Ms. Susan M. Pojer & Mrs. Lisbeth               RathHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Border problems
Jawarlal Nehru Ally of Gandhi. 1st Prime Minister  of India,  1947-1964. Advocated  Industrialization. Promoted “Green...
Non-Alignment Movement
India’s “mixed economy” The “mix” refers to private and  public ownership. Foreign aid and foreign investment  are cruci...
India’s “Green Revolution”              Introducing higher-               yielding varieties of               seeds in 19...
Indira     Gandhi Nehru’s daughter. Prime Minister of  India, 1966-1984. Continues Nehru’s  policies. Faced corruption...
India’s persecultion ofthe Sikhs
Mrs. Gandhiassassinated!
Rajiv Gandhi Indira’s son. Prime Minister of  India, 1984-1989. Some reform of  economy and  government. Also faced re...
A foreigner joins the           family Italian-born  Sonia Maino  married Rajiv  1968. She moved  into the house  of mot...
Mrs. Sonia Maino Gandhi             1983  Indian              citizen.             1984  first lady              when ...
 1991  Tragedy struck the Gandhi  family again when Rajiv was killed by  a suicide bomber.
 Sonia Gandhi  remains Roman  Catholic, but  follows Hindu  and Indian  traditions. With her  children, she  scattered  ...
 After Rajivs death Sonia shied away from  the spotlight. In 1998, she agreed to start  her own career as a “Gandhi” agai...
 Sonias son Rahul and daughter Priyanka  have also become politically active.
“The Jewel turns down thecrown! ” When her party won in the recent elections, she was asked to be Prime Minister. She de...
Manmohan Singh May 2004  he  held up a letter  from Indias  president  authorizing him to  form a new  government as  pr...
May 2004India Swears in 13th Prime Minister    and the first Sikh in the job.
Major problems & Issues     in india today Overpopulation  1 billion & climbing. Economic development. Hindu-Muslim te...
Greater tamil nadu
Tamil Separatism:The “tamil tigers”
Is the dream gone?
pakistan Led briefly by  Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Prime Minister Ayub  Khan. Dangerous combination    Was not prepared    ...
Benazir Bhutto First Woman Prime  Minister, 1988    Ousted in 1990,     1993 on corruption     charges. Nawaz Sharif   ...
Gen. Pervex Musharaff  Coup d’etat.  Secular government against Islamic   fundamentalists.  U.S. ally in the “War on Te...
Major problems & Issues   in Pakistan today  Economic development.  Political instability/military   dictatorship.  Hin...
India-Pakistan Border Disputes
1971 India-Pakistan War
Mrs. Gandhi with her troops
2002 Military Statistics
Kashmir Crisis
Indian Soldiers Patrol the India-Pakistan  Border in Pura, the Winter Capital of the State of Jammu & Kashmir - 1998
Indian Soldiers Near thePakistani Border - 2001
A Pakistani Ranger at the Indian-Pakistani Joint Border Check Post     in Wagha, India - 2001
Anti-war Protestors in Karachi,       Pakistan - 2001
Kashmiri Militants - 2003
What title would you give this     political cartoon?
The India-Pakistan Arms Race Heats Up in the Late 1990s
2002 Nuclear  Statistics
India’s Prithvi Missiles First       Tested in 1988
Supporters of former Indian PrimeMinister Atal Bihari Vajpayee chantnationalist slogans in support for his        nuclear ...
Former Indian Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, displays a sword given to himby Sikh youths in New Delhi to honor himf...
Right-wing Pakistani Activists Burn Indian Flag to ProtestIndian Nuclear Tests - 1998
Hot Air Balloon Protesting India &Pakistan’s nuclear testing - 1998
India Displays Nuclear MissilesDuring “Republic Day,” - 2002
India Successfully Tested  Agni Missiles - 2002
Musharraf and Vajpayee at ameeting on nuclear issues in Nepal             in 2002
Is this a possibility?
Indias Prime  Minister ManMohan    Singh               Pakistans               President           Pervez Musharraf
New Friends?Musharraf and Indias new PrimeMinister Manmohan Singh speakby telephone frequently affirminga strong desire fo...
Partners in the “War on       Terror?”
US Sells F-16 Jets toPakistan—India Not Pleased!                       (3/25/05)ManMohan Singh ofIndia with President    B...
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Harace Greeley HS, NY

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  • Nehru met Gandhi in 1916 at the annual Indian National Congress convention. He participated in the nonviolent civil disobedience campaign and spent time in jail along with Gandhi. At independence, Nehru became the nation ’s first prime minister and was continually reelected until his death in 1964. Nehru pushed modernization of the country, and industrialization of its economy.
  • India has had a "mixed economy" in which both private business and government invest in and direct the economy. Today, India has been moving away from state ownership and subsidies to business. India's government has established five-year plans to set economic goals. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s made great headway, but faltered due to most farmers' lack of money to buy hybrid seeds, fertilizers, and equipment. Imports still needed.
  • India has had a "mixed economy" in which both private business and government invest in and direct the economy. Today, India has been moving away from state ownership and subsidies to business. India's government has established five-year plans to set economic goals. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s made great headway, but faltered due to most farmers' lack of money to buy hybrid seeds, fertilizers, and equipment. Imports still needed.
  • Indira Gandhi was Nehru ’s daughter. She married a man named Gandhi who was no relation to the Mahatma. Indira continued industrialization, begun by her father. In 1975 Gandhi was convicted on two counts of corruption in the 1971 campaign. While appealing the decision, she declared a state of emergency, imprisoned her political opponents, and assumed emergency powers. Governing by decree, she imposed total press censorship and implemented a policy of large-scale sterilization as a form of birth control. When long-postponed national elections were held in 1977, Gandhi and her party were soundly defeated. Although very popular at the polls, she faced a great challenge in dealing with nationalist movements among minority groups, especially the Sikhs in Punjab state. The Sikhs sought independence of Punjab, and when they used terrorism, Indira struck back. The Golden Temple -- an extremely holy Sikh shrine at Amritsar was being used by the terrorists as a weapons storehouse and a sanctuary. Indira ordered a military raid on the temple in which hundreds of Sikhs were brutally killed. In the process, the temple was badly damaged. In retaliation, just a few months later on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguards.
  • Indira Gandhi was Nehru ’s daughter. She married a man named Gandhi who was no relation to the Mahatma. Indira continued industrialization, begun by her father. In 1975 Gandhi was convicted on two counts of corruption in the 1971 campaign. While appealing the decision, she declared a state of emergency, imprisoned her political opponents, and assumed emergency powers. Governing by decree, she imposed total press censorship and implemented a policy of large-scale sterilization as a form of birth control. When long-postponed national elections were held in 1977, Gandhi and her party were soundly defeated. Although very popular at the polls, she faced a great challenge in dealing with nationalist movements among minority groups, especially the Sikhs in Punjab state. The Sikhs sought independence of Punjab, and when they used terrorism, Indira struck back. The Golden Temple -- an extremely holy Sikh shrine at Amritsar was being used by the terrorists as a weapons storehouse and a sanctuary. Indira ordered a military raid on the temple in which hundreds of Sikhs were brutally killed. In the process, the temple was badly damaged. In retaliation, just a few months later on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguards.
  • Indira Gandhi was Nehru ’s daughter. She married a man named Gandhi who was no relation to the Mahatma. Indira continued industrialization, begun by her father. In 1975 Gandhi was convicted on two counts of corruption in the 1971 campaign. While appealing the decision, she declared a state of emergency, imprisoned her political opponents, and assumed emergency powers. Governing by decree, she imposed total press censorship and implemented a policy of large-scale sterilization as a form of birth control. When long-postponed national elections were held in 1977, Gandhi and her party were soundly defeated. Although very popular at the polls, she faced a great challenge in dealing with nationalist movements among minority groups, especially the Sikhs in Punjab state. The Sikhs sought independence of Punjab, and when they used terrorism, Indira struck back. The Golden Temple -- an extremely holy Sikh shrine at Amritsar was being used by the terrorists as a weapons storehouse and a sanctuary. Indira ordered a military raid on the temple in which hundreds of Sikhs were brutally killed. In the process, the temple was badly damaged. In retaliation, just a few months later on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguards.
  • . General elections in November 1989 brought the defeat of Rajiv Gandhi. Officials in his government were accused of taking kickbacks from the Bofors Company of Sweden in a purchase of guns for the army. Vishwanath Pratap Singh, leader of the Janata Dal party, was sworn in as prime minister on Dec. 2, 1989. In March 1990 India withdrew the last of its 50,000 troops from Sri Lanka. The peacekeeping force failed in its three-year effort to reconcile the Tamils with the majority Sinhalese. Campaigning to return to office, Gandhi was killed by a bomb blast on May 21, 1991.
  • The population of India is just over 1 billion people. It is believed that India ’s population will surpass that of China by 2020. No success with family planning, birth control/abortion. Necessity of large families in agrarian subsistence lifestyle. India's economy is uneven at best: many Indians lead a subsistence lifestyle, while a sizeable middle class and a small upper class live in the cities. The situation in Kashmir is quite dangerous. Ongoing hostilities continue, and both sides continue a low-level crossfire across the border of this divided region. Three wars have been fought over Kashmir: 1948, 1965, and 1971. The 1972 partition did not settle the issue. Because both sides, India and Pakistan, have nuclear weapons, some fear that the potential for large-scale war could lead to the use of these nuclear weapons. In the summer of 2002, India and Pakistan came within a hair ’s breadth of war.
  • Khan stressed modernization. His following in West Pakistan held liberal views of Islamic law, leading to dissent within W. Pakistan, and especially in East Pakistan. After Khan left office in 1969, East Pakistan refused to pay taxes to West Pakistan. West Pakistan sent in troops, sparking civil war. Thousands killed, millions escaped to India. India entered the war, helped Bangladesh declare its independence in 1972.
  • The population of India is just over 1 billion people. It is believed that India ’s population will surpass that of China by 2020. No success with family planning, birth control/abortion. Necessity of large families in agrarian subsistence lifestyle. India's economy is uneven at best: many Indians lead a subsistence lifestyle, while a sizeable middle class and a small upper class live in the cities. The situation in Kashmir is quite dangerous. Ongoing hostilities continue, and both sides continue a low-level crossfire across the border of this divided region. Three wars have been fought over Kashmir: 1948, 1965, and 1971. The 1972 partition did not settle the issue. Because both sides, India and Pakistan, have nuclear weapons, some fear that the potential for large-scale war could lead to the use of these nuclear weapons. In the summer of 2002, India and Pakistan came within a hair ’s breadth of war.
  • Review.id.pp

    1. 1. Ms. Susan M. Pojer & Mrs. Lisbeth RathHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
    2. 2. Border problems
    3. 3. Jawarlal Nehru Ally of Gandhi. 1st Prime Minister of India, 1947-1964. Advocated Industrialization. Promoted “Green Revolution”. Mixed Economy. Nonaligned Movement.
    4. 4. Non-Alignment Movement
    5. 5. India’s “mixed economy” The “mix” refers to private and public ownership. Foreign aid and foreign investment are crucial. Urban areas have high-tech companies. Three quarters of the population are farmers living in small villages. Indias "Green Revolution" allowed farmers to triple their crop by using
    6. 6. India’s “Green Revolution”  Introducing higher- yielding varieties of seeds in 1965.  Increased use of fertilizers & irrigation.  GOAL  make India self- sufficient in food grains.
    7. 7. Indira Gandhi Nehru’s daughter. Prime Minister of India, 1966-1984. Continues Nehru’s policies. Faced corruption charges & internal rebellion. Assassinated in 1984.
    8. 8. India’s persecultion ofthe Sikhs
    9. 9. Mrs. Gandhiassassinated!
    10. 10. Rajiv Gandhi Indira’s son. Prime Minister of India, 1984-1989. Some reform of economy and government. Also faced rebellion. Assassinated in 1991 while campaigning.
    11. 11. A foreigner joins the family Italian-born Sonia Maino married Rajiv 1968. She moved into the house of mother-in- law, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
    12. 12. Mrs. Sonia Maino Gandhi  1983  Indian citizen.  1984  first lady when her husband, Rajiv Gandhi, succeeded his assassinated mother as Prime Minister.
    13. 13.  1991  Tragedy struck the Gandhi family again when Rajiv was killed by a suicide bomber.
    14. 14.  Sonia Gandhi remains Roman Catholic, but follows Hindu and Indian traditions. With her children, she scattered Rajivs ashes in the Ganges.
    15. 15.  After Rajivs death Sonia shied away from the spotlight. In 1998, she agreed to start her own career as a “Gandhi” again and became an important political leader.
    16. 16.  Sonias son Rahul and daughter Priyanka have also become politically active.
    17. 17. “The Jewel turns down thecrown! ” When her party won in the recent elections, she was asked to be Prime Minister. She decided not to accept the position.
    18. 18. Manmohan Singh May 2004  he held up a letter from Indias president authorizing him to form a new government as prime minister. He stood next to Sonia Gandhi, the candidate for the post who stunned the country when she declined the office.
    19. 19. May 2004India Swears in 13th Prime Minister and the first Sikh in the job.
    20. 20. Major problems & Issues in india today Overpopulation  1 billion & climbing. Economic development. Hindu-Muslim tensions. Gender issues  dowry killings. Caste bias  discrimination against untouchables continues. The Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons. Political assassinations.
    21. 21. Greater tamil nadu
    22. 22. Tamil Separatism:The “tamil tigers”
    23. 23. Is the dream gone?
    24. 24. pakistan Led briefly by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Prime Minister Ayub Khan. Dangerous combination  Was not prepared to rule in 1948.  Strong Islamic fundamentalism.  Impoverished. Pakistan divides in 1972  W. Pakistan = Pakistan  E. Pakistan = Bangladesh
    25. 25. Benazir Bhutto First Woman Prime Minister, 1988  Ousted in 1990, 1993 on corruption charges. Nawaz Sharif  Ousted three times.  Struggle between modernizers and fundamentalists.
    26. 26. Gen. Pervex Musharaff  Coup d’etat.  Secular government against Islamic fundamentalists.  U.S. ally in the “War on Terror.”
    27. 27. Major problems & Issues in Pakistan today  Economic development.  Political instability/military dictatorship.  Hindu-Muslim tensions.  Gender issues  honor killings.  Terrorism.  The Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons.
    28. 28. India-Pakistan Border Disputes
    29. 29. 1971 India-Pakistan War
    30. 30. Mrs. Gandhi with her troops
    31. 31. 2002 Military Statistics
    32. 32. Kashmir Crisis
    33. 33. Indian Soldiers Patrol the India-Pakistan Border in Pura, the Winter Capital of the State of Jammu & Kashmir - 1998
    34. 34. Indian Soldiers Near thePakistani Border - 2001
    35. 35. A Pakistani Ranger at the Indian-Pakistani Joint Border Check Post in Wagha, India - 2001
    36. 36. Anti-war Protestors in Karachi, Pakistan - 2001
    37. 37. Kashmiri Militants - 2003
    38. 38. What title would you give this political cartoon?
    39. 39. The India-Pakistan Arms Race Heats Up in the Late 1990s
    40. 40. 2002 Nuclear Statistics
    41. 41. India’s Prithvi Missiles First Tested in 1988
    42. 42. Supporters of former Indian PrimeMinister Atal Bihari Vajpayee chantnationalist slogans in support for his nuclear policy - 1998
    43. 43. Former Indian Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, displays a sword given to himby Sikh youths in New Delhi to honor himfor making India a nuclear power - 1998
    44. 44. Right-wing Pakistani Activists Burn Indian Flag to ProtestIndian Nuclear Tests - 1998
    45. 45. Hot Air Balloon Protesting India &Pakistan’s nuclear testing - 1998
    46. 46. India Displays Nuclear MissilesDuring “Republic Day,” - 2002
    47. 47. India Successfully Tested Agni Missiles - 2002
    48. 48. Musharraf and Vajpayee at ameeting on nuclear issues in Nepal in 2002
    49. 49. Is this a possibility?
    50. 50. Indias Prime Minister ManMohan Singh Pakistans President Pervez Musharraf
    51. 51. New Friends?Musharraf and Indias new PrimeMinister Manmohan Singh speakby telephone frequently affirminga strong desire for peace andresolution of their disputes,including Kashmir, on which thetwo countries have fought two oftheir three wars.
    52. 52. Partners in the “War on Terror?”
    53. 53. US Sells F-16 Jets toPakistan—India Not Pleased! (3/25/05)ManMohan Singh ofIndia with President Bush (9/04)

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