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The Death of Lenin

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The Death of Lenin

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The Death of Lenin

  1. 1. The Death of Lenin
  2. 2. The Future of Communism • It is crucial to evaluate the final years of Lenin’s life from 1922 to 1924 as true priorities are often revealed in the throes of a person life. • The crucial issue in Lenin’s mind was the future leadership and direction of communism. • It is crucial to evaluate the final years of Lenin’s life from 1922 to 1924 as true priorities are often revealed in the throes of a person life. • The crucial issue in Lenin’s mind was the future leadership and direction of communism.
  3. 3. The Future of Communism • Tenth party conference in March 1921 Lenin had called for unity, however, he now enforced compliance – the purge within the leadership had begun! • Process was known as ‘eliminating the radishes’ • Cheka were given unquestioned authority now and by end 1922 – a quarter of party members were expelled. • The party would now only be governed by stern, disciplined, devoted and organised bureaucrats. • Political shift allowed the likes of Stalin to become entrenched in the functioning of the party, especially after he became General Secretary in April 1922. • Tenth party conference in March 1921 Lenin had called for unity, however, he now enforced compliance – the purge within the leadership had begun! • Process was known as ‘eliminating the radishes’ • Cheka were given unquestioned authority now and by end 1922 – a quarter of party members were expelled. • The party would now only be governed by stern, disciplined, devoted and organised bureaucrats. • Political shift allowed the likes of Stalin to become entrenched in the functioning of the party, especially after he became General Secretary in April 1922.
  4. 4. The Future of Communism Dec 1922 dictated his Political Will – not openly published – summarised Lenin’s reflections of key leaders of the party and recommendations with regards to their appropriateness to succeed him. Dec 1922 dictated his Political Will – not openly published – summarised Lenin’s reflections of key leaders of the party and recommendations with regards to their appropriateness to succeed him. What did Lenin consider to be the biggest danger for the future of the communist part? Summarise Lenin’s comments about each Central Committee member listed below. What did Lenin consider to be the biggest danger for the future of the communist part? Summarise Lenin’s comments about each Central Committee member listed below.
  5. 5. Political Aftermath of 1921 1922: Formation of the USSR After Feb 1917, six provinces in former Russian Empire chose to become independent Soviet Republics – all six signed the Treaty of Union in 1922 which joined them as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Government now based itself out of Moscow and the USSR remained until 1991 1923: Bureaucratic Nature of the Party The once competent, combative and cultivated elite were replaced with ‘Yes- men’. The likes of Alexandra Kollantai were removed. 1924: Secret Police Cheka abolished in 1922 – replaced by the GPU (State Political Organisation). Felix Dzerzhinsky remained in charge 1922: Formation of the USSR After Feb 1917, six provinces in former Russian Empire chose to become independent Soviet Republics – all six signed the Treaty of Union in 1922 which joined them as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Government now based itself out of Moscow and the USSR remained until 1991 1923: Bureaucratic Nature of the Party The once competent, combative and cultivated elite were replaced with ‘Yes- men’. The likes of Alexandra Kollantai were removed. 1924: Secret Police Cheka abolished in 1922 – replaced by the GPU (State Political Organisation). Felix Dzerzhinsky remained in charge
  6. 6. The Nature of Lenin’s Illness • Lenin suffered two strokes in 1922. A third stroke in 1923 rendered him parlayed and unable to speak. • He was then rarely seen as confined to a wheelchair and was in a frail condition. • However, his brain remained active and became an avid writer. • Politiburo members like Stalin and Kamenev visited him regularly, but Trotsky rarely visited. • Lenin suffered two strokes in 1922. A third stroke in 1923 rendered him parlayed and unable to speak. • He was then rarely seen as confined to a wheelchair and was in a frail condition. • However, his brain remained active and became an avid writer. • Politiburo members like Stalin and Kamenev visited him regularly, but Trotsky rarely visited.
  7. 7. The Reasons for Lenin’s Illness There is great debate amongst doctors and historians as to what caused his illness. Lead Poisoning Theory: Derived from the bullets that has hit him in the 1918 assassination attempt. One bullet remained lodged in the back of his neck. Removal of Bullet Theory: Despite his good health after this assassination attempt by 1921 he had continual insomnia and headaches. April 1922 doctors removed the bullet lodged in his neck and could have damaged him in the process. There is great debate amongst doctors and historians as to what caused his illness. Lead Poisoning Theory: Derived from the bullets that has hit him in the 1918 assassination attempt. One bullet remained lodged in the back of his neck. Removal of Bullet Theory: Despite his good health after this assassination attempt by 1921 he had continual insomnia and headaches. April 1922 doctors removed the bullet lodged in his neck and could have damaged him in the process.
  8. 8. Lenin’s Death • Lenin Died in January 1924 aged 53. • Thousands lined the streets as his coffin was carried to Red Square in Moscow. • After he died he was embalmed, and a mausoleum was built to house his body. • Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. • Lenin Died in January 1924 aged 53. • Thousands lined the streets as his coffin was carried to Red Square in Moscow. • After he died he was embalmed, and a mausoleum was built to house his body. • Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. LENIN THE TYRANT OR LENIN THE SAINT? Using the ‘Final Interpretations’ sheet draw a table and choose 4 statements for Lenin and 4 statements against him. Put these statements in the left hand column and the find evidence to put in the right hand column. Two statements have been done for you. Review your notes to find supporting evidence. LENIN THE TYRANT OR LENIN THE SAINT? Using the ‘Final Interpretations’ sheet draw a table and choose 4 statements for Lenin and 4 statements against him. Put these statements in the left hand column and the find evidence to put in the right hand column. Two statements have been done for you. Review your notes to find supporting evidence.

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