Reading assessment


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Reading assessment

  1. 1. READING ASSESSMENT 2ND GROUP: 1. Deni Rahmawati 2. Hapri Edayanti 3. Isna Mufida 4. Putri Maya Alimah 5. Quruin Fitrianingsih 6. Umi Sholihah 7. Yan Jati Rifa’i Leading Lecturer: Ida Isnawati, M.Pd n+anak+flu&biw
  2. 2. Reading assessment Begin by examining the nature of reading and the relationship between reading in the 1st language and 2nd language Provide step by step procedures for assessing reading with English language learners (ELLs) Elaborate on a number of instructional activities for reading that can be particularly useful for assessment Suggest ways for documenting teacher observations of reading, developing reading or writing portfolios, and using reading assessment results for instruction
  3. 3. Nature of reading in school Reading in the native language Text Readers background knowledge New knowledge
  4. 4. Reading in a 2nd language • Similar to those acquired in the 1st language in that they call knowledge of sound or symbol relationships, syntax, grammar, and semantics to predict and confirm meaning (peregoy and boyle 1993). • 2nd language readers use their background knowledge regarding the topic, text structure, their knowledge of the world, and their knowledge of print to interact with printed page and to make prediction.
  5. 5. The important differences between 1st and 2nd language reading • Language proficiency and experiences of the students. They have varied levels of language proficiency in that language. • They may be in the process of acquiring oral language while also developing literacy skills in English. • They may have more varied levels of background knowledge and educational experience
  6. 6. Models of reading Bottom up models Top down models Interactive models
  7. 7. 4 components in reading programs: • Extensive amounts of time in class for reading • Direct strategy instruction in reading comprehension • Opportunities for colaboration • Opportunities for discussions on responses to reading
  8. 8. There is evidence that phonemics awareness is a necessary but not sufficient condition for becoming an efficient reader (Pearson 1993) Phonics Whole language
  9. 9. Reading in the Content Areas: Schema activation Text structure Active use of reading and learning strategy
  10. 10. Implications for assessment • The importance of determining students’ prior knowledge • Making students accountable for how they use reading time in class • Assessing students progress in acquiring both decoding skills and reading comprehension strategies • Observing how students collaborate in groups as well as how they work individually • Reviewing students’ personal responses to reading
  11. 11. Teacher consideration in student evaluation • Familiar with developmental learning processes and curriculum • Assessment and evaluation philosophy • Know about and have experience collecting, recording, interpreting, and analyzing multiple sources of data • Flexible and willing to try out multiple assessment procedures • Commit to understand and implement an approach to evaluation that informs students and direct instruction
  12. 12. What do I want to know? How will I find out? Reading comprehension Retellings Literature response journals Anecdotal records Literature discussion groups Texts with comprehension questions Reading strategies Reading strategies checklists Reciprocal teaching Think alouds Anecdotal records Miscue analysis Running records Reading skills Cloze passages Miscue anaysis Running records Reading attitudes Reading logs Interviews Literature discussion groups Anecdotal records Self assessment Interviews Rubrics/rating scales Portfolio selections
  13. 13. Authentic Assessment of Reading Indentify Purpose  Studying, evaluating, or diagnosing reading behavior  Monitoring student progress  Supplementing and confirming information gained from standardized and criterion- referenced tests.  Obtaining information not available from other sources (Johns 1982)
  14. 14. Purpose for second language learners:  Initial identification and placement of students in need of language-based program, such as ESL or bilingual education.  Assessment for one level to another within a given program.  Placement out of an ESL/ bilingual program and into a grade-level classroom.  Placement in a Chapter 1 (Title 1) or special education classroom.  Graduation from high school.
  15. 15. Plan for Assessment • Outline your major instructional goals or learning outcomes • Identifying instructional activities or tasks • How often to collect information • To provide student with feedback
  16. 16. Involve Student Peer Assessment Self Assessment
  17. 17. DEVELOP RUBRICS/SCORING PROCEDURES • Criteria should be stated in terms of what students can do rather than what they can not do • Use a model scoring rubric that you can ask colleagues for feedback on • Areas to be assessed includes: reading comprehension, use of reading strategies, decoding skills, response to reading, and students choice in reading.
  18. 18. Types of Rubrics 1. Holistic Rubric 2. Analytic Rubric
  19. 19. SET STANDARDS • It can be set by establishing cut-off scores on a scoring rubric or rating scale • Each category or level needs to be defined by criteria to be clearly distinct from the next level
  20. 20. Literature Discussion Groups Heterogeneous small group Student- directed Teacher- guided
  21. 21. Cloze Tests Reading passages with blanks representing words that have been deleted from the original passage. Types of cloze test:  Fixed ratio cloze Rational/purposive deletion colze Maze technique Limited/multiple-choice cloze
  22. 22. Texts with Comprehension Question Teacher makes a copy of one page from a short reading passage students have been asked to read. Students respond independently to several comprehension questions posed by teacher.
  23. 23. Reciprocal Teaching • An instructional approach designed to increase reading comprehension by encouraging students to use reading strategies. Summarizing Questioning Predicting
  24. 24. 1. Think-Alouds, Probes, and Interviews 2. Strategies Checklists or Rating Scale 3. Miscue Analysis and Running Records 4. Anecdotal Records
  25. 25. Think-Alouds are… • Interactive and focus on ACTIVE CONSTRUCTION of meaning that emphasizes the use of prior knowledge. Probes and individual student interviews • Allow the teacher to discuss reading attitudes with students, ask questions, and obtain information on reading strategies.
  26. 26. Think-Alouds • The teacher can ask students to: 1. Look at the title and the meaning of it, 2. Show their expectation in reading a book, 3. Run the problems in guessing the meaning of words. Probes, and Interview • Here are some guiding questions to use in students interviews: 1. Do you like to read? 2. What do you like to read? 3. What your favorite novel? 4. How many times do you spend to read? 5. Etc. It done during teaching-and- learning period. Think- Alouds firstly conducted in a whole class activity, then by groups, and the last is individually, more difficult It’s useful conducting in the beginning of school years. This interview characteristic is for individual students, easier VS
  27. 27. • Checklists are list of characteristics or behaviors that scored as yes/no ratings. (Herman, Ascbacher, and Winters, 1992) • The checklists process might be used to assess whether students have engaged in various processes, like required for working in small groups, conducting a research report, etc.
  28. 28. • Miscue analysis is the way to reveal students’ strength in using graphophonemic, syntactic, semantic, and discourse knowledge. • Running records are a type of miscue analysis developed by Marie Clay. • Need more preparation than miscue analysis • Taking running record required training.
  29. 29. 4. Anecdotal Records Definition: As described in Chapter 4, anecdotal records are typically brief comments specific to how a students is performing and what he/she needs to improve (follow-up) WHAT IS ANECDOTAL RECORDS??? Anecdotal records are observational notations describing language and social development at a specific in time (Routman, 1994)
  30. 30. READING/WRITING PORTOFOLIOS Reading logs Samples of students writing Reading response journal Anecdotal records etc
  31. 31. Somewhat considered difficult Teachers have too little time Teachers don’t know how to decide what goes inside Teachers don’t know how to begin to evaluate portfolios
  32. 32. Suggestions considered to design reading/writing portfolios portfolios can be compiled which document which documents each student’s growth in reading Portfolios are being used only a limited manner Portfolios is different from collection
  33. 33. Using reading assessment in instruction Result of authentic assessment of reading can be used in a number ways Informing program placement Determining grades Improving instruction
  34. 34. Notice what students say about reading and writing and how they use literacy in daily task Make hyphothesis about what students need and check against various sources of information Use multiple assessments across time