human rights trainings delivering training that matched the participants’ is the relative youth of the field of human rights specific needs. Both factors can seriously impact training which has not yet completely developed the training’s effectiveness and reputation. consensus on its vocabulary and methodology. In addition, development and capacity-building pro- C.1. Selection Criteria grams sometimes overlap with or are combined The most basic challenge is developing selection within the same program as human rights train- criteria that are closely linked to the program’s ing. The participants of the Columbia University goals. Many programs either did not have or did Roundtable on Capacity Building noted that “the not report specific selection criteria for their par- ‘jargon’ of the field . . . can be particularly difficult ticipants. These criteria are essential to ensuring to understand . . . To guarantee genuine participa- that training is delivered to the appropriate target tion in the development of effective . . . programs group, and that training content and methodol- it is important to develop a common language; ogy is correctly matched with the participants’ this ensures that individuals and institutions can backgrounds and needs. For example, the Fifth clearly communicate their needs as well as their South Asian Orientation Course in Human Rights vision for change.”17 The lack of consistency in and Peace Studies placed special emphasis on language used in the evaluation reports points to the selection process. Its policy was to be “sensi- this problem. For example, adult education-theo- tive not only to ensuring adequate representation ry based methodologies are discussed alternately of women activists and professionals representing as “problem-oriented,”18 “practical-experience”19 relativistic perspectives, especially those belong- or “active learning”20 focused, or “participatory.”21 ing to minority and suppressed communities and These methods are rarely defined or described in others working in arduous conditions of conflict, further detail, and although they all point to the but also in incorporating their distinct perspec- same underlying concepts, the lack of standard tives and ratiocinations [sic] on the issues of hu- vocabulary can create confusion. Therefore, pro- man rights and peace within the structure of the grams should pay special attention to the terms program.”22 they use to describe the theories and methods behind their trainings. Future definition of these terms across the field of human rights training would be helpful in clarifying the use of specific vocabulary. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 11
  12. 12. Human Rights Training for Adults - Design Stages C.2. Outreach Closely related to developing selection criteria is creating a plan for advertising the training to appropriate audiences and recruiting suitable Problems relating to participants from a specific pool (i.e. law enforce- ment officials). One example of this common training methods challenge is the Human Rights Education and Ad- vocacy Training in Chelyabinsk, Russia in 1996. generally stem from a The evaluation report of this program stated that, “According to the regional coordinator, those in- disconnect between vited to the workshop were individuals or organi- zations that had pre-workshop relations with the theory and practice. organizer of the workshop. Participants . . . said that they had not received any announcement of the training and learned of it only by chance com- munication with the workshop organizer or with “Out of 50 supposed participants at the first other colleagues. Publicity for the workshop was seminar and 60 at the second, only around 75% minimal . . . and did not reach the regional human showed up. Of these, many participants did not rights NGO community-at large.”23 In contrast, stay for the entire week. One reason for the poor selection for the USAID-funded NGO develop- attendance was that the selection of participants ment project in Croatia was highly competitive. was made without involving the employers.”25 As Information about the trainings were widely pub- this example demonstrates, a strong collabora- licized throughout the country and consequently tive relationship between training programs and 123 people applied for 19 places.24 Although not participants’ institutions in selecting appropriate all organizations have the capacity to consider participants is essential. such a wide pool, a diverse set of applicants clearly increases the likelihood that participants C.4. Communication of Training Goals are selected that will be willing and able to act and Methods upon the resources invested in them. Several programs reported problems arising from a lack of clear communication about program C.3. Collaboration goals and methods to participants. For example, In addition, many programs face problems at Equitas’ International Human Rights Training recruiting appropriate participants if they fail to Program (IHRTP), “the focus . . . is on how to collaborate closely with the structures (i.e. NGOs develop and carry out human rights education or police departments) where the target partici- activities that are appropriate to participants’ pants live or work. Programs must be especially particular contexts. Although the international careful when delivering training to law enforce- human rights system is dealt with in the program, ment officials or employees of local NGOs who IHRTP does not provide for in-depth learning may be required to attend the training by their about international human rights law. Therefore superiors. Additionally, employers have valuable participants’ expectations about the content of information about their employees that can be the program must be addressed early on.” Evalu- incorporated into the selection process if training ation reports of the program from 2002-2004 programs collaborate with them. An extreme ex- demonstrate that Equitas has taken steps to ample of this issue is demonstrated in the evalua- better communicate course content to applicants tion report of a human rights training program in and participants.26 the former Soviet republic of Georgia which was coordinated by three Swedish partner organiza- tions from 1996-2001. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 12
  13. 13. Human Rights Training for Adults - Design Stages D. Methodology The training is built on the day to day life experi- Methodology refers to the “how” of human rights ences of the participants . . . [and they] learn training. Problems relating to training methods by doing role plays, working in small discussion generally stem from a disconnect between theory groups.”28 The evaluator of this program con- cluded that these and other elements “make [the and practice. The evaluation reports confirm the program] stand out as a very effective program assertion that “nearly all formal literature associ- that is worth replicating outside of Peru.”29 ated with Human Rights Education will mention the importance of using participatory methods.”27 These reports suggest an understanding that adult education theory, participatory approaches, a focus on skill building, attention to local con- Failure to link human rights cerns, and support of peer-to-peer learning are necessary elements of any human rights training issues to the local context program. However, many programs were unable clearly weakened the to translate all of this understanding into practice. Issues to consider include: aligning trainings to program’s effectiveness. participant needs using adult education methods, integrating varied program elements, the use of transformative learning to address sensitive is- sues, and the use of distance learning. D.2. Integrating Varied Program Elements In addition, many programs identified the use of D.1. Aligning Training Content to Participant technology, conflict resolution models, peer-to- peer learning opportunities, and development Needs with Adult Education Methods of critical thinking skills as important elements Across the board, the most common participant of their programs, but were not always able to criticisms were that trainings do not relate closely integrate these issues. It is clear that balancing a enough to their daily work or local situation, or range of methodologies and resources is a major that even after the training they do not feel they challenge in developing effective human rights have the skills to translate theoretical information trainings. For example, human rights training to action. Program designers are challenged both of police officers in Northern Ireland requires by the need to accurately assess what information a diversified approach which is reflected in the participants are lacking and the need to deliver course design but remains difficult to achieve. that information in an interactive and skills- Course manuals focus on a “problem-solving and building manner. Adult education theory is clear partnership approach” including “scenario exer- on the need to incorporate participatory methods cises, case studies, and role plays.”30 However, into training curriculum (including role-plays, evaluators found that “group work scenarios were case studies, and other interactive exercises). In the weakest elements of the human right lessons” human rights training, these participatory meth- which were mostly delivered by experts in lec- ods are only as useful as how relevant the subject ture format. Like in several other programs, local matter is to the participants’ particular human issues seem to have been left out of the course rights area of interest. Therefore, the need for content. “Almost without exception, the stu- pre-training assessment and contextual analysis dent officers interviewed had gained the distinct is clear. One program that has taken this concept impression from trainers that discussion of the to heart is the Training Program for Community questions which they referred to as the ‘big is- Leaders in Human Rights, Democracy and Citizen sues’ in Northern Ireland – religion and politics – Participation in Peru. “From the time the train- was a ‘no-go’ area.”31 In this case, failure to link ing course begins, emphasis is placed on living human rights issues to the local context clearly what one learns, using as a point of departure the weakened the program’s effectiveness. participants’ daily experiences. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 13
  14. 14. Human Rights Training for Adults - Design Stages D.3. Sensitivity Issues D.4. Distance Learning and Transformative Learning One new training delivery medium that addresses Programs are sometimes challenged by the fact many of the challenges of designing human that due to the human rights subject matter, rights training for adults is online or distance training methods are held to a higher standard learning. For example, the online course “Lead- than other types of technical assistance trainings. ing to Choices: A Distance Learning Course on Self-reflection (in addition to thorough contextual Participatory Leadership” creatively combined analysis) is needed to avoid potentially damaging a variety of methods including a course website, situations in which participants feel that stereo- online discussion board, email, real-time chat types or power dynamics have been reinforced by rooms, video, and group projects that brought the training methods. In fact, addressing these together participants from across the globe. “The types of issues directly can be one of the most finalized eLearning course curriculum utilized an powerful elements of a human rights training. interactive, problem-solving, and active-learning These types of “transformative” learning experi- approach that emphasizes peer-to-peer learn- ences empower participants “to make changes in ing. It is premised upon the concept that effec- their own lives, as well as in their families, com- tive learning takes place when participants are munities, and institutions around them.”32 For actively engaged around themes and questions example, in the Training Program for Community related to real life concerns, and rich diversity of Leaders in Peru, “participants begin by examining participants’ experiences becomes a principal re- themselves – the extent to which they are being source of the course.”35 At the Fifth South Asian democratic in their households and communi- Orientation Course in Human Rights and Peace ties, the extent to which they are upholding basic Studies, several months of distance learning were human rights . . . they learn together in an open combined with a two-week face-to-face training and supportive atmosphere . . . and break down session. In this case, the use of distance learning stereotypes and barriers of mistrust.”33 helped solve some major logistical problems the Another related challenge is the often program encountered with the physical training politically-sensitive nature of human rights issues, site.36 especially for programs that collaborate with gov- Of course, distance learning presents its ernment entities. These programs must balance own unique challenges. An independent evalu- the need to address sensitive human rights issues ation of online courses provided for members directly with the need to preserve their ability to of human rights organizations in South Africa carry out additional trainings in the future. This found that “like most distance learners, [the challenge is demonstrated by the Raoul Wallen- course participants were] continually preoccu- berg Institute’s Human Rights Awareness-Raising pied with issues of time management – juggling Programme in Uganda. Evaluators questioned study priorities with full-time jobs and personal why women’s rights were not integrated into all responsibilities.”37 In addition, technical difficul- of the trainings (instead, one women’s rights ties, cost of developing high-tech materials, and workshop was held with only women partici- management of the program were all challenges pants). “We cannot see the reason why [women] the sponsoring organization faced.38 However, were gathered in a workshop of their own, which the evaluators concluded that “it is quite clear focused on women’s rights only. As many of the that this approach breaks new ground.”39 In the interviewees point out, gender discrimination and future, it is likely that more human rights train- women’s rights should have been on the agenda ing programs will move to incorporate distance in all district workshops . . . As it was organized, learning and technology into their methodology. the four workshops with a majority of male par- The evaluation reports of courses that included ticipants learnt very little about gender issues.”34 such methods indicate that distance and online The training’s organizers avoided immediate con- learning has much potential to strengthen existing troversy by excluding women’s issues from many human rights training programs and to introduce of the workshops, yet this exclusion ultimately new, innovate approaches to the field. threatened the program’s legitimacy. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 14
  15. 15. Human Rights Training for Adults - Design Stages E. Trainers E.2. Use of Local vs. International Trainers Another related challenge, especially for country- Two key challenges relating to trainers emerged based trainings, is balancing the use of local train- from the evaluation reports. First, programs must ers with international experts who are brought in secure trainers that are both familiar with the from the outside. In many cases, participants felt human rights content and knowledgeable about that the international trainers did not understand adult education training methods. Second, pro- all aspects of their local situation; conversely, grams often struggle to balance the use of local participants expressed appreciation of a fresh, and international experts and/or trainers. A final challenge in training design is assembling appropriate resource materials for participants to reference after the program is completed. E.1. Identification of Skilled Trainers outside perspective that placed their local is- A challenge closely connected to the methodolo- sues within an international context. The key gy issues presented above is locating experienced challenge is balancing a mixture of both local trainers to design and lead participants through and international trainers while building aware- the program. A common criticism of trainings is ness and attention to local issues into all levels that too much time is spent in content focused of the program’s design. For example, the Raoul lecture settings and not enough time on practi- Wallenberg Institute’s Human Rights Training cal skills-building. Often, human rights experts Program in Vietnam was criticized for not having are brought in to lecture on topics in their area enough local trainers, while evaluators of the hu- of expertise. Although most training programs man rights training program for police officers in profess a commitment to participatory, skills- Northern Ireland called for more external trainers based methods, these approaches are difficult to with specialty in the area of human rights.40 carry out without knowledgeable trainers and if not planned and executed properly, can fall flat. E.3. Materials Therefore, a key challenge in creating a suc- A final challenge in training design is assembling cessful training program is paying attention not appropriate resource materials for participants to only to the stated methodology but the skills of reference after the program is completed. Al- the people who will be putting those methods though this issue is often disregarded or over- into practice. It is important to note that in the looked, materials are an important supplement to majority of the training evaluations, little or no any training program, and a surprisingly frequent information was provided about the experience source of criticism. The most common criticisms or background of the trainers. Although this are: too much information, outdated information, omission does not mean that the trainers were not enough local information or information on inexperienced, it does indicate a lack of focus on funding resources, improperly translated (or not this issue by many of the training programs and/ translated at all), and lack of contact information or evaluators. or alumni networking tools. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 15
  16. 16. Human Rights Training for Adults - Design Stages F. Recommendations for Meeting Design • Training goals and methodology should be Challenges clearly communicated to potential applicants and selected participants. F.1. Initiation of project • Specific projects should grow out of local in- • Selected participants should be assessed on terest and need within a strategic framework their level of knowledge and needs for the promoting human rights-based reforms at training well before the program begins. the individual, institutional and socio-political levels. F.4. Methodology • Adult education theory, including the use of • Collaborations between local and interna- participatory methods, should be central to tional organizations or government entities, the training. particularly between Northern and Southern groups, should be managed with careful • Participants’ daily challenges and life experi- attention to power dynamics, particularly ences should be frequently incorporated into regarding the logistics of funding. the training. • Contextual analysis (background research), • Participants should be viewed as resources especially for local and regional trainings, and are tapped for their skills and expertise. needs to be thorough, with unintended con- sequences anticipated. • Methods should be self-reflective and avoid reproducing stereotypes or other discrimina- F.2. Goals tion • Learner and program goals should be clearly stated and measurable. Goals are layered to • Participants should leave with an action plan express both general and specific intended in hand. effects. Anticipated outputs and outcomes should be clearly defined and differentiated. F.5. Trainers • Program facilitators should be knowledgeable • Human rights vocabulary and specific termi- not only of human rights content but also of nology should be defined. The role of human adult education training methods. rights training within other development or capacity building programs should be clearly • Invited experts can coach on appropriate de- explained. livery styles; frontal lecture and panel discus- sions should be limited. F.3. Participants • Selection criteria for participants should be • There should be a balance of local and in- developed and tied directly to program goals. ternational trainers and never an imbalance towards international trainers. • The training needs to be advertised as widely as possible to appropriate target groups. F.6. Materials Recruitment should take place in collabora- • Resource packets should be updated before tion with institutions or organizations where trainings and include funding resources, potential participants live or work. alumni networking information, and are trans- lated with sensitivity. They should be simple, condensed, and easy to use. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 16
  17. 17. III. Implementation III. Stage of Trainings Implementation refers to the logistical issues that can easily thwart even the most carefully planned training curriculum. Following is an explanation of the two most common challenges relating to training implementation: the training site and scheduling issues. A. Training Site In addition, the training’s geographic location, Securing an appropriate site for the training as the availability of interpreters (if necessary) and well as accommodations for the participants can ability to acquire visas for participants are also be challenging for a range of reasons. Funding important considerations. often limits the available options, and depending One example of logistical problems is the on the location of the training, appropriate facili- police school facilities used in Northern Ireland. ties may not be available at all, and the program Evaluators found that “current classroom, resi- may have to improvise. However, it is important dential accommodation and specialist training not to underestimate the importance the site facilities were inadequate . . . the current physical can have to the quality of the training. Facilities limitations will have an impact on the capacity without appropriate space to accommodate train- of training, both for growth as well as training ing methods or with poorly organized support for recruits and current police officers. Partnership trainers can cause great distraction and frustra- and problem-solving approaches were seen by tion among all people involved who may not be the Independent Commission as being central to willing to return to subsequent events. Examples the recruit training process, and inadequate facili- of these important logistical elements include ties are not conducive to achieving this goal.”41 moveable furniture, amenities such as access to Another example illustrates the impor- the Internet, telephone, and food, and proximity tance of the geographic location of the training to areas of entertainment or cultural interest. program. Due to increasing violence in the region around Kathmandu in August of 2004, Research in Human Rights Education Papers 17
  18. 18. Human Rights Training for Adults - Implementation Stage the Fifth South Asian Orientation Course in C. Recommendations for Meeting Human Rights and Peace Studies attempted to Implementation Challenges change the location of their training to New Delhi or Lahore. Logistics made both of these choices C. 1. Training Site impossible, so after delaying the course, the orga- • Both the site of the training and the physi- nizers decided to hold a shorter training session cal state of the facilities used for the training in Kathmandu, despite the risk involved and the should add to, not detract from, the pro- fact that several trainers and participants were gram’s quality. Every effort should be made unable to secure transportation there. Organizers to assist participants with acquisition of visas of this training understood the symbolic impor- and other official documents, if necessary. tance of location. Choosing Kathmandu as their site “was an expression of faith in the potential • Every effort should be made to provide of Nepal’s democratic transformation.”42 How- adequate space for interactive methods, ever, an explosion in the city a day after the end minimize distractions caused by logistical of the training “was a grim reminder of the risk problems, and create space for peer-to-peer [they] had taken” by holding the training there.43 learning. These include but are not limited In this dramatic example, the training’s location to: moveable furniture, amenities such as was central to its legitimacy in promoting human access to the Internet, telephone, and food, rights in the region and also a major obstacle for and proximity to areas of entertainment and organizers to overcome. cultural interest. B. Scheduling C.2. Scheduling • The program agenda should include “down- The most common criticism relating to program time” that allows unstructured peer-to-peer schedules is that they are too busy or exhaust- learning and networking to occur outside of ing (especially if the methodology depends on the formal schedule. lectures and panel discussions). However, when enough down-time or social activities are built • Planners should be willing to make reason- into the schedule, participants often report that able last-minute changes at the request of the personal connections they made with other trainers or participants, if possible. participants are the most rewarding part of their experience. For example, at the 14th Annual Human Rights & People’s Diplomacy Training Program in Bangkok, Thailand, ample space was created for peer-to-peer learning outside of the classroom. “Participants showed videos and made presentations on their own situations to interested participants in a room that was made available for that purpose. Participants organized a wonderful solidarity evening in the last week of the training – with folk songs and dances from the different countries of the region.”44 There- fore, the major scheduling challenge is to temper the impulse to pack in as much training curricu- lum as possible with a reasonable space to allow for learning to occur outside of the official program. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 18
  19. 19. IV. Follow-up IV. Stage of Trainings Nearly every training program reported challenges with follow-up. Few, if any, have developed completely successful mechanisms to ascertain the impact of the training following its conclusion and to offer additional supports for continued learning and motivation. The following two topics cover the most important ele- ments of follow-up: accountability and support. A. Accountability benefit from a more concerted embracing of transformative learning.”45 In this way, account- Instilling a sense of accountability in participants ability is shared by both the learners and the to use the new information and skills they have trainers, as both are part of the change process. gained at the training is the first and most impor- The accountability issue is most challeng- tant step in follow-up. At a basic level, participant ing in trainings of government or law enforcement selection is central to this challenge – if inap- officials who may not have applied to be in the propriate participants are chosen, it is likely the program but rather were “selected” to attend, training will not have the desired impact upon and may be skeptical of course content from the them. How well the program is designed and beginning. In addition, many programs target- implemented also has a strong impact on how ing local government officials are challenged by invested participants feel afterwards. In addi- the high turnover rate of these positions. As the tion, program designers are challenged to make evaluators of the Raoul Wallenberg Institute’s the event an eye-opening and in some cases, Human Rights Awareness Raising Programme in life-changing event that will impress upon partici- Uganda noted, “An inevitable problem when tar- pants their ability to work effectively on behalf of geting participants holding elected offices is that human rights. This issue is closely connected to many are not re-elected. As individuals, they may methodology, specifically that “the practice of hu- use their human rights knowledge in the districts . man rights education, which is extremely general . . however, some of them saw problems in doing in conception and varied in practice, could clearly so.”46 Research in Human Rights Education Papers 19
  20. 20. Human Rights Training for Adults - Follow-up Stage B. Support B.3. Staying in Touch Another challenge is remaining in contact with B.1. Planning for Follow-Up participants, which requires maintaining a da- A sense of accountability alone cannot go very tabase and updating information regularly, and far if participants do not have access to practi- facilitating an alumni network so that participants cal support after the training is over. The most can continue to use each other as resources. A common problem occurs when there is not a plan surprising number of programs did not report for follow-up built into the program’s design. As continued communication between past par- a result, many of the support and follow-up plans ticipants. This communication, which can be as are created after the program is already com- simple as an email list-serve, benefits not only pleted and are therefore not very effective. For the participants but the program itself which can example, the purpose of Amnesty International’s form a larger network of supporters after each South Asia Human Rights Defenders Project was training. to strengthen human rights activists in South Asia, who developed action plans at regional confer- B.4. Funding Support ences. Although the project succeeded in many A final common criticism is that programs do not of its goals, “there was clearly frustration amongst give participants enough practical information respondents at the lack of concrete mechanisms and support regarding funding. Because many put in place to follow up on aspects of the action participants of human rights training programs plans . . . a large majority felt that there should are working on small-scale projects, their access have been follow-up discussions on particular to funding is both extremely limited and essen- aspects of the regional action plans.”47 By con- tial to their ability to be successful in their work. trast, participants in Equitas’ International Human Therefore, a focus on providing funding support Rights Training Program were asked to develop could greatly increase the success of participants an Individual Plan starting in the first week of the in their local work. This support does not neces- program and to continue to develop it over the sarily entail the programs themselves giving fund- three-week course. The program “is designed to ing (since most are on very tight budgets), but provide participants with a framework for devel- rather helping their participants link with other oping a concrete plan for putting their learning organizations and grant opportunities. into practice with the aim of increasing their own organization’s capacity to conduct human rights education.” Participants are contacted four and six months after the Training Program and asked Special emphasis should to report on the progress of their Individual Plans. In addition, regional and country-specific follow- be placed on providing up meetings are organized with alumni to provide advanced training and gather recommendations.48 alumni networks with information on future B.2. Supplementary Materials are Tools for Follow-Up trainings and funding As noted above, supplementary materials are often a lost opportunity at trainings and are often opportunities in the criticized for being inadequate. A well-designed participants’ area of and assembled resource packet that participants can reference for information and contacts is an interest. invaluable support tool if crafted well. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 20
  21. 21. Human Rights Training for Adults - Follow-up Stage C. Recommendations for Meeting Follow- Up Challenges C.1. Accountability • The program should be implemented well and be inspirational enough that participants have the energy and confidence they need to use the resources that have been invested in them effectively. • Participants should be asked to provide written or oral confirmation of their intention to use the skills and information they have gained at the training. This type of “contract” can be built into the registration process. These confirmations can be used in later follow-up. C.2. Support • Training should be viewed as an on-going process. Follow-up is not an afterthought but built into the program’s design from the beginning. Participants should be encour- aged to attend advanced trainings or other opportunities to continue their own human rights education. • Alumni networks should be prioritized and supported. These can take various forms, for example, on-line through use of list-serves and websites, or in-person for regional/local trainings. Past participants should be con- tacted at regular intervals in order to update information and track their progress after the training. Participant involvement in an active alumni network should be one of the training goals. • Special emphasis should be placed on pro- viding alumni networks with information on future trainings and funding opportunities in the participants’ area of interest. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 21
  22. 22. V. Evaluation Almost all programs are evaluated in some way, usually because funders require a record of a program’s strengths before or in order to continue funding it. How- ever, across-the-board, evaluation is one of the weakest elements in many human rights training programs. The following topics outline the most common chal- lenges faced in program evaluation. A. Design cultural barriers to criticism. In addition, pro- grams are challenged to ask the right evaluation The most important aspect of evaluation is also questions, which ultimately refers to the quality of the most often overlooked -- the need to include goal-setting during the program’s initial design. mechanisms to collect evaluation data into the Human rights training programs are program’s design from the beginning. Often, challenged to collect appropriate evaluation data internal and external evaluators are left to make at several different stages during the training conclusions about programs with insufficient program: before, during, and after. and incomplete information. Evaluators for the Raoul Wallenberg Institute’s Human Training Programs in Vietnam summed up this common A.1. Baseline Data problem: “The lack of a systematic approach with After participants are selected, programs report impact measurement in mind at the beginning of varying degrees of attention to accurately assess- the Project or up to present makes it difficult to ing their pre-training needs and knowledge of the objectively confirm impact now.”49 Occasionally, issues at hand through pre-training assignments poorly designed evaluations do not produce use- or surveys. This type of information is usually ful data because they are not varied in methodol- based on participants’ self-assessments of their ogy --for example, involving both written and oral knowledge, skills, and needs before the training evaluations-- or are not culturally competent, that begins --for example, through a survey mailed in is they don’t take into account language or advance of the training or handed out on the first Research in Human Rights Education Papers 22
  23. 23. V. Evaluation - Human Rights Training for Adults day--, and compared to a similar assessment Only two programs analyzed for this at the conclusion of the training. For example, report formalized the process of collecting mid- Equitas requires each participant to complete training data and included this information in a pre-training assessment before the start of their evaluation reports.52 In one of these cases, the program. These assessments asked partici- the Fifth South Asian Orientation Course on pants to “rate their pre-training knowledge; . . . Human Rights and Peace Studies incorporated reflect on their training needs; . . . [and] prepare mid-training evaluations into its program by a description of the situations in their respective appointing special rapporteurs each day. Each countries . . . Information from participants’ pre- morning, these rapporteurs gave a 30-minute training assignments was used at different points report on “the comments, criticism, and sugges- throughout the three weeks,” and was also a use- tions of participants on the prior day’s events and ful tool for the program’s evaluators.50 Although lectures, and on the running of the direct orienta- this type of pre-training assessment can greatly tion program more generally . . . these sessions enhance the effectiveness of the trainings and also contributed to setting the tone for the entire the accuracy of evaluation, many programs did . . . programme by fostering an atmosphere of not pay significant attention to this important tool mutual respect and attentiveness, of constructive (only four of the twenty-six programs analyzed criticism and candor.”53 reported conducting pre-training assessment of participants).51 It is clear from analyzing several years of evaluation reports of the same training programs that useful information about training methodology, logistics, and other aspects of the training is sometimes not incorporated into the next year’s design. A.2. Mid-Training Evaluations A.3. End-of-Training Evaluations Collecting feedback mid-training can be helpful Almost all training programs conduct some form for several reasons: (1) it gives trainers an idea of end-of-training evaluation, most commonly of how the program is going and allows them through written evaluation forms the participants to make changes if necessary; (2) it becomes a are asked to complete. Often these forms make a learning tool for participants because they are series of statements with standardized responses able to express their opinions and sometimes im- on a scale (“10” for strongly agree, etc.). Usu- pact the remainder of the session; and (3) it gives ally these types of evaluations also ask several useful information for evaluation purposes. It is open-ended questions, such as “What was the important to note that many trainers collect this most useful part of the training to you?” Some type of mid-training evaluation data informally, of- programs conducted in-depth interviews with ten verbally, during the course of trainings. How- participants several weeks or months after the ever, this useful information is rarely captured in training’s conclusion, or conducted group evalu- formal evaluations. Ultimately, the administration ation sessions after the training was complete. of formal mid-term evaluations is related to the A significant challenge for these end-of-training trainers’ assessment of the availability of time as evaluations is combining different types of meth- well as their willingness to change the format of ods (written/oral, group/individual) and compiling the training. Therefore, if organizers of a program and analyzing the data after it is collected. feel that mid-training evaluations are important, The Adilisha training program in South Africa trainers should be informed of the rationale be- successfully used a combination of methods in its hind conducting such assessments and allocated evaluation plan, including pre-and post-individual extra time to administer them. and group evaluations, focus group discussions, and a final evaluation workshop.54 Research in Human Rights Education Papers 23
  24. 24. Human Rights Training for Adults - Evaluation A.4. Longitudinal Studies The need for long-term assessment of the impact of human rights trainings on participants is an on- Overall, the field of human going challenge for all human rights training pro- grams. For example, the evaluator of the Training rights training does not have Program for Community Leaders in Peru noted good longitudinal evaluation that “a generalized concern of citizen education is that the methodology to measure the true impact data. Therefore, every program of programs of this type is still in its infancy.”55 Because of the complexity and expense involved should explore how it might be in longitudinal studies as well as the methodologi- cal concerns, training programs do not gener- able to add to the field by ally attempt to measure their long-term impact on participants. (For the Peru program, USAID supporting a longitudinal study. funded an independent evaluator to carry out a comprehensive, long-term evaluation project.)56 Two programs considered for this report that conducted limited longitudinal studies of their its strengths and weaknesses, a final challenge work were the Women’s Human Rights Training remains in how that information is used. Evalua- Program in Turkey and the Human Rights Advo- tors are challenged to connect evaluation results cates Training Program at Columbia University. to the program goals, and to incorporate the eval- Another challenge to longitudinal stud- uation information into the design of future train- ies is that by definition, they require that training ing programs. It is clear from analyzing several programs be active in an area for several years years of evaluation reports of the same training and have clearly defined goals to measure. As an programs that useful information about training evaluator of the Canadian International Develop- methodology, logistics, and other aspects of the ment Agency’s Human Rights Program Mecha- training is sometimes not incorporated into the nisms in Sri Lanka concluded, “One must rec- next year’s design. It is difficult for evaluations to ognize the long-term investment that is required be formally digested by an organization, even if before any ‘attitudinal change’ can be measured they are read by the individual trainers, who may . . . some of these indicators might include: fewer change from program to program. Therefore, too court cases brought against police or military for often, the same issues can surface year after year. abusive authority, greater cooperation between In addition to using evaluation internally the civilian government and police and military to improve trainings, program designers are also authorities, public criticism of the military and po- challenged by how to communicate the evalua- lice appearing regularly in the media, and better tion information to the outside world. This entails relations between security forces and the NGO report writing for funders, partners, alumni net- community.”57 Although this issue is somewhat works, and the media. It also includes the chal- outside the scope of a training designer’s respon- lenge of appropriately celebrating the program’s sibility or power, it is important for program de- successes, while at the same time being honest signers and evaluators to be aware of and support about possible areas of improvement. it if possible. Hopefully, longitudinal evaluations Problems with staff turnover are fre- will become increasingly feasible as human rights quently reported by NGOs but can be mitigated trainings develop in the future. by well-designed and implemented evaluation plans. Consistent yearly evaluation data and report-writing can help create institutional history B. Application of Evaluation Data within the organization and prevent new staff Even if a program has dutifully collected evalua- members from “reinventing the wheel” each time tion data at all of the above stages and analyzed a new training is planned. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 24
  25. 25. Human Rights Training for Adults - Evaluation C. Recommendations for Meeting • Evaluations at the conclusion of the training Challenges of Evaluation Stage are more in-depth and utilize more methods than the pre- or mid-training evaluations. From the above analysis and recommendations in The best evaluation plans have a mixture of the evaluation reports, the following best prac- written (survey) data and oral interviews (with tices are suggested for training evaluation: both individuals and groups). In addition, a comprehensive evaluation tests the success C.1. Design of the programs’ short and long-term objec- • Evaluation should not be an afterthought. If tives by contacting participants at various possible, the following multi-stage mecha- intervals after the program is complete, and nisms should be built into the program from can be an important starting point for a more the beginning. Evaluation questions should in-depth longitudinal study. be crafted to test the success of the specific stated goals of the program. • These types of studies seek to ascertain the long-term impact of human rights training • Pre-training assessments of participants will programs on participants and the communi- provide baseline data that is valuable for ties in which they live. Overall, the field of evaluation purposes. They can take the form human rights training does not have good of simple surveys or more lengthy interviews. longitudinal evaluation data. Therefore, every These assessments are also learning tools for program should explore how it might be able participants who can gauge their own prog- to add to the field by supporting a longitudi- ress through the course. This data can be nal study. compared to results from a similar question- naire administered at the conclusion of the C.2. Application of Evaluation Data training program. • Evaluation results should be connected back to the program’s stated goals, specific topics, • Mid-training evaluations are especially im- methodology, timing, and overall structure. portant for more lengthy programs (longer Information learned from each evaluation than one day) and can be informal (verbal) impacts how the next training is conducted. or formal (written). In addition to providing valuable information that trainers and plan- • Evaluation information should be written ners immediately utilize, these types of evalu- up in a formal report that is distributed to ations are valuable learning tools. If crafted funders, partners, and potential trainers well, they create a feedback loop whereby and participants. These reports will form an participants can become invested in the import basis of institutional memory for pro- learning process. grams that can experience high staff turnover. These reports prevent new staff from “rein- venting the wheel” or repeating old mistakes. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 25
  26. 26. VI. Conclusion Human rights education is a difficult field to precisely define or analyze. Nancy Flowers, a pre-eminent human rights educator, concluded that “a definition is elusive because today such a variety and quantity of activity is taking place in the name of human rights education.”58 As the list of programs studied for this report in- Three areas in particular stand out as needing the dicates, even when narrowing the field to human most improvement across-the-board: rights trainings of adults, there remains a large • Programs need to more consistently deliver diversity of programs persists. the adult education methodologies that they It is clear from the range of programs an- all agree are essential to effective human alyzed for this report that human rights trainings rights training. do in fact represent the creativity and fluidity in program design and implementation that Flowers • Programs need to emphasize comprehensive describes. The recent development of online and mechanisms to follow-up with participants distance learning methods supports this perspec- after the formal training program is complete. tive. However, it is also clear from the evaluations that strong similarities do exist between these • The field as a whole lacks solid longitudinal programs, even when many of their internal and evaluation data of the long-term impact of hu- external factors are significantly different. Explor- man rights trainings on participants. There- ing these similarities has been the basis for this fore, programs should explore how they might report. support more comprehensive research and As this report has elaborated, human documentation of their work. rights training programs face many similar challenges. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 26
  27. 27. Human Rights Training for Adults - Conclusion At the end of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) and the beginning of the permanent World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing), training in human rights continues to be empha- sized as essential to most development programs, from projects that seek to strengthen democracy and civil society to those designed to empower individuals and groups whose rights have histori- cally been violated. Incorporating the best prac- tices of program design, implementation, follow- up, and evaluation suggested in this report can both maximize the impact of these programs and ensure that human rights training continues to be emphasized on a global scale into the future. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 27
  28. 28. Endnotes 6 Carl-Johan Groth et al, “Human Rights Training in Vietnam,” Sida Evaluation 01/16, Septem- ber 2001, p. 1. Available online: http://www. pdf&a=2191. Simia Ahmadi-Thoolen and Siseraw Dinku, “Raoul Wallenberg Institute’s Educa- tional Programmes in Human Rights in Ethiopia 1998-2001,” March 2002, p. 18. Available On- line: pia.pdf. Lage Bergstrom et al, “Raoul Wallenberg Institute’s Human Rights Awareness-Raising 1 Programme in Uganda,” February 1999, p. 25. The author would like to thank the following indi- Available online: viduals for their guidance, inspiration and excel- tions/uganda.pdf. lent editorial advice for this report: Frank Elbers, Felisa Tibbitts, Kevin Chin, and Stephanie Teleki. 7 She is also grateful to Ana María Rodino (Instituto “Capacity Building by Human Rights Organiza- Interamericano de Derechos Humanos), Melissa tions: Challenges and Strategies, A Report of a Fernandez-Troussier (International Service for Roundtable co-hosted by the Center for the Study Human Rights) and Firoze Manji (Fahamu) for of Human Rights at Columbia University and the making evaluation reports available. Banyan Tree Foundation”, September 2002, p. 15. Available online: 2 cu/humanrights/publications/capacity/capac- Claudia Lohrenscheit, Draft article, forthcoming ity_main.htm. in Winter 2005/6 issue of European Journal for Social Science Education, p. 1. 8 Marcia Bernbaum, “Weaving Ties of Friendship, 3 Trust, and Commitment to Build Democracy and Ibid., p.2. Human Rights in Peru,” February 1999, p. ix-x. Available online: 4 brary/research/IPEDEHP/study_english/. Abraham Magendzo, “Pedagogy of Human Rights Education: A Latin American Perspective,” Inter- 9 cultural Education (May 2005), Vol. 16, No. 2. p. Ibid, p. 15-16. 1-3. 10 5 Bård Anders Andreassen, Gerd Oberleitner with “An Evaluation of Human Rights Training for the assistance of Tonio Ellul and Zuberi Farhana Student Police Officers in the Police Service “Final Report: Evaluation Human Rights Mas- of Northern Ireland,” Northern Ireland Human ters Programmes. Evaluation of the African LLM Rights Commission, November 2002, p. based at the Human Rights Centre, 20. Available online: University of Pretoria, and the Mediterranean data/NIHRC/attachments/dd/files/42/psni_train- Master on Human Rights based at the Univer- ing.doc. sity of Malta” MEDE European Consultancy in partnership with Netherlands Humanist Commit- Research in Human Rights Education Papers 28
  29. 29. Footnotes - Human Rights Training for Adults tee on Human Rights and The Danish Institute 19 for Human Rights, November 9, 2003, p. 40. “Croatia NGO Development Program: Final Available online: Report,” Academy for Educational Development, europeaid/projects/eidhr/pdf/evaluations-hr- September 2001, p. 18. Available online: http:// masters_en.pdf. 11 20 Stephen J. Toope, “Evaluation of CIDA’s Human Women’s Learning Partnership for Rights, De- Rights Program Mechanisms in Sri Lanka,” May velopment, and Peace, “WLP Implements Dis- 1995, p. 10. tance Learning Course on Participatory Leader- ship Skills Development,” 2003, p. 2. Available 12 online: “Capacity Building by Human Rights Organiza- docs/03engpilotcourse.pdf. tions,” p. 8. 21 13 Richard Shilamba, “Report of Human Rights Felisa Tibbitts, “Transformative Learning and Training to the Ward Executive Officers of Human Rights Education: Taking a Closer Look,” Bunda,” Legal and Human Rights Centre, 2001, Intercultural Education, May 2005, Vol. 16, No. 2, p. 2. Available online: http://www.humanrightstz. p. 111. Available online: org/humanrights/report_2.htm. bitts0605.html. 22 14 “The Fifth South Asian Orientation Course in Nuket Kardam, “Evaluation Report: Women’s Hu- Human Rights and Peace Studies: Report, Ret- man Rights Training Program 1995-2003,” 2003, rospection and Recommendations,” South Asia p. 26-28. Available online: Forum for Human Rights, 2004, p. 15. Available images/evaluation_report.pdf. online: ies%20report5.pdf. 15 Groth et al, “Human Rights Training in Vietnam,” 23 p. 7-10. “IPP Technical Evaluation Report,” America’s Development Foundation and Moscow Research 16 Center for Human Rights, December 26, 1996. “International Human Rights Training Program Available online: 2004: Evaluation Report,” Canadian Human PDABP164.pdf. Rights Foundation, November 2004, p. 7. Avail- able online: 24 grams/downloads/ihrtp-archives/25th-Evalua- “Croatia NGO Development Program: Final Re- tion-Report.pdf. port,” p. 17. 17 25 “Capacity Building by Human Rights Organiza- Birgitta Berggren and Patrik Jotun, “Democ- tions: Challenges and Strategies,” p. 6. racy and Human Rights: An evaluation of Sida’s support of five projects in Georgia,” 2001, p. 18 20-21. Available online: “An Evaluation of Human Rights Training for dataoecd/57/12/35197202.pdf. Student Police Officers in the Police Service of Northern Ireland,” p. 14. Research in Human Rights Education Papers 29