Odum, energy and green houses


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Odum, energy and green houses

  1. 1. Odum’s Energy Ecology & Green Houses Local and Ecological
  2. 2. Outline Odum Energy, Ecology  Heat Gain and Loss and Economics  Energy Value Food Supply  Efficiency Greenhouses  Passive Solar Design Growth Systems  Orientation Ecology of  Recap: Importance of Greenhouses Growing Local Energy in Greenhouses  Living Building Examples
  3. 3. Odum’s Energy Ecology Growth Priming:  Favors economic vitality Quality Vs. Quantity  Reduction of subsidies Quality of Life  From steady state periods Net Output Richer than Input Solar Conversion Necessary  Simpler Agriculture as a Primary Solution
  4. 4. Applied to Food Supply Food = Basis for Society Quality of Energy:  Stability and Growth  Vitality of Food  Growth Materials Quality of Life:  More Time with People  Application of Purpose
  5. 5. Food Supply Considerations Human Population  Estimated 9 billion in 2050 (6.6 billion in 2008)  2/3 Expected to be Urban Dwellers Global Warming  Influence  Food supply  Agriculture systems  Arable land Influences Water Supply  Needs to increase clean supply  Needs to increase availability and distribution
  6. 6. A Look at Green Houses Human and Natural Ecology Combined Local Energy Capture and Storage  Input Energy Stored for Output Energy Use Local Energy Generation and Savings  Uses Natural Processes and Natural Storage/Blocking Carbon and GHG Neutrality: Possible! Community Based Designed  Based on need, and available resources Enhance Food Security Adaptable Efficient  Automation possible
  7. 7. Types of Growth Systems Mono Culture Polyculture Biodynamic Hydroponics Aquaculture Algae for Energy Growth
  8. 8. Ecology of Green Houses Incorporate with Waste Streams or Algae Culture for Nutrient Enhancement Create ‘Green Space’ in Office Space  Reduce Building Energy Needs  Reduce Footprint of Greenhouses and Food Supply Reduce Nutrient Runoff  Through Monitoring
  9. 9. Energy in Greenhouses Energy from our environments  Continuous and Renewed  Solar, Organic, Natural Gas*, Water, Wind, Wood  Stored  Coal and Fossil Fuels, Natural Gas*, Nuclear In Ecology:  Where continuous energy creates/generates stored energy  Smart energy use is the lower energy ‘cost’ to produce the same stored energy and/or energy output 70-80% Used for Heating; 10-15% for Electricity [2]
  10. 10. Heat Gain & Loss Conduction  Heat conducted through materials  U-value – Btu/(hr-ºF-sq.ft.) Convection  Heat exchange between moving fluid (air) and solid surfaces Radiation  Heat transfer between two bodies without direct contact or transport medium  Sunlight Air Leakage/Infiltration  Exchange of interior and exterior air through small leaks and holes.
  11. 11. Increasing Energy Value Growth Versus and Towards Stability Reduce inefficiency of energy growth process  Reduce Dependence on Fuel subsidies  Reduce Use of Non-Renewals  Reduce Pollution  Increase Output Recycling Increase Efficiency of Current Systems  Reduce outputs for maintenance and general operation.
  12. 12. Enhancing Efficiency Stand alone  Isolated growing conditions  Include lots of plants to heat  Natural ventilation  Opening Side Walls or Top Windows  1.7-1.8 – heat loss area to floor area (3000sq. ft.) Materials selection Water Collection/ Indoor Storage Color Selection Orientation
  13. 13. Passive Solar Design [3]
  14. 14. Passive Solar Design (con’t)
  15. 15. Greenhouse: Passive Solar DesignThermal Mass (BTU/sqft/Fo)Brick 24Concrete 35Earth 20Sand 22Steel 59Stone 35Water 63Wood 10.6 Attached greenhouse: 2.5 gallons per sq. ft. of south facing glazing area for cool climates (4 month winters) 2 gallons per sq. ft. of south facing glazing area for temperate climates (3 month winters) 1 gallon per sq. ft. of south facing glazing area for warmer climates (2 month winters) Free standing greenhouse: 3 gallons per sq. ft. of south facing glazing area for cool climates (4 month winters) 2.5 gallons per sq. ft. of south facing glazing for temperate climates (3 month winters) 2 gallon per sq. ft. of south facing glazing for warmer climates (2 month winters)
  16. 16. Sample R and U Values Polycarbonate 6mm quad wall R = 1.79 Polycarbonate 8mm quad wall R = 2.13 Polycarbonate 16mm triple wall R = 2.5 Polycarbonate 8mm triple wall R = 2.0-2.1 Polycarbonate 8mm double wall R = 1.6 Acrylic double wall R = 1.82 Glass double layer R = 1.5 – 2.0 Glass double layer low-e R = 2.5 Glass triple layer 1 / 4 “ ( 0.6 cm) air space R = 2.13 Fiberglass glazing- single layer R = .83 Polyethylene Double 5mil film R = 1.5 Polyethylene Double 6mil film R = 1.7 Polyethylene single film R = 0.87 6 inches (15 cm) of fiberglass bat insulation R = 19.0 Polystyrene (styrofoam) 1 inch (2.5 cm) thick R = 4.0
  17. 17. Orientation East/West to Maximize Winter Sunlight Incorporate Cooling Sections for Air Flow Moveable Gutter Overhangs[6] [3]
  18. 18. Increase Energy Value of Food Grown in biodynamic, or polyculture systems Grow and Buy Organic Process By Hand Picked When Ripe Food Eat Fresh Soil Enhancement
  19. 19. External Greenhouse Example:Vertical Wall Green House Increased Food Supply Hydroponics Double-Skin Facades Reduce Maintenance  Provide Shade  Air Treatment  Evaporative Cooling Reduced Costs  Mitigation  Insulation
  20. 20. BioMachine: Buildings of Future Incorporate Automated Systems  Clean Air  Enhance Nutrients  Irrigation Supply and Water Management  Local Harvesting Solar Panels Solar Thermal Passive Heating and Cooling
  21. 21. Conclusions Human Ecological Incorporation Total Waste and Energy Stream Considerations Reduced Need for Energy Increase Food Supply and Security Adaptability and Self Design
  22. 22. References[1] - HT Odum- Energy Ecology and Economics[2] Sanford, Scott; Energy Conservation for Greenhouses;http://www.uwex.edu/energy/pubs/GreenhouseEC_SAREApril2010.pdf[3] Sethi, V.P.; Survey and evaluation of heating technologies for worldwide agriculturegreenhouse applications; 2010[4] Sethi, V.P. ; Experimental and economic study of a greenhouse thermal control system usingaquifer water; 2007[5] Theodore Caplow; Vertically Integrated Greenhouse: Realizing the Ecological Benefits ofUrban Food Production; Ecocity World Summit 2008 Proceedings; 2008[6] David Roper; Solar Greenhouses; http://www.roperld.com/science/solargreenhouses.htm