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Maps and Mapping at the Royal Commission - Tom Pert


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Since its establishment in 1908, the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales has been recording archaeological and historic sites and monuments both spatially and cartographically. The role of the Commission both as a public archive of maps, and as a map producing body supplying map depictions of archaeological sites to the Ordnance Survey, is unique in Wales.

In this presentation the wealth of cartographic and spatial material available to researchers within the Royal Commission’s archive will be revealed. The ways in which staff at the Commission utilise these resources to record, interpret and present the past will also be explored. The opportunities that members of the public have to access and use these resources will also be discussed. Finally, there will be an exploration of the potential offered by new and emerging technologies such as Augmented and Virtual Reality to depict sites and landscapes of the past.

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Maps and Mapping at the Royal Commission - Tom Pert

  1. 1. MapsandMappingatthe RoyalCommission; PuttingthePastinitsPlace CBHC | RCAHMW TomPert
  2. 2. As well as more than 3 million pages of text, 2 million photographs and 70,000 drawings, the NMRW holds • OS ‘Old Series’ 1” maps (1805-73) • OS County Series 25” maps (Unique set of OS Surveyors working maps, showing revisions between 1st and 2nd editions) • OS 6” maps (pre- and post-British National Grid) • Modern OS Landranger (1:50k) and Pathfinder (1:25k) series • OS 1:10,000 series (annotated maps, an index to National Archaeological Record cards) • Early twentieth-century estate sales catalogues • Historical maps – Ancient Britain, Roman Britain, Antonine Wall etc. • Reprints of early maps including Ogilby’s ribbon road map (1675), Blaeu’s County of Glamorgan (1645), Bowen’s maps of south Wales (1729), Speed’s plan of Cardiff (1610) and others • Admiralty charts Welsh coastal waters MapsintheNationalMonumentsRecordofWales CBHC | RCAHMW
  3. 3. Mapsforpublications CBHC | RCAHMW
  4. 4. Mapsforpublications CBHC | RCAHMW
  5. 5. Mapsforpublications–workinprogress CBHC | RCAHMW
  6. 6. GISattheRoyalCommission CBHC | RCAHMW
  7. 7. ArchaeologicalDatasets CBHC | RCAHMW
  8. 8. 1:625,000 CBHC | RCAHMW
  9. 9. 1:50,000 CBHC | RCAHMW
  10. 10. 1:10,000 CBHC | RCAHMW
  11. 11. AerialImagery(2009,2013,2016coming soon) CBHC | RCAHMW
  12. 12. OSMasterMap CBHC | RCAHMW
  13. 13. OSCountySeries25”/mile(1st edition1880) CBHC | RCAHMW
  14. 14. OSCountySeries25”/mile(2nd edition1906) CBHC | RCAHMW
  15. 15. OSCountySeries25”/mile(3rd edition1915) CBHC | RCAHMW
  16. 16. OSTownPlans(Aberystwyth18871:500) CBHC | RCAHMW
  17. 17. 1st edn25”/milecoverage CBHC | RCAHMW
  18. 18. 3rd edn25”/milecoverage CBHC | RCAHMW
  19. 19. OSTownPlans–26townsinWales CBHC | RCAHMW
  20. 20. OSTownPlan-Pembroke(1861-64,1:500) CBHC | RCAHMW
  21. 21. OSCountySeries25”/mile(1st edition1866) CBHC | RCAHMW
  22. 22. RAFVerticalAerialPhoto–Swansea1947 CBHC | RCAHMW
  23. 23. OSVerticalAerialPhoto–Swansea1981 CBHC | RCAHMW
  24. 24. NAWVerticalAerialPhoto–Swansea2009 CBHC | RCAHMW
  25. 25. RCAHMW holds a vast amount of aerial photography. Our principle collections: • RAF Vertical Aerial Imagery (1945-1954) • RAF Oblique Aerial Imagery (1945-1962) • OS Vertical Aerial Imagery (1962-2009) • Aerofilms Collection (1919-1953) • Royal Commission Aerial Reconnaissance (1986- Present) Aerialphotography CBHC | RCAHMW
  26. 26. These images where primarily used by the Ministry for Town and Country Planning during the post war years to aid with the reconstruction of British towns and cities following the devastation caused by aerial bombardment during the war. All photographs where captured at a rough scale of 1:10,000 in stereo pairs. RAFVerticalAerialImagery(1945-1954) CBHC | RCAHMW Aberystwyth, 9th May 1946
  27. 27. FindingAids–RAFVerticals CBHC | RCAHMW
  28. 28. In conjunction with the systematic vertical survey of the British Isles, the RAF also undertook oblique aerial photographic surveys. The most notable of these were the surveys of the Welsh coast which was undertaken twice by the RAF from 1945-52, and 1959-62. RAFObliqueAerialImagery(1945-1962) CBHC | RCAHMW Shell Island c.1962 The oblique aerial photographs within the NMRW include both sideways and forward-facing obliques, again mostly captured as stereo pairs.
  29. 29. The Ordnance Survey took over civilian aerial photography operations from the RAF in 1958. The OS used aerial photography for the creation and revision of their cartographic products, a technique that continues to this day. The Commission holds all OS vertical imagery from 1962 to 2009, all of which are in stereo pairs. OSVerticalAerialImagery(1962-2009) CBHC | RCAHMW Swansea c.1982
  30. 30. FindingAids–OSVerticals CBHC | RCAHMW
  31. 31. FindingAids–OSVerticals CBHC | RCAHMW
  32. 32. RCAHMWAerialReconnaissanceCollection(1986-Present) CBHC | RCAHMW Stack Rock Fort, Pembrokeshire Aerial reconnaissance at the Royal Commission began in 1986, initially to record the condition of Scheduled Ancient Monuments. Since then the flying programme has developed into an on-going project which monitors and records the condition of sites, monuments and landscapes across Wales. It is also an invaluable technique for the discovery of previously unrecorded archaeological sites.
  33. 33. FindingAids–RCAHMWAerialReconnaissanceCollection CBHC | RCAHMW
  34. 34. The Aerofilms Collection was a UK wide commercial archive of over one million aerial photographs dating from 1919 to 2006. A successful HLF bid supported by the RCAHMW, RCAHMS and English Heritage culminated in the ‘Britain from Above’ project which saw the curation and digitisation of all glass negatives dating from 1919 to 1953. All of these images are available for free online. The majority of the collection are oblique aerial photography and offer great insight of the developing landscapes of the 20th century. AerofilmsCollection(1919–1953) CBHC | RCAHMW
  35. 35. FindingAids–AerofilmsCollection CBHC | RCAHMW
  36. 36. MaritimeGIS–OceanWisedata CBHC | RCAHMW
  37. 37. MaritimeGIS–SeabedDTM CBHC | RCAHMW
  38. 38. GIS–SurfaceAnalysis CBHC | RCAHMW
  39. 39. GIS–SurfaceAnalysis CBHC | RCAHMW
  40. 40. GIS–SurfaceAnalysis CBHC | RCAHMW
  41. 41. GIS–SurfaceAnalysis CBHC | RCAHMW
  42. 42. SpatialAnalysis-Intervisibility CBHC | RCAHMW
  43. 43. SpatialAnalysis–Climatechange CBHC | RCAHMW Distribution Map outlining potential sites within the NMRW which may be at risk from sea level rise of 1m
  44. 44. AntiquitiesonOrdnanceSurveyMaps CBHC | RCAHMW • 1979 review of Ordnance Survey functions recommends responsibilities for recording and surveying of antiquities be transferred to the Royal Commissions • Since 1983 the Royal Commissions have been supplying basic scale survey data to the OS for publication on its maps – a function that continues (even though two of the three Royal Commissions no longer exist!)
  45. 45. Pen’r allt
  46. 46. RemoteSensing CBHC | RCAHMW Example of 2m LiDAR data its coverage for Wales Developments in technology have both increased the availability and reduced the costs of remote sensing data. • LiDAR • Radar • Imagery (multi-spectral, UAV & Satellite) LiDAR, radar, aerial and satellite imagery is increasingly being used to identify and visualise sites and landscapes
  47. 47. RemoteSensing -seeingtheunseeable CBHC | RCAHMW
  48. 48. 3DVisualisation&VirtualReality CBHC | RCAHMW Reconstruction animation of Hafod Copper Works, Swansea
  49. 49. AugmentedReality CBHC | RCAHMW
  50. 50. Thefutureisparticipatory CBHC | RCAHMW
  51. 51. Thefutureisparticipatory CBHC | RCAHMW
  52. 52. Thefutureisparticipatory CBHC | RCAHMW
  53. 53. Thefutureisparticipatory CBHC | RCAHMW
  54. 54. Thefutureisparticipatory CBHC | RCAHMW • Advances in technology mean that we can now both present and collect spatial data in all sorts of ways • The intelligent use of engaged audiences can allow us to undertake data gathering or processing activities that would have seemed unthinkable in the recent past • These new cooperative relationships between institutions and their users are beneficial for both parties; crowdsourcing contributors can feel more engaged, valued and gain an enhanced understanding of an institution and its projects, while the institution can generate vast amounts of useful information, at the same time developing a cohort of enthusiastic supporters
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  62. 62. Diolchamwrando CBHC | RCAHMW Cysylltwch / Contact Ebost: Email: @rcahmwales /