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La amistad y el TEL

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LLevarse bien con otros: La amistad en adolescents con TEL
La Profesora Gina Conti-Ramsden discute temas relacionados con la formación de amistades en individuos con TEL (vean el videoclip en htpp://www.youtube.com/RALLIcampaign)

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La amistad y el TEL

  1. 1. Llevarse bien con otros: La amistaden adolescentes con TEL
  2. 2.  Muchos padres de familia se preguntan:  Mi hijo o hija con TEL tendrá amigos cuando cresca?
  3. 3.  Formar amistades es una parte importante del desarrollo humano  Podemos intercambiar ideas y emociones con nuestros amigos  Los amigos nos proveen compañía y pueden darnos apoyo cuando lo necesitamos
  4. 4.  Sabemos que los niños con TEL son sociables  Quieren interactuar con otros niños y tener amigos También sabemos que niños con TEL son pro- sociales  Pueden ayudan a otros en situaciones sociales y pueden ser considerados
  5. 5.  Pero, también sabemos que algunos niños con TEL no son aceptados por otros niños de su misma edad  No son muy populares
  6. 6.  Varios estudios nos informan sobre los problemas que tienen los niños TEL con la formación de la amistad y con ser aceptados por otros niños Información sobre estos temas en la adolescencia de los niños TEL es muy escasa
  7. 7.  Esto nos motivó a llevar a cabo nuestro propio estudio sobre la amistad en adolescentes con TEL
  8. 8. Participantes 120 adolescentes  118 adolescentes sin con TEL de 16 años TEL (con desarrollo de edad típico, DT) de 16 años de edad
  9. 9. Measures Una entrevista sobre las amistades y relaciones sociales interpersonales (Social- Emotional Functioning Interview, SEF-I; Howlin y otros., 2000): la entrevista pide informe de los padres pero también es repetida con los adolescentes. Tiene medidas sobre los siguientes temas: Opinión que uno tiene de gente nueva, descripción de las amistades que se tienen actualmente, y opinión sobre la calidad de estas amistades
  10. 10. Calidad de las amistades Ejemplos de algunas de las preguntas que se usan en la entrevista: ¿Qué es especial sobre los amigos? ¿Qué significa para ti que alguien sea tu amigo? ¿Qué es diferente sobre un amigo? ¿Confiarías en un amigo sobre algo especial que tu sientes o algo que te preocupa?
  11. 11. 100 80 60 40 20 0 DT TEL% que nos informan que tienenbuenas relaciones con gente que conocen
  12. 12. 100 80 60 40 20 0 DT TEL% que nos informan que tienenunos o más amigos con quienes compartenintereses
  13. 13. La amistad en el TEL Nuestro índice que mide la calidad de la amistad tiene una escala de 0 (=Buena calidad en la amistad) a 16 (calidad de la amistad muy baja)
  14. 14. Resultados TEL  DT Media = 3.1  Media = 0.2 Rango = 0 - 14  Rango = 0 – 2 Nuestros resultados revelan la diversidad  La mayoría tienen que hay en el grupo de amistades de buena adolescentes con TEL calidad
  15. 15.  Identificamos a un grupo de 65 adolescentes con TEL con amistades de buena calidad y a un grupo de 44 adolescentes con TEL con relaciones interpersonales con calidad baja
  16. 16. 87 86 85 84 Compr 83 82 81 80 Buena BajaAdolescentes de 16 años de edad con calidad de amistad buena versus bajaResultados en la comprensión del lenguaje a los 7 años(usando el instrumento TROG)
  17. 17. 86 85 84 83 Expres 82 81 80 Buena BajaAdolescentes de 16 años de edad con calidad de amistad buena versus bajaResultados en la expresión del lenguaje a los 7 años(usando el instrumento Bus Story)
  18. 18. • Los resultados fueron similares a los 11 años Y a los 16 años Una capacidad relativamente baja del lenguaje, particularmente en la comprensión de lenguaje, parece estar relacionada con una baja calidad en la amistad y las relaciones interpersonales
  19. 19.  Nuestros análisis sugieren que el nivel de comprensión del lenguaje que el niño tiene a los 7 años es un factor clave en qué calidad de amistades y relaciones interpersonales estos niños tienen a los 16 años. El papel clave del lenguaje continúa aun cuando controlamos estadísticamente par el efecto de las capacidades cognitivas no verbales
  20. 20. Mensaje La habilidad lingüística influye en qué calidad de relaciones interpersonales y amistades se tienen a través de la adolescencia
  21. 21. Pero las buenas noticias son que… Los problemas de lenguaje no son una garantía de que se presentarán problemas sociales Los niños con TEL no tienen generalmente problemas sociales que se consideren suficientemente severos como para recibir diagnósticos clínicos
  22. 22. Pero las buenas noticias son que… Los niños con TEL varían no solamente en sus a habilidades lingüísticas pero en sus capacidades sociales también Algunos niños con TEL son muy populares y tienen buenos amigos El 60% de adolescentes con TEL nos han informado de que tienen una buena calidad de relaciones interpersonales y de amistad
  23. 23. 5. Qué podemos hacer: abriendo el camino para el futuro La identificación temprana del TEL es también una identificación de un posible riesgo en el desarrollo de las relaciones interpersonales del niño TEL Es esencial desarrollar lo más tempranamente posible las habilidades lingüísticas de los niños TEL: en la comprensión y expresión del lenguaje
  24. 24. Abriendo el camino para el futuro Pero, la intervención con respecto al lenguaje no es suficiente Es necesario que las escuelas y los servicios dedicados a la educación e intervención con los niños con TEL también incluyan programas pedagógicos sobre las habilidades sociales para ayudar al niño TEL en su desarrollo interpersonal y en el desarrollo de su autoestima social Hay necesidad de facilitar las relaciones interpersonales con sus pares; la formación y el mantenimiento de la amistad
  25. 25. Bibliografia Clegg, J., Hollis, C., Mawhood, L., & Rutter, M. (2005). Developmental language disorders – a follow-up in later adult life. Cognitive, language and psychosocial outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 128-149. Durkin, K. & Conti-Ramsden, G. (2007) Language, social behaviour and the quality of friendships in adolescents with and without a history of specific language impairment. Child Development, 78, 1441-1457. Fujiki, M., Brinton, B. Hart, C., & Fitzgerald, A. H. (1999). Peer acceptance and friendship in children with specific language impairment. Topics in Language Disorders, 19, 34-48. Fujiki, M., Brinton, B., Isaacson, T., & Summers, C. (2001). Social behaviors of children with language impairment on the playground: A pilot study. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 32, 101-113.

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