Earthquake: the word itself feels disastrous. Though the earthquake has no direct effect on human being, but still it causes a plenty of life and property loss. The reason is earthquake tends to fail the various structures such as buildings, houses, bridges, roads etc. and this failure causes all losses. The following pictures shows some of the failure of structures due to earthquake. But please hold for a minute, in case of the following failed structures, it was possible to prevent the failure…… Because these structures are not failed only due to earthquake but because of failure of soil strata bellow the structure due to the earthquake. And if the soil was improved before construction the failure could be avoided.
This phenomenon of failure of soil strata during earthquake is called as the “Soil Liquefaction”. Liquefaction is responsible for extreme property damage & loss of life due to several variations in failure potential. Still the liquefaction is not given that much importance. In India during Bhuj Earthquake lots of structures are collapsed due to liquefaction itself. And there are many liquefaction prone areas are present in zone IV in India. That’s why liquefaction is very much important.
In this paper, the study of liquefaction is done with respect to its introduction, properties of soil in which the liquefaction may occurs, how exactly the liquefaction takes place, detailed Geotechnical Study of liquefaction which includes how to decide the liquefaction prone area, evaluation of liquefaction potential and the various old and recent remedial measures to avoid the liquefaction, along with software and Artificial Neural Network. So that one can become safe against Liquefaction.