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  1. 1. The 1920’sThe 1920’sA Time of ChangeA Time of Change
  2. 2. Calvin CoolidgeCalvin Coolidge Vice President under HardingVice President under Harding President in 1923 after Harding diesPresident in 1923 after Harding dies Reelected in 1924Reelected in 1924 Changes back to a Laissez-faireChanges back to a Laissez-faireapproach to economyapproach to economy Return to IsolationReturn to Isolation
  3. 3. Political ScandalPolitical Scandal The Teapot Dome Scandal 1924The Teapot Dome Scandal 1924 Secretary of Interior indicted for briberySecretary of Interior indicted for bribery Gave leases to government oil to companiesGave leases to government oil to companiesfor moneyfor money Oil reserves in Teapot Dome, WyomingOil reserves in Teapot Dome, Wyoming
  4. 4. RecessionRecession Economy suffersEconomy suffers Caused by shift from wartime toCaused by shift from wartime topeacetime economiespeacetime economies– No longer producing for warNo longer producing for war Production, farm income, exportsProduction, farm income, exportsdeclinedecline Unemployment increases (12% inUnemployment increases (12% in1921)1921)
  5. 5. RecoveryRecovery Coolidge ProsperityCoolidge Prosperity– Gross National Product up 40% by 1923Gross National Product up 40% by 1923– Standard of living increasesStandard of living increases
  6. 6. Pro-Business PoliciesPro-Business Policies Decreased corporate income taxesDecreased corporate income taxes Decreased national debtDecreased national debt Raised tariffsRaised tariffs Demanded repayment of war debtsDemanded repayment of war debts
  7. 7. LaborLabor During war, strikes decreaseDuring war, strikes decrease Post-war strikes failPost-war strikes fail– Troops and court orders used to endTroops and court orders used to endstrikesstrikes Union membership decreasesUnion membership decreases Supreme Court rules against childSupreme Court rules against childlabor lawslabor laws
  8. 8. FarmingFarming Policies favor large commercial farmsPolicies favor large commercial farms Small farms sufferSmall farms suffer– Production increased during warProduction increased during war– After war they are producing too muchAfter war they are producing too much Prices dropPrices drop
  9. 9. The Stock MarketThe Stock Market Investments increaseInvestments increase Buying “on margin”Buying “on margin”– Small down payments in cashSmall down payments in cash– Borrow the restBorrow the rest– People could pay off the loans as long asPeople could pay off the loans as long asstocks did wellstocks did well
  10. 10. Mass ConsumptionMass Consumption New TechnologyNew Technology– AutomobilesAutomobiles– Mass production, assembly lineMass production, assembly line Lower pricesLower prices Cultural HomogenizationCultural Homogenization– Everyone can buy the same productsEveryone can buy the same products Brand namesBrand names
  11. 11. MORE THAN JUST AMORE THAN JUST ACARCAR Nations biggest manufacturing industryNations biggest manufacturing industry Businesses to service cars and travel growBusinesses to service cars and travel grow– garages, car dealerships, motels,garages, car dealerships, motels,campgrounds, gas stations, restaurantscampgrounds, gas stations, restaurants 3.7 million people employed directly or3.7 million people employed directly orindirectly by industry in 1929indirectly by industry in 1929 $2 billion to build roads$2 billion to build roads Growth of suburbsGrowth of suburbs
  12. 12. New ValuesNew Values Emphasis on wealth, possessions, funEmphasis on wealth, possessions, fun LeisureLeisure– Movies, sports, gamesMovies, sports, games– FlappersFlappers Young womenYoung women Drank, smokedDrank, smoked More in movies than real lifeMore in movies than real life
  13. 13. Growth of ElectricityGrowth of Electricity New ways to shopNew ways to shop– Kansas City first shopping mall 1923Kansas City first shopping mall 1923 Growth of electricityGrowth of electricity– 1913 16% people with electric lights1913 16% people with electric lights– 1927 63% people with electric lights1927 63% people with electric lights– only 4% farms with electricityonly 4% farms with electricity
  14. 14. Unified AmericaUnified America Until 1920’s America divided intoUntil 1920’s America divided intoregional economies and culturesregional economies and cultures Growth ofGrowth of Mass MediaMass Media creates acreates amore connected Americamore connected America– RadioRadio– MoviesMovies
  15. 15. ProhibitionProhibition Illegal to buy, sell, or consume alcoholIllegal to buy, sell, or consume alcohol 1818ththAmendment in 1919Amendment in 1919 Hard to enforceHard to enforce– Bootlegging- illegally making and sellingBootlegging- illegally making and sellingalcoholalcohol Ended in 1933Ended in 1933
  16. 16. Red ScareRed Scare Fear of spread of communism afterFear of spread of communism afterRussian RevolutionRussian Revolution Leads to race riots, bombings, policeLeads to race riots, bombings, policeraids, and deportationsraids, and deportations
  17. 17. Sacco and VanzettiSacco and Vanzetti Italian immigrants Nicola Sacco andItalian immigrants Nicola Sacco andBartolomeo Vanzetti convicted ofBartolomeo Vanzetti convicted ofmurdermurder– Little evidence against themLittle evidence against them– Both anarchistsBoth anarchists– executedexecuted
  18. 18. Ku Klux KlanKu Klux Klan Reorganized due to anti-foreignReorganized due to anti-foreignattitudesattitudes Targeted African Americans,Targeted African Americans,Catholics, Jews, and immigrantsCatholics, Jews, and immigrants
  19. 19. ImmigrationImmigration Immigration Act of 1924Immigration Act of 1924– Established quotas- limited number ofEstablished quotas- limited number ofallowed immigrantsallowed immigrants– Kept out immigrants from Eastern andKept out immigrants from Eastern andSouthern Europe and AsiaSouthern Europe and Asia
  20. 20. Women’s RolesWomen’s Roles More women workingMore women working 1920’s Women’s Bureau1920’s Women’s Bureau– Part of Department of LaborPart of Department of Labor– Improved working conditionsImproved working conditions 1919ththAmendmentAmendment– Women get right to voteWomen get right to vote
  21. 21. Harlem RenaissanceHarlem Renaissance African American movement basedAfrican American movement basedout of Harlem, NYCout of Harlem, NYC Called for action against bigotryCalled for action against bigotry Pride in African American culturePride in African American culture WritersWriters– W.E.B. Du Bois, Langston HughesW.E.B. Du Bois, Langston Hughes Artists, musiciansArtists, musicians– jazzjazz
  22. 22. Great MigrationGreat Migration Starting in World War One AfricanStarting in World War One AfricanAmericans began moving fromAmericans began moving fromSouth to NorthSouth to North 1914 14,000 African Americans in1914 14,000 African Americans inNYCNYC 1930 200,000 African Americans in1930 200,000 African Americans inNYCNYC
  23. 23. Jazz AgeJazz Age Combination of Ragtime and Blues =Combination of Ragtime and Blues =JazzJazz Began in New OrleansBegan in New Orleans Grew to dominate radioGrew to dominate radio 500 Jazz Clubs in Harlem500 Jazz Clubs in Harlem