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Civil War - 1945-49

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Civil War - 1945-49

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Civil War - 1945-49

  1. 1. Civil War – 1946-49 Learning Objectives: Examine the aims of the CCP and the GMD and what they offered to the people of China? Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war? Key Words, People & Places: Generalissimo Blueshirt’s New Life Movement Rural Service liberation areas Rectification of Conduct Treaty of Friendship General George C. Marshall Lin Biao Strong Point Offensive
  2. 2. The Two Chinas 1945- 49 LO: Examine the aims of the CCP and GMD. What did they offer to the people of China?
  3. 3. How did Chiang Kai Shek plan to rule? Mussolini ‘Duce’ ‘Blackshirts’ Kai Shek ‘Generalissimo’ ‘Blueshirts’ Hitler ‘Fuehrer’ ‘Brownshirts’ ‘I believe that unless everyone has absolute trust in one man, we cannot reconstruct the nation and we can not complete the revolution’. LO: Examine the aims of the CCP and GMD. What did they offer to the people of China?
  4. 4. GMD vs. CCP Aims? • Modernise China – Railways, Postal Service and telecommunications along with developing the countries industry. • The ‘New Life Movement’- placed stress on public, self- discipline and honesty. • ‘Rural Service’ – Students sent to help peasants with harvest What were the GMD’s and Chiang Kai Shek’s main aims & policies for China? How did these differ from the CCP? Use pages 22-23 to review how these aims effected the Chinese populous in both the GMD and CCP areas LO: Examine the aims of the CCP and GMD. What did they offer to the people of China?
  5. 5. Communist Ideology • In Mao’s Red base in Yenan and other ‘liberation areas’ the CCP experiment with putting their ideologies into practice and draw supporters from all over the country; • The CCP favour the peasantry and educate and empower the poor; • The Red Army gets access to education and training and grows a fierce sense of loyalty and discipline to the communist cause; • The ‘Rectification of Conduct’ campaign is carried out in 1942-4 and solidifies discipline and political correctness amongst the CCP; • The CCP become a centralised, experienced and cohesive force, headed by charismatic leaders. LO: Examine the aims of the CCP and GMD. What did they offer to the people of China?
  6. 6. Why did the CCP succeed? • Peasants happier: – Land confiscated – Rents/taxes reduced (37.5% to 20% of crop) – Interest free loans for peasants – Outmoded practices banned – Women’s Association’s established – Red Army is disciplined LO: Examine the aims of the CCP and GMD. What did they offer to the people of China?
  7. 7. China’s Priorities LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war? • 4 million Chinese dead, 60 million homeless • Chinese casualties estimated to be 10,000,000 • China ravaged by war, some towns completely obliterated • War weary • Need for peace and stability, as well as economic rebirth
  8. 8. GMD Legitimate rulers of China Politically experienced, could offer stability Support amongst educated (i.e. richer) members of society CCP Revolutionaries Growing experience but not able to guarantee stability across the whole of China Promised to unleash the power of the (uneducated) peasantry Starting Positions 1945: GMD v CCP LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  9. 9. Which side would seem more appealing to you directly after the War? Starting Positions: GMD v CCP LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  10. 10. Was their ever a United Front? • 1937 – Second United Front established but this was not to last. During the war – Civil war still engaged between communists and nationalists; • 1938 armed clashes began; • 1941 the Communist New Fourth Army was attacked, 10,000 killed or captured; HOWEVER • When the Japanese left the Communists were best placed to gain more land – WHY? LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  11. 11. China Post WW2 • When war ended in Aug 1945, the CCP controlled most of the countryside & the GMD was stuck in Sichuan province. • The war ended too soon for Chiang. He was hoping that the USA would send armies to China to defeat the Japanese AND communists. • The CCP was already accepting the surrender of the Japanese in many areas and taking over. ‘The CCP had effectively won the civil war by 1945.’ Do you agree? Explain your opinions in details. LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  12. 12. China Post WW2 • The Allies decided that Chiang should be reinstated as ruler of China. Even Stalin agreed to this signing the ‘Treaty of Friendship’ • US Dakota planes rushed 110,000 GMD troops to the cities and bases in the north to accept the surrender of Japanese troops & equipment before the Communists could do so. • In response the Communists moved into Manchuria and captured many ex-Japanese weapons. Why do you think Stalin agreed to reinstate Chiang rather than Mao as leader of China? LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  13. 13. International Context • US yet to establish desire to completely eradicate communism and prioritise the stability of Asia; • Russia sympathetic to CCP, but do not concentrate on further campaigns that may lead to more fighting; • Both wanted to see a unified government with both parties represented. • Based on your knowledge of Chiang Kai Shek and Mao’s relationship, how likely do you think a coalition would be after WW2? • In Dec 1945, the USA sent General George C. Marshall to try to prevent a civil war in China. He failed and war broke out in early 1946. LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  14. 14. Which group was stronger! The Communists had 1.2m members, 900,000 soldiers, 19 base areas, 90m population but lacked heavy military equipment and only 600 artillery pieces. GMD had 2.7m soldiers, 39 newly trained divisions, x10 artillery and large air force. How did the CCP live up the Sun Yatsen’s 3 principles and how did the GMD betray them? How was this translated into military success? CCP Strengths GMD Weaknesses Political Military LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  15. 15. The Final Struggle
  16. 16. The struggle for Manchuria July 1946 – May 1947 • The GMD immediately took the initiative by launching an offensive which captured most of the cities of Manchuria except for Harbin in the far north. • The CCP even lost their base at Yenan. GMD numbers, resources and air power helped dramatically. Chiang committed ½ million of his best troops to capture Manchuria. • A renewed offensive by the GMD in Oct 1946 failed to break through the CCPs defences. LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  17. 17. July 1946 - May 1947 • After October 1946, the now Peoples Liberation Army (formerly Red Army) led by Lin Biao, began to adopt an effective guerrilla warfare strategy against the GMD. • From rural bases, the PLA ambushed GMD units, forcing them to remain in the cities. • Railway lines were then blown up to cut the cities off from supplies and reinforcements. LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  18. 18. July 1946-May 1947 PROBLEMS IN THE CITIES • Civilians suffered in Guomindang held cities – inflation (money lost its value, wages bought less in shops) workers went on strike • 1kg rice rose to 1 million Chinese dollars • Riots and disorder rose and people joined the Communists • ‘Blueshirts’ tried to restore order – Censorship of press, black lists drawn up and systematic murder ‘To tell the truth, never, in China or abroad has there been a revolutionary party as decrepit and degenerate as we are today; nor one lacking in spirit, discipline, and even more, lacking standards of right and wrong’ CKS 1947 LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  19. 19. The ‘Strong Point Offensive’ May 1947 – Nov 1948 • US Govt. given US$200mil in military aid since 1945, but could now see the GMD were finished – cut further aid • During this period, the PLA moved from a strategy of guerrilla warfare to one of conventional battles with massed forces of infantry and artillery - Strong Point Offensive Why was it important to move from guerrilla warfare to conventional warfare? LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  20. 20. Dec 1948 - Oct 1949 THE BATTLE OF HUAI HAI LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  21. 21. Dec 1948 - Oct 1949 • Jan 1949 - Chiang Kai-Shek realised all was lost and fled to the island of Formosa and established a GMD government and set up Taiwan. • Took 200,000 GMD soldiers as well as of of China’s gold reserves. • From then until 1975 Chiang Kai Shek ruled Taiwan as the ‘Republic of China’ How do you think Chiang would explain his defeat? What is the legacy of this history today? LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  22. 22. Dec 1948 - Oct 1949 • After a rest, in April 1949, the PLA attacked key cities on the Yangtzi River, capturing Nanjing on 23rd April and Shanghai in late May. • Wuhan was captured in May and the way to the south was now open. The army then divided: • Xi’an & Lanzhou captured in August. • Guangzhou captured in October. • Chongqing captured in November. LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  23. 23. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) Established • By late Sep 1949, most of China was under Communist control. • Mao called a conference in Beijing. 14 political parties were represented and the conference elected members of the new central government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). • On 1st Oct 1949, Mao proclaimed the founding of the PRC and he was elected Chairman. LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  24. 24. The Chinese People have Stood up! 1st October 1949, Mao officially announces the founding of the PRC from the Forbidden City.
  25. 25. Chiang – ‘Why have you failed? LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war? Which of these reasons for the victory of the Communists refer to the CCP and which refer to the GMD. Write CCP or GMD in the column on the right.
  26. 26. Why did the Communists win the civil war? Use the information in the previous slide to write a bullet point plan for the the above question. Lay out your points under the below headings: • Introduction • Strengths of the CCP • Tactics of the CCP • Weaknesses of the GMD • Tactics of the GMD • Peasants • Conclusion LO: Explain why the CCP won and the GMD lost the civil war?
  27. 27. Homework TIMELINE This is the other major task too. Timeline – Ensure your timeline is up to date, complete and as detailed as possible. There will be a test on this next lesson!

Civil War - 1945-49

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