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  1. 1. Prepared by: Hiren Babariya Ashvin Vala Vishal Lodaliya Krunal Falakiya Kalpesh Ramani Rajendrasingh Chauhan
  2. 2. Flow of Presentation  Planning: An overview  Why do Managers Plan?  Types of Plans  The levels at which Plans are Developed  Planning Process  MBO  Conclusion
  3. 3. Planning : An Overview “ Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. It involves the selection of objectives, policies, procedures and programmes from among alternatives.” 1. Goals provide a sense of direction: By setting goals, people and their organization bolster their motivation and gain a source of inspiration that helps them overcome the inevitable obstacles they en counter.
  4. 4. 2. Goals focus our efforts: Selecting a single goal or set of related goals, we establish priorities and make a commitment about the way we will use our scare resources. 2. Goals guide our plans and decisions: It helps in deciding short term and your long term plans and helps you to make many key decision. 2. Goals help us evaluate our progress : Measurable goal with a specific deadline becomes a standard of performance that lets individuals and managers alike evaluate their progress.
  5. 5. Why do Managers Plan? 1. To manage by objectives: All the activities of an organization are designed to achieve the framed objectives. 2. Convert uncertainty into certainty: Future is full of uncertainties. These uncertainties may be predicted through forecasting. Then the planning provides necessary provision to face the uncertainty. 3. Economy in operation: Planning selects any one of the available alternatives which will help produce the best result at minimum costs.
  6. 6. 4. Help in co-ordination: The co ordination is obtained by the management through planning, well-publishing policies, programmes and procedures. 5. Effective control: 6. Effective utilization of resources: planning involves deciding in advance of the business activities. Then the business activities are completed without any delay.
  7. 7. Types of Plans  Strategic plans  Tactic plans  Operational plans
  8. 8. The levels at which plans are developed  Corporate level  Business level  Functional level
  9. 9. Planning Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Analysis of external environment Analysis of internal environment Determination of objectives Determining planning premises & constraints Examination of alternative courses of action Selection of best alternative course of action
  10. 10. Cont.. 7. Establishing the sequence of activities 8. Formulation of action programmes 9. Determining secondary plans 10. Securing participation of employees 11. Follow-up and Evaluation
  11. 11. Management By Objectives  MBO is popularized in USA by George Odiorne  “ MBO is management system in which each member of the organization effectively participates and involves himself.”  This system gives full scope to the individual strength and responsibility
  12. 12. Process of MBO  Defining organizational objectives  Goals of each section  Fixing key result areas  Setting subordinate objectives or targets  Matching resources with objectives  Periodical review meetings  Appraisal of activities  Reappraisal of objectives