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Trait and Factor Theories
Holland’s Theory of Vocational
Personalities and Work
Environments
Three principles make up this theory:
• individuals fit into 6 types that represent distinct interests and values
• enviro...
Holland’s Theory of Person-Environment
Interactions
• Most persons can be categorized as one of six types:
• Realistic
• I...
• There are six environments:
• Realistic
• Investigative
• Artistic
• Social
• Enterprising
• Conventional
• People search for environments that will let them use their skills and
abilities, express their attitudes and values, an...
The Realistic Type
• Conforming
• Humble
• Frank
• Materialistic
• Persistent
• Genuine
• Practical
• Hardheaded
• Shy
• H...
The Investigative Type
• Analytical
• Independent
• Cautious
• Intellectual
• Pessimistic
• Introverted
• Precise
• Critic...
The Artistic Type
• Imaginative
• Original
• Disorderly
• Impractical
• Intuitive
• Emotional
• Impulsive
• Nonconforming
...
The Social Type
• Idealistic
• Helpful
• Cooperative
• Kind
• Sympathetic
• Friendly
• Patient
• Tactful
• Generous
• Resp...
The Enterprising Type
• Domineering
• Optimistic
• Adventurous
• Energetic
• Pleasure-seeking
• Extroverted
• Ambitious
• ...
The Conventional Type
• Conforming
• Inhibited
• Persistent
• Conscientious
• Obedient
• Practical
• Careful
• Orderly
• T...
The Realistic Environment
• Requires explicit, ordered, or systematic manipulation of objects,
tools, machines, or animals...
The Investigative Environment
• Requires the symbolic, systematic, and creative investigation of
physical, biological or c...
The Artistic Environment
• Requires participation in ambiguous, free, and unsystematized
activities to create art forms or...
The Social Environment
• Requires participation in activities that inform, train, develop, cure, or
enlighten
• Requires p...
The Enterprising Environment
• Requires participation in activities that involve the manipulation of
others to attain orga...
The Conventional Environment
• Requires participation in activities that involve the explicit, ordered,
or systematic mani...
Key Terms in Holland’s Theory
• Differentiation - the degree of difference between a person’s
resemblance to one type and ...
Applying Holland’s Theory
• Types (RIASEC) can be used to organize curriculum, career fairs, and
information about occupat...
Person-Environment
Correspondence Theory (PEC
Theory)
PEC Theory
• PEC Theory is the generalized version of the Theory of Work Adjustment
(TWA)
• Basic Premise:
• Individuals s...
PEC Theory
• Dawis and Lofquist
• P-E correspondence
• Stability
• Work adjustment
• 4 Key points of Dawis and Lofquist's ...
PEC Theory
• P-E incongruence requires adjustment to maintain a positive
equilibrium between the two
• 4 adjustment style ...
PEC Theory
• Implications
• Evaluate job satisfaction
• Link between satisfaction and work adjustment
• Link between satis...
Applying PEC in your lessons
Create a classroom environment that matches the needs and values of students
Come up with a p...
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ppt 3 module 5 Trait and factor theories

ppt 3 module 5 PNU-DOLE

ppt 3 module 5 Trait and factor theories

  1. 1. Trait and Factor Theories
  2. 2. Holland’s Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments
  3. 3. Three principles make up this theory: • individuals fit into 6 types that represent distinct interests and values • environments can be divided into six categories that are similar to the types that describe people • people seek out environments that complement their type or subtype
  4. 4. Holland’s Theory of Person-Environment Interactions • Most persons can be categorized as one of six types: • Realistic • Investigative • Artistic • Social • Enterprising • Conventional
  5. 5. • There are six environments: • Realistic • Investigative • Artistic • Social • Enterprising • Conventional
  6. 6. • People search for environments that will let them use their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles. • A person’s behavior is determined by an interaction between his or her personality and the characteristics of his or her environment.
  7. 7. The Realistic Type • Conforming • Humble • Frank • Materialistic • Persistent • Genuine • Practical • Hardheaded • Shy • Honest • Thrifty
  8. 8. The Investigative Type • Analytical • Independent • Cautious • Intellectual • Pessimistic • Introverted • Precise • Critical • Rational • Curious • Reserved
  9. 9. The Artistic Type • Imaginative • Original • Disorderly • Impractical • Intuitive • Emotional • Impulsive • Nonconforming • Expressive • Open
  10. 10. The Social Type • Idealistic • Helpful • Cooperative • Kind • Sympathetic • Friendly • Patient • Tactful • Generous • Responsible • Understanding
  11. 11. The Enterprising Type • Domineering • Optimistic • Adventurous • Energetic • Pleasure-seeking • Extroverted • Ambitious • Impulsive • Self-confident • Sociable • Popular
  12. 12. The Conventional Type • Conforming • Inhibited • Persistent • Conscientious • Obedient • Practical • Careful • Orderly • Thrifty • Efficient • Unimaginative
  13. 13. The Realistic Environment • Requires explicit, ordered, or systematic manipulation of objects, tools, machines, or animals • Encourages people to view themselves as having mechanical ability • Rewards people for displaying conventional values and encourages them to see the world in simple, tangible, and traditional terms
  14. 14. The Investigative Environment • Requires the symbolic, systematic, and creative investigation of physical, biological or cultural phenomena • Encourages scientific competencies and achievements and seeing the world in complex and unconventional ways • Rewards people for displaying scientific values
  15. 15. The Artistic Environment • Requires participation in ambiguous, free, and unsystematized activities to create art forms or products • Encourages people to view themselves as having artistic abilities and to see themselves as expressive, nonconforming, independent, and intuitive • Rewards people for the display of artistic values
  16. 16. The Social Environment • Requires participation in activities that inform, train, develop, cure, or enlighten • Requires people to see themselves as liking to help others, as being understanding of others, and of seeing the world in flexible ways • Rewards people for the display of social values
  17. 17. The Enterprising Environment • Requires participation in activities that involve the manipulation of others to attain organizational and self-interest goals • Requires people to view themselves as aggressive, popular, self- confident, and sociable • Encourages people to view the world in terms of power and status • Rewards people for displaying enterprising goals and values
  18. 18. The Conventional Environment • Requires participation in activities that involve the explicit, ordered, or systematic manipulation of data • Requires people to view themselves as conforming, orderly, nonartistic, and as having clerical competencies • Rewards people for viewing the world in stereotyped and conventional ways
  19. 19. Key Terms in Holland’s Theory • Differentiation - the degree of difference between a person’s resemblance to one type and to other types; the shape of a profile of interests • Congruence - the degree of fit between an individual’s personality type and current or prospective work environment • Consistency - degree of relatedness between types • Vocational identity - possession of a clear and stable picture of one’s goals, interests, and talent
  20. 20. Applying Holland’s Theory • Types (RIASEC) can be used to organize curriculum, career fairs, and information about occupations, jobs, and majors • Use assessment instruments used to measure congruence, differentiation, consistency, and vocational identity: • Self-Directed Search • Vocational Preference Inventory • My Vocational Situation
  21. 21. Person-Environment Correspondence Theory (PEC Theory)
  22. 22. PEC Theory • PEC Theory is the generalized version of the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) • Basic Premise: • Individuals seek to achieve and maintain a positive relationship with their work environment • P = person • E = environment
  23. 23. PEC Theory • Dawis and Lofquist • P-E correspondence • Stability • Work adjustment • 4 Key points of Dawis and Lofquist's theory • Work and personality fit • Impact of individual needs • Connection of individual needs and reinforcer systems • Job placement • Personality Structure • Abilities and values • If their work environment satisfy their values, the more likely they find the job satisfying.
  24. 24. PEC Theory • P-E incongruence requires adjustment to maintain a positive equilibrium between the two • 4 adjustment style variations • Flexibility • Activeness • Reactiveness • Perseverance
  25. 25. PEC Theory • Implications • Evaluate job satisfaction • Link between satisfaction and work adjustment • Link between satisfaction and tenure • Assess needs and values • Determine reinforcers • Help person find a work environment that matches needs, values, and provides the correct reinforcers
  26. 26. Applying PEC in your lessons Create a classroom environment that matches the needs and values of students Come up with a proper reward system in class • Come up with activities that your students find satisfying because of the value it represents • Teamwork – group games • Self expression- debates or insight papers • Communication – games that involve interacting with others

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