The traditional view: separate disorders SLI Dyslexia Studied by Studied byspeech and language educators/ therapists psychologists
In fact, literacy problems are verycommon in children with SLI Haynes and Naidoo (1991): Survey of children attending a special school for SLI Only 7 of 82 children were free of reading problems. On leaving school, with a mean age of 11.5 years, the mean reading age was 8.5 years, despite intensive intervention. Conti-Ramsden, Botting, Simkin, and Knox (2001): 11-year-olds with SLI 77% were impaired (more than 1.0 standard deviation below age level) on single word reading, and 98% scored this poorly on a test of reading comprehension.
Reasons for reading difficulties• Early idea of word blindness• Common belief that dyslexia is a visual disorder – problems with reversing b/d etc.• Little support for this: • Most visual symptoms are more consequence than cause • Just a minority of children affected by genuine visual stress
How do you read an unfamiliar word? Convert letters into sounds to achieve pronunciation CAMEL /k/+/a/+/m/+/ε/+/l/ “camel”
This type of decoding requires ability to process speech sounds = phonological ability • Phonological awareness: identifying the individual sounds in words • Matching letters and sounds • Blending sounds into words • Phonological memory – keeping sounds in memory
Phonological awareness: harder than it seems! We think of words as composed of individual sounds p i n
In fact, the sounds we hear aremerged in the speech signal p i nIf you take an auditory signal and try tochop it up to correspond to the sounds, itdoes not work!
Acoustic signal corresponding to "heed, hid, head, had, hod, hawed, hood, whod”.Note that there is no clear division between the three sounds in each word, and noconsistency in the signal corresponding to initial ‘h’ or final ‘d’ From: http://www.cog.jhu.edu/courses/325-f2004/ladefoged/course/contents.html
Young children have difficulty hearing thatdifferent words have the same sounds Adults find this task easy, but many preschoolers find it hard: (Show child a puppet): This is ‘Wug’. He likes things that sound like his name. Which do you think he will choose? The cake, the jug, the leaf or the boat?
More complex phonologicalawareness taskDelete, add or re-arrange sounds inwords, involves memory as well asidentifying sounds, e.g. "Spoonerisms" E.g.,Reverse the initial sounds of "Mick Jagger" -> "Jick Magger"
Children with SLI who are poor atreading often find spelling especiallyhard, and their errors may indicatephonological problems To spell an unfamiliar word need to: • Break it down into sounds • Match each sound to a letter • Write down each letter while remembering the other sounds
Many children with SLI have problems with phonological processing linked to reading problems Same kind of difficulty is often seen in children diagnosed with dyslexiaCatts, H. W. (1993). The relationship between speech-language impairmentsand reading disabilities. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 948-958.
• May interventions have been designed to help tackle phonological problems and can be used for children with SLI • But important to note that for many children with SLI, there may also be poor language comprehension, which will also be a barrier to literacy – (will be covered in another video!)Snowling, M. J., & Hulme, C. (2012). Interventions for childrens language andliteracy difficulties. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders,47(1), 27–34. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-6984.2011.00081.x