4. reconstruction era


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4. reconstruction era

  1. 1. Reconstruction Era (1867-1877)Reconstruction: refers to the period following the Civil War when the southern states were rebuilt and new political gains emerged for African Americans.
  2. 2. Problems following the Civil WarNorthern States Southern States  Lost largest number of  Cities in ruins soldiers  Money worthless  Factories closed  Bitter feeling  Government canceled  Bridges and Railroad work orders destroyed  Returning soldiers needed  Farmland was burned jobs  Lost political influence
  3. 3. Ruins in Richmond Ruins of Haxalls Flour Mill in Richmond, Virginia. When Unionforces entered the Confederate capital on April 3, 1865, they found much of the city destroyed by fire.
  4. 4. Savannah house destroyed by Union soldiers
  5. 5. Plans for ReconstructionThree plans had emerged at the conclusion of the Civil War to help rebuild the southern states:Lincoln’s Plan  (Ten Percent)Johnson’s PlanRadical Republicans  (Congressional Reconstruction Act of 1867)
  6. 6. Lincoln’s Ten Percent PlanGoal:  achieve a complete and unified Union  peaceful nation instead of a fighting oneMain Ideas:  (1) all southerners, except high-ranking Confederate political and military officials, would be pardoned and regain citizenship when they took an oath to support the Constitution and the emancipation of slaves  (2) when ten percent of the voters in a state took this oath they could establish a legal government that would be recognized by the President * Wanted to take it easy on southern states * Battled with Congress
  7. 7. Assassination of President Abraham LincolnLincoln would never see his plan take action:  On the evening of April 14, 1865, while attending a special performance of the comedy, "Our American Cousin,“ at Ford’s Theater, President Abraham Lincoln was shot  The assassin, John Wilkes Booth, a disgruntled actor
  8. 8. Johnson’s PlanVice President Andrew Johnson became President following Abraham Lincoln’s assassinationAgreed with Lincoln’s Plan, however Johnson’s Plan was stricterIdeas:  Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty of oath to uphold the Constitution  No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials  A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted  A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted.
  9. 9. Impeachment of President Andrew JohnsonCongress wanted harsher terms for ReconstructionPresident Andrew Johnson disagreed with congressional views on ReconstructionCongress determined that President Andrew Johnson had violated the recent Tenure of Office Act and prompted the Republican-controlled House to impeach the presidentThe Senate fell short of their impeachment process by one vote, however Johnson’s political influence was gone
  10. 10. Radical RepublicansCongressional Military Reconstruction Act of 1867Ideas:  Organized the south into five military districts  The states had to have a military leader from the north  No state could return to civilian rule and be readmitted to the Union until white and black voters framed a constitution that guaranteed suffrage to African Americans and ratified the Fourteenth Amendment.  Act banned confederate leaders from voting, and any who didnt pledge their allegiance to the U.S.
  11. 11. Five Military Districts
  12. 12. JIM CROW LAWSAny law passed with the intention of keeping Blacks and Whites segregated1830- first law passed in Massachusetts which allowed railroad companies to segregate train cars
  13. 13. Jim Crow LawsPoll Tax – Must pay to vote.Literacy Test – Must pass a test to vote.Grandfather Clause – If your grandfather could not vote then you can not.
  14. 14. Plessy v FergusonSupreme Court ruled that segregation was legal in the United States“separate-but- equal”
  15. 15. Booker T WashingtonBorn as a slave in 1856studied at Hampton University 1872Founded Tuskegee Institute in 1881
  16. 16. W.E.B.DuBoisFirst African American to earn PhD from HarvardFounded Niagara Movement
  17. 17. National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleN.A.A.C.P.Fought for the rights of African Americans