TUTORIAL 8 : PROF. DATUK DR. SHARIFUDDIN Motivation Theory prepared by, NURUL AMALINA ARISHAD ; and QURRASHIDAH ANIS BT BAHARUL HAFIDZ
MASLOW HIERARCHY OF NEEDSPRESENTER ;QURRASHIDAH ANISBT BAHARUL HAFIDZ
a. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Abraham Maslow was born in Brooklyn since 1908-1970.• Maslow was a psychologist who studied the lives and activities of individuals that his found considered them to be “successful and productive”.• Maslow is a famous theorist which encompass everything from basic needs to self-actualization in order to demonstrate what motivates people.
LEVEL ONE• Physical NeedsIs the foundation of the theory because it is the first level of this hierarchy.If some needs are not fulfilled, a human physiological needs take the highest priority.Maslow also place sexual activities in this category as bodily comfort, activity and exercise.
LEVEL TWO• Safety Needs After the physical needs have been satisfied, people can work to meet their needs for safety. Safety needs are includes the physical security of employment, security of revenues and security of health. But sometimes, the desire for safety outweight the requirements to satisfy physiological needs completely.
LEVEL THREE• Communal NeedsAfter physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs is social.Involves relationship, sexual intimacy and having a supportive and communication family.
LEVEL FOUR• Esteem NeedsWhen individuals have satisfy their love and belonging, then can have the self-respect and to respect others.If imbalances in this level, it can result in low self-esteem and snobbishness.
LEVEL FIVE• Self-ActualizationThe instinctual need of humans to make the most of their unique abilities and to strive to be the best.Actually is the ones who can get fullest potential.
THEORY X AND YPRESENTER ;NURUL AMALINA ARISHAD
b. Theory X And Y• Developed by Doughlas McGregor• McGregor proposes two views of the attitude of an individual towards life and work• A “perception” of human behavior, either you are an “X person” or an “Y person”• Management style is GUIDED by assumptions of this human behavior
Assumption of Theory X• Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it• Employees dislike work, they have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals• Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are issued• At the end they get punished from their managers
Assumption of Theory Y• Take an optimistic view of employees• Assume that employees take a voluntary, active interest in their work• Employees don’t view work as a burden imposed on them• Employees can be the source of valuable insights and innovations• Overly centralized, command-and-control management structures harm the organization• If treated fairly employees will voluntarily pursue the organization’s goals
Comparison Theory x Theory y• Assumes human being to • Assumes that for human be inherently distasteful beings, work is as natural towards work as play• Emphasizes that people • Know the responsibilities do not have ambitions and and do the work with try to avoid diligently responsibilities in jobs • The capacity for creativity• The capacity for creativity is high is low • Higher order needs are• Motivating factors are the more important for lower needs motivating• Get punishment • Get rewards
c. Expectancy Theory• Vrooms primary research was on the expectancy theory of motivation, which attempts to explain why individuals choose to follow certain courses of action in organizations, particularly in decision-making and leadership.• His most well-known books are Work and Motivation,Leadership and Decision Making and The New Leadership.
Expectancy Theory• The Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process of why individuals choose one behavioral option over another and how they make decisions to achieve the end they value.• If you want to motivate your employee you have to make sure that his/her personal goal can be fulfilled, at the same time the needs of the organizations are also met• Vroom suggests that motivation will be high when workers feel : Highs level of effort lead to high performance. High performance will lead to attainment of desire outcomes.
• People’s expectations are different and hence they are motivated in different ways.• Consist of FIVE areas : Climbers (maximizing own power, prestige income) Conservers (maximizing own security & convinience) Indifferents (does not strive for status & prestige, and hence, have tranquility & satisfaction) Advocates (aggressively pressing for what they think is good) Upward Mobiles (while respecting authority and organization goals, they push to get personal rewards)
HOW DO THESE THEORIES HELP INEXPLAINING MOTIVATIONAL NEEDS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORSPRESENTER ;NURUL AMALINA ARISHAD
Motivational needs in public administration To be affective, managers need to understand what motivates within the context of the role they perform. Of all the functions a manager performs, motivating employees is the most complex• Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces• Motivated employees help organization survive• Motivated employees are more productive
References• www.slideworld.com/slideshow.aspx/Motivation- ppt-2770983• www.slideshare.net/amykua/maslow-theories- and-criticism• www.slideshare.net/samuraitheologian/maslows- hierarchy-of-needs-theory-online• Lecture note “Pengurusan Perniagaan 2010/2011, Kolej Matrikulasi Kedah”.• Lecture note “Introduction to Management, Organization and Motivation, University of Malaya”.