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Neaderthals and us

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Neaderthals and us

  1. 1. Neanderthals and Us Chris Stringer The Natural History Museum London
  2. 2. Some “recent” events in human evolution ‘Out of Africa 1’? First humans in S. Europe? Changes in glacial intensity First humans in N. Europe/Britain? Early Neanderthals in Europe Homo sapiens ‘Out of Africa 2’ Homo sapiens in Africa Neanderthals and “Hobbit” extinct Homo heidelbergensis appears Homo erectus in Africa Homo erectus in Java & China
  3. 3. Complex human behaviour… “Houses” ” Art, Music, Spirituality Complex technology Treatment of the dead Networking
  4. 4. Models of modern human origins 1984 1970
  5. 5. Stringer 1974: cranial metrics suggest Neanderthals are not good ancestors for modern humans
  6. 6. The evolution of Modern Humans and Neanderthals (based on fossil and genetic data) Homo heidelbergensis ~500,000 years
  7. 7. The Late Neanderthals Neander Valley 1856
  8. 8. longer lower vault suprainiac fossa strong browridge projecting midface large front teeth weak chin globular vault parietal expansion weak browridge flat midface small front teeth strong chin
  9. 9. Neanderthals: a different species? Harvati Harvati Nea-mod variation Mod var.
  10. 10. Smaller groups sizes, less networked
  11. 11. Building a Neanderthal genome….
  12. 12. The evolution of Modern Humans and Neanderthals (based on fossil and genetic data) Homo heidelbergensis ~500,000 years
  13. 13. Lieberman H. sapiens: fossils suggest an African origin for the modern pattern ~ 150-200ka? Age ka ~260 ~150? ~160? ~195? >130 Tim White
  14. 14. 300 ka 200 150 100 50 0 Omo Kibish Herto Kapthurin Twin Rivers Twin Rivers Pinnacle Point Klasies Qafzeh Klasies Grotta Moscerini Blombos Blombos Skhul Taforalt Enkapune ya Muto Enkapune ya Muto Howiesonspoort Mumba Microliths Shellfishing Ochre Shell beads Early H. sapiens fossils “Modern” anatomy and behaviour have deep roots in Africa…
  15. 15. Shell jewellery + red pigments ~70-100 ka
  16. 16. 100,000 yrs ago the Sahara was ‘green’ (Nick Drake et al.)
  17. 17. 1987: Mitochondrial Eve hits the headlines! Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution Nature 325, 31-36 Rebecca L. Cann, Mark Stoneking & Allan C. Wilson (1987) African female ancestor ~200ka
  18. 18. The pendulum starts swinging… 2000 1995 1995 1984 1970
  19. 19. PNAS 2012
  20. 20. Art and music 30-40 ka Statuettes and flutes: Hohle Fels & Vogelherd ~ 40ka Female figurines Europe and Asia
  21. 21. Ain elAin el GuettarGuettar Cueva AntónCueva Antón L’ArbredaL’Arbreda Grotte MandrinGrotte Mandrin Les CottésLes Cottés Dar es-Dar es- Soltane 1Soltane 1 Haua FteahHaua Fteah Undo,Undo, BondiBondi TabulaTabula TraianaTraiana LakonisLakonis TincovaTincova Grub/K.Grub/K. WP-1/2 Palaeolithic Sites (N = 50) cryptotephra present (N = 16) cryptotephra absent (N = 28) sample processing in progress (N = 6) KozarnikaKozarnika TheopetraTheopetra KlissouraKlissoura Golema PeshtGolema Pesht TaforaltTaforalt Moravský Krumlov IV, Zelec/Ondratice I,Moravský Krumlov IV, Zelec/Ondratice I, Vedrovice V,Vedrovice V, Brno-Bohunice 2002, KulnaBrno-Bohunice 2002, Kulna AzokhAzokh 11 CosavaCosava Siuren I,Siuren I, Kabazii IIKabazii II Redaka IIRedaka II UcagizliUcagizli BeregovoBeregovo Oued El AkaritOued El Akarit Sodmein KebaraKebara SzeletaSzeleta Romualdova p.Romualdova p. ZezëZezë Zaskalnaya V,Zaskalnaya V, Karabai IIKarabai II Mujina p.Mujina p. Velika p.Velika p. Molodova VMolodova V HurdhHurdhëëss BlazBlaz Riparo l'OscurusciutoRiparo l'Oscurusciuto Grotta di Santa CroceGrotta di Santa Croce Romanesti-D IRomanesti-D I Figure byFigure by Dustin White,Dustin White, June 2013June 2013 Hohle FelsHohle Fels Hohlenstein-StadelHohlenstein-Stadel RhafasRhafas Kostenki 14Kostenki 14 RESET Middle-Upper Palaeolithic total sites sampled (2008-13)RESET Middle-Upper Palaeolithic total sites sampled (2008-13)
  22. 22. The Campanian Ignimbrite PNAS 109:13532-13537(2012)
  23. 23. >41,000 years >43,000 years ~40,000 years
  24. 24. Châtelperronian material: the product of Neanderthals ~42,000 years ago?
  25. 25. Interbreeding? Cell Ancient DNA
  26. 26. What happened to the Neanderthals? Continuity? Evolved into the Cro-Magnons Genetically absorbed Extinction? Interpopulation conflict Demographic disadvantage Competitive exclusion Infectious diseases Distinct physiologies/diets Competition/fluctuating climates Climate change Part of megafaunal extinctions
  27. 27. Rapid climate change 20-60 ka
  28. 28. Phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of Neanderthals. Recent (<48 kyr) western Neanderthals are placed within a well-defined monophyletic group (blue box), whereas specimens older than 48 kyr constitute a paraphyletic group together with eastern Neanderthals (red box). Dalén et al. 2012: Partial genetic turnover in Neas Mol Biol Evolution
  29. 29. Enter the Denisovans… ?
  30. 30. 1. Interbreeding with Neas? 2.Interbreeding with Denisovans?
  31. 31. ?
  32. 32. NEW DATA ON NEA % Europeans ~ 1% Chinese ~ 1.7% (Meyer et al. Science 2012;Wall et al Genetics 2013) Only one limited phase of interbreeding, then drift? 1st limited phase W. Asia + 2nd in Asia? More widespread, but strong hybrid disadvantage?
  33. 33. A Proper Study for Mankind: analogies from the Papionin Monkeys and their implications for Human Evolution Clifford Jolly The message is to concentrate on biology, avoid semantic traps, and realize that any species-level taxonomy based on fossil material is going to be only an approximate reflection of real-world complexities.
  34. 34. The pendulum swings back a bit! 2013 “Mostly Out of Africa”
  35. 35. Thank you all for listening, and to… The Calleva Foundation Human Origins Research Fund …and all my sources of data and illustrations..
  36. 36. Mousterian Châtelperronian Aurignacian
  37. 37. Fu et al. Curr Biol 2013
  38. 38. The last 35,000 years…… Libor Balák
  39. 39. ~60 ka: Modern Humans start to leave Africa… ?
  40. 40. NEW DATA: Europeans ~ 1% Chinese ~ 1.7% Meyer et al. Science 2012 Wall et al Genetics 2013 ‘At least two separate episodes of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans must have occurred, and at least one of those episodes must have occurred after the separation of the ancestors of modern Europeans and East Asians’
  41. 41. Simulated landscape used in our simulations. Currat M , and Excoffier L PNAS 2011;108:15129-15134 ©2011 by National Academy of Sciences We find that observed low levels of Neanderthal ancestry in Eurasians are compatible with a very low rate of interbreeding (<2%), potentially attributable to a very strong avoidance of interspecific matings, a low fitness of hybrids, or both. These results suggest the presence of very effective barriers to gene flow between the two species
  42. 42. Thomas Higham , Laura Basell , Roger Jacobi , Rachel Wood , Christopher Bronk Ramsey , Nicholas J. Conard Journal of Human Evolution Volume 62, Issue 6 2012 664 - 676
  43. 43. Out of Africa Mitochondrial DNA Out of Africa Y-chromosome DNA

Editor's Notes

  • Simulated landscape used in our simulations. The union of the dark green and brown zones represents the conventionally assumed Neanderthal range (22) (scenario A′ in Table 1), whereas the violet zone represents a larger range, including the Altai Mountains, where Neanderthals remains have been identified recently. The brown zone represents an even more restricted area of potential hybridization in the Middle East (scenario A′′ in Table 1). The gray zone is the Himalayan range, where migrations have been disallowed. The dark green dot is an arbitrary place of origin for the expansion out of Africa, and the two red dots are the locations of the two samples where introgression is measured (Paris, France and Beijing, China). In our simulations, the continental areas have been divided into square cells (cell size = deme area = 100 × 100 km2) where a human population and a Neanderthal local population could potentially coexist, compete, and exchange migrants.