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Reservation System In INDIA

  2. Presented by: Ranit Bhaumik
  3. CONTENT • What is Reservation • History of reservation • Main objectives and criterion of reservation • Types of reservation system in India • Advantages and Disadvantages • Consequences and current situation • Why people are against it • Protest against reservation • Arguments advocating needs of reservation • Needful thingsto be done
  5.  Reservations are political instruments that deliver a public good which corrects a socio-economic wrong.  Reservation is also termed as Affirmative action and fair discrimination.  Reservation in India is a form of affirmative action designed to improve the well-being of perceived backward and under- represented communities defined primarily by their 'caste' (quota-system based on 'gender' or 'religion') is a phenomenon that commenced with the coming into force of the Indian Constitution.
  6. IN CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Article 16(4) : Nothing in this Article (16) shall prevent the state from making any provision for reservation of appointments or posts in favor of any backward class , which is not adequately represented in the services under the state. Article 46 : to promote educational and economic interests of SC, ST and other weaker sections of society. Article 14 : to provide equality before law and equal protection of laws. Article 15(3) : enabling provision to provide for special provisions in case of women and children.
  8. MAIN OBJECTIVE OF RESERVATION " The main objective of the Indian reservation system is to increase the opportunities for enhanced social and educational status (in the sense better than the previous,until it becomes equal to that enjoyed by an average member of other communities) of the underprivileged underprivileged communities and, thus, enable them to take their rightful place in the mainstream of Indian society.
  9. CRITERION OF RESERVATION • Reservation is given on basis of Caste, Religion. • Reservation is given on basis of Population(Minority). *however reservation is given on basis of financial condition, gender but it is neither sufficient nor fair.
  10. WHAT INDIANS THINK ABOUT RESERVATION The reservation system has received a mixed response from Indians since its inception. It has been praised for diminishing the gap between the upper and lower castes by allowing the latter to enjoy the further increased opportunities as the former in jobs, education and governance by allotting seats exclusively for them. It has also been criticized for discouraging a merit-based system and encouraging vote bank politics.
  12. Caste Based Reservation: • In central government funded higher education institutions, 22.5% of available seats are reserved for Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) students (7.5% for STs and 15%for SCs). • This reservation percentage has been raised to 49.5% by Including an additional 27% Reservation for OBCs . • This ratio is followed even in Parliament and all elections where a few constituencies are earmarked for those from certain communities (which will next rotate in 2026 per the Delimitation Commission).
  13. Gender Based Reservation: • In 1993, a constitutional amendment in India called for a random one third of village council leader, or Pradhan , positions in Gram panchayat to be reserved for women. • The Women’s Reservation Bill was passed by the RAJYA SABHA on 9 March 2010 by a majority vote of 186 members in favour and 1 against. As of September 2015, the Lok Sabha has not voted on the bill.
  14. Religion Based Reservation: • Reservation has also been extended to religious minorities. The Tamil Nadu government has allotted 3.5% of seats each to Muslims and Christians, thereby altering the OBC reservation 23% to 30% ( Since it excludes persons belonging to OBC who are either Muslims or Christians). • The Government of Andhra Pradesh introduced a law enabling 4% reservations for Muslims in 2004. ( This law was upheld by Supreme Court of India in an interim order on March 25, 2010. • Kerala Public Service Commission has a quota of 12% for Muslims.
  15. Status as a Domicile and Others: • With few exceptions , all jobs under certain State governments are reserved for those who are domiciled within the jurisdiction of that government. Ex.- Punjab Engineering College (Chandigarh) 85%of seats were earlier reserved for Chandigarh-domiciles- now it is 50%. • There is also some seats reserved for the Jammu and Kashmir MIGRANTS in every Government- aided educational institute. • Other includes:- Terrorist victims of Kashmir e.g. Punjab. Single girl Child (in Punjab)
  16. EXCLUDED FROM RESERVATION • Constitutional posts : The sons and daughters of the President of India, the Vice-President of India, Judges of the Supreme Court, the High Courts chairman, the members of Union Public Service Commission, members of the State Public Service Commission, Chief Election Commissioner, Comptroller Auditor-General of India or any person holding positions of a constitutional nature. • Service Category : Those who have parent(s) that are Class I or Class II officers, or both parents are Class I or Class II officers but one of them dies or suffers permanent incapacitation . The criteria used for sons and daughters of Group A and B are the same for the employees of the Public sector. • The sons and daughters of parents either or both of whom is or are in the rank of colonel and above in the army or in equivalent posts in the Navy, the Air Force, and the Paramilitary Force. But that will hold true provided that-"the wife of an armed forces is herself in the armed forces (i.e., the category under consideration) the rule of exclusion will apply only when she herself has reached the rank of Colonel.“"the service ranks below Colonel of husband and wife shall not be clubbed together"
  17. ADVANTAGES OF RESERVATION SYSTEM • Reservation helps socially backward positioned people or a class to enhance themselves by putting them forward and encourages them to sustain and develop themselves. • Proper application of the reservation system helps India to grow and develop not only by helping the backward class people but also by developing the society. • Systematic application of reservation system in education enriches brain power of the country and makes India better.
  18. DISADVANTAGES OF RESERVATION SYSTEM • Divides people and creates agony and rage among themselves • Non filling of posts if proper candidates are not available • Castes are given preference instead of merits • Ill-treatment to reserved employees and students • Creates lethargy in reserved category • Narrows the scopes of general category people
  19. • Produces Jealousy and antipathy between caste and caste. • Evident in Southern India , The members of royal families also gets benefitted of it. (Do they really need it). • According to National Employability report, only 18% engineers are up to the standard to the designated post. • Why reservation , when entrance are merit based?
  21. Why Reservation has become a bane for people? Reservation has become a bane for people rather than a boon mainly because of Vote bank politics and Unfair package distribution
  22. Vote Bank Politics
  23. Unfair, Unequal Reservation System in India
  24. WHY PEOPLE ARE AGAINST IT?  What Reservation has done ?  Poor, in an Indian context implies absolute poverty. By international standards, it is $1.25 a day and 32% of Indian population in poor according to that definition. This is the distribution of poor people by Caste ,accounting for split between rural and urban population.
  25. THE CURRENT SITUATION • People are arguing that Reservation is no longer Relevant. • Arguing for reservation Based on economical condition. • Without access to education , the poor will always be poor. • Reservation system based on a social net contradicts itself. • Government should not play Robin Hood.
  27. ARGUMENTS ADVOCATING NEED OF RESERVATION • People born in upper cast family have a privilege or unearned advantage , special right or socio-economic status. • The Practical study done by THORAT ET AT related to employment in private sector highlights the value and role of socio-economic status. • Who says that reservation is not paying back ? A recent Report of UN shows that poverty improvement rate of India is equivalent to that of USA.
  28. WHAT IF WE END RESERVATION RIGHT NOW!!! While Manual scavenging for many may have ended as a form of employment, the stigma and discrimination associated with it lingers on, making it difficult for former or liberated manual scavengers to secure alternate livelihood and raising the fear that people could once again return to manual scavenging in the absence of other opportunities to support their families.
  29. THEN WHAT TO DO? yes, we all today have need of reservation. Because there are many people, who use live in village and are backward. Many of them are like based firmly on reservation for their existence. So we simply cannot take it way ! At least not today. Reservation , therefore is the inevitable political consequence of correcting the inequality of opportunity and many more.
  30. AND WHAT WE NEED TO DO The thing we need to do is only to rise over selfishness. To view this policy with broader perspective; i.e. Reservation is good. This is not a issue to ignore away. We all are getting influenced to it and this is going to be true in future. Seriously we need a lot of things done over it. Also needs to avoid movements like that of Gurger and Patel.