Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Birmingham Campaign

1,806 views

Published on

The Birmingham Campaign

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The Birmingham Campaign

  1. 1. Why were the Birmingham and Washington marches so important? Learning Objectives: To evaluate the significance of the two marches in raising awareness of civil rights issues Key Terms, Events, Names: SCLC, Letter from Birmingham Jail, Civil Rights Act, Medgar Evers, Meredith Case
  2. 2. Birmingham March 1963 LO: To evaluate the significance of the two marches in raising awareness of civil rights issues • By 1962, little progress had been made on Civil Rights despite the Freedom Rides and Sit-ins. This changed in 1963. • Birmingham, Alabama was known as the most segregated city in the USA. To avoid desegregating its parks, playgrounds and other facilities, the city just closed them all down! • The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) sought to challenge this segregation in Birmingham and started to plan ‘Project C – Confrontation’.
  3. 3. Birmingham March 1963 LO: To evaluate the significance of the two marches in raising awareness of civil rights issues • MLK hoped to mobilise the 150,000 black citizens of Birmingham to protest using the tactics of sit-ins and marches. • Demonstrations began on 3rd April 1963, on 6th some were arrested. Police Chief Eugene ‘Bull’ Connor closed all public parks in response. • King then addressed the marchers saying, ‘…it was better to go to jail in dignity rather than just accept segregation.’
  4. 4. Birmingham March 1963 LO: To evaluate the significance of the two marches in raising awareness of civil rights issues • King was arrested on 12th April and jailed for defying a ban on marches. In jail he wrote his famous ‘Letter from Birmingham Jail’. • He was released on 20th April and he decided to continue the marches, this time using children and students. Why do you think the SCLC decided to risk using students and children during the march?
  5. 5. Birmingham Letters LO: To evaluate the significance of the two marches in raising awareness of civil rights issues Background Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested on April 12, 1963, in Birmingham, by Bull Connor, the public safety commissioner, for parading without a permit and for defying a state order banning demonstrations. The same day that King was arrested, a letter, signed by eight white ministers from Birmingham and titled “A Call for Unity,” was printed in The Birmingham News. The letter called for an end to protests and demonstrations for civil rights in Birmingham. King spent eight days in jail in Birmingham. On April 16, 1963, King responded to “A Call for Unity” with a his own call which has come to be known as his “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” This letter was thought to be originally published in The Christian Century and was reprinted soon after in Atlantic Monthly magazine under the title “The Negro is Your Brother.” Read the two letters at this link and complete the questions linked to them.
  6. 6. Birmingham March 1963 LO: To evaluate the significance of the two marches in raising awareness of civil rights issues • On 3rd May, Police Chief Connor allowed his men to set dogs on the protesters, and then called in the fire department to use powerful water hoses. • Over 2000 demonstrators were put in jail. Around 1300 children were arrested and students missed school. • TV witnessed the event and it was seen worldwide. By the 3rd May there was chaos. Why would this worry the President?
  7. 7. Birmingham March 1963 LO: To evaluate the significance of the two marches in raising awareness of civil rights issues • President Kennedy then became involved and he sent Assistant Attorney General Burke Marshall to mediate between the parties involved. • Desegregation was introduced to the city. A settlement was agreed on the 9th May and desegregation had to occur within 90 days. • The violence persuaded President Kennedy to introduce a Civil Rights Bill.
  8. 8. • Create a table that outline the causes and consequences of the Birmingham march? • Make a timeline of events during the Birmingham march. • Why do you feel that did King choose Birmingham to demonstrate? • Why were the Birmingham protests so significant to the Civil Rights Movement. • Why did President Kennedy become so involved in the crisis at Birmingham? Birmingham March 1963 LO: To evaluate the significance of the two marches in raising awareness of civil rights issues

×