Writing for Digital - Sarah Manners - Quirk Knowledge Week


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  • Writing for Digital - Sarah Manners - Quirk Knowledge Week

    1. 1. Writing for Digital Workshop
    2. 2. DIGITAL COPY
    3. 3. About me• BSocSci (Maties)• IMC (AAA)• Digital copy (7.5yrs)• Fur mom of 5!• Passionate about upcycling, pink and
    4. 4. About you?• Digital marketing experience?• Writing and your role?• Do you have your own blog or website?• What do you want to get out
    5. 5. DIGITAL COPY
    6. 6. Is any text on screen: laptop, desktop, mobile phone,tablet
    7. 7. Digital copy needs to:• Provide information to visitors• Engage with visitors• Convince visitors to take action• Convey brand ethos• Provide context to search engines• … and much more!Oh, and it has to achieve all of this without looking like it’s trying too hard – easy right?
    8. 8. It’s not as easy as it looksWhile is is oftenoverlooked, digital copyis everywhere and it’svital to help marketersachieve goals
    9. 9. Digital copywriting is not simply a pared downversion of traditional copywriting. It does notinvolve a simple process of transferring printmedia onto the web
    10. 10. • It communicates the message you’re trying to deliver• The copy that you use on your website, email campaigns, social media platforms etc. is a critical factor in converting users and achieving your business goals• Fancy flash elements and impressive design will be pointless if your copy fails to deliver
    11. 11. •Digital copy also plays a central role in the overallonline communications strategy of an organisation• A digital communications strategy should cover,amongst other things, your website, your visibility onsearch engines and social media
    12. 12. Quality is key
    13. 13. Characteristics of great online writingShort +Emotive +Useful +Entertaining +Informative +Attention grabbing
    14. 14. Conceptual vs. executionalThere is also a commonmisconception that digitalcopywriters are notconceptual
    16. 16. SHAPED
    17. 17. The T represents the depth of related skillsand expertise in a single field, whereas thehorizontal bar is the ability to collaborateacross disciplines with experts in other areasand to apply knowledge in areas of expertiseother than ones own http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-shaped_skills
    18. 18. AUDIENCES
    19. 19. • Online copy needs to focus on your users, it should address their needs and solve their problems• So, the first step to online copywriting is to research your audience
    20. 20. According to Price and Price, audiences weretraditionally thought of as vast and vaguely definedcrowds (2002)
    21. 21. The more you know about the reader, the more youcan tailor the content to their needs
    22. 22. This means that digital copywriters should aim towrite for one ‘target user’ or for an audience of one –a persona
    23. 23. Creating personas
    24. 24. • A persona is a profile that you can create to embody the characteristics of the target audience for whom you are writing• Personas are based on the profile of readers of your copy• Creating a profile is all about considering the characteristics of your readers and their needs and desires
    25. 25. • Quantitative data – i.e. visitor demographics• Qualitative information – i.e. reader comments or answers from surveys and focus groups
    26. 26. • The key is to gather as much information as possible to create a well-rounded view of your target audience• This will help you craft a detailed persona
    27. 27. Yahoo! Style Guide: suggestions questions• How old are your readers?• Where are they from? Are they local? National? International?• Are they employed? Part or full-time? What do they do and is it related to the content you produce?• If they’re unemployed are they students, retirees, business owners?• Are they male or female? http://styleguide.yahoo.com/writing/identify-your-audience/reasearch-your-audience
    28. 28. Yahoo! Style Guide: suggestions questions• What is their income bracket? And what do they buy with their disposable income?• Do they spend money online? If so, how much?• What languages do they speak?• What is their level of education?• What race and ethnicity group do they fall into?• Are there any user’s who have difficulty accessing your site due to disability?
    29. 29. Also ask qualitative questions:
    30. 30. Also ask qualitative questions:How well does the site answer your audience’scontent needs?What do your visitors find most/least valuable?What would people add to make the experiencebetter?Why did people choose this site? How does it benefitthem?Would visitors recommend this site to a friend? Whyor why not?
    31. 31. How many?• You’re not limited to creating content for only one persona• Digital copy can be structured in such a way that it caters for several personas• However, you need to spend time understanding their needs before you are able to write copy that addresses these needs• But don’t create too many personas either. You risk losing focus and your audience’s attention
    32. 32. Once you’ve identified your target audienceand created your personas, you can begintailoring your content to their needsConsider where your target audience is online:•Do they use social media? If so, whatplatforms – Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn?•What topics do they discuss?•How can you tailor your content to suit theirneeds and offer relevance?
    33. 33. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jasontravis/sets/72157603258446753/
    34. 34. • Storytelling is a powerful marketing tool• We grow up hearing, reading and writing stories• We are more likely to remember stories over cold hard facts since we connect with them on an emotional level
    35. 35. • If you think creatively enough, every brand, product or service has a story• But how well structured, captivating and relevant is it?
    36. 36. Godin on a great story• Captures the attention of a large or important audience• Is true – or at least authentic and consistent• Makes a promise – a bold one that is exceptional and worth listening to• Is trusted• Is subtle – stories work best when people are left to draw their own conclusions http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2006/04/ode_how_to_tell.html
    37. 37. Godin on a great story• Happens fast – the power of first impressions• Doesn’t contradict itself – consumers see through deceit• Won’t appeal to everyone – they identify with the world view of a small audience, who spreads the story on• Doesn’t appeal to logic – but they do appeal to the senses• Agrees with what people already believe
    38. 38. But how do you do it?
    39. 39. Always remember the basics of a good story:• Determine what facts you want to include• Use a great headline• Open strong and grab your readers attention• Create a good structure with plot and place• Have clear characters/heroes• Establish a clear tone and perspective
    40. 40. Always remember the basics of a good story:• Build tension through conflict• Resolve the conflict• Have a happy ending – although you don’t need to give them all the details. Let your readers use their imaginations but provide them with a sense of direction• Provide a Call to Action
    41. 41. Example: Old Spice
    42. 42. Example: IKEA
    44. 44. Tone of voice“It isn’t what we say but howwe say it. It’s the languagewe use, the way weconstruct sentences, thesound of our words and thepersonality we communicate.It is to writing what logo,color and typeface are tobranding.” – Robert Mills http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/08/21/finding-tone-voice/
    45. 45. http://www.quirk.biz/emarketingtextbook/
    46. 46. What’s my tone again?Look at the brand:•Typefaces•Colors•Language•ImageryIt will help you determine the most appropriate andauthentic tone
    47. 47. Talk to the stakeholders• What is our personality?• How do we sound to others?• How do we want to sound?• Are we authentic?• Who are we targeting?• How can we keep our voice but change the tone?• What words do we like?• What words do we despise?
    48. 48. Talk to the stakeholders• Should we use jargon?• Can we use humor?• How informal can we be?• What punctuation should we use?• What do our competitors sound like?
    49. 49. And document it all in a “style guide”
    50. 50. http://voiceandtone.com/
    51. 51. What else should I put in the style guide?• Brand history• USP• Goals• Our audience (and what we want them to think, feel and do when they read our copy)• Conventions
    52. 52. What else should I put in the style guide?The way we use capitalisation:•WE ARE QUIRK•We Are Quirk•We are Quirk•we are quirkIs there a list of particular words / services we treatwith different capitalisation?•QuirkStar•QuirkStation
    53. 53. What else should I put in the style guide?The way we write numbers:•4 / four•4 million / four million / 4 000 000 / 4,000,000The way we treat currency•R1 / R 1 / R1.00The way we treat time•4pm / 16h00•1.5hrs / 1.5 hours / 1.5 hrs
    54. 54. What else should I put in the style guide?The way we treat dates:•1 Jan 2013 / 1 January 2013 / 1st of January 2013 /01.01.2013The way we treat periods in titles:•Mr / Mr.Do we like contractions:•We are / we’re
    55. 55. What else should I put in the style guide?The way we use punctuation:•In lists, tables, headlines etc.The way we treat acronyms:•National Credit Act (NCA) first then NCA / list ofacronyms that never need to be written out in fullFull list of words we like to use and a list of ones wedon’t
    56. 56. RESULTS-DRIVEN
    57. 57. We are marketingNot just writing for fun:•Be aware of business objectives•The KPIs of any work you’re doing•The goals•How the goals will be measured
    58. 58. Useful concepts
    59. 59. An audience of one
    60. 60. An audience of oneRemoving instances of “our clients” and replacingthem with “you” leads to an immediate sense of one-to-one communication
    61. 61. The fold
    62. 62. Call to action (CTA)
    63. 63. http://lorirtaylor.com/the-one-question-you-must-always-answer-for-your-reader-infographic/
    64. 64. How we read online
    65. 65. Responsive copywriting
    66. 66. Online, we often only have a limited space to attractattention and entice action. And we have to use itwell:•Your readers will be time starved•They will not read each painstakingly crafted word •They are overwhelmed•They scan•Some require more than others…
    67. 67. • Bolding• Lists• Headings• Paragraphs• CTAs• Contextual interlinking• Size (does matter)• Bullets
    68. 68. KISS
    69. 69. • The use of contractions• Don’t state the obvious• Limit use of specialist language• Consider using icons / infographic elements to replace text
    70. 70. •Bad: In my opinion, this is without a doubt, definitelythe worst time to purchase avocados.•Better: This is definitely the worst time to purchaseavocados.•Even better: It’s the worst time to purchaseavocados.•Best: Don’t buy avos now.
    72. 72. 1st vs 3rd Person
    73. 73. Tense… it’s no joke
    74. 74. Isn’t it all English after all?
    75. 75. Active vs. Passive
    76. 76. Send us an email and we’ll issue you with an ordernumber.OrWhen your email has been received, we’ll issue youwith an order number.
    77. 77. Features BenefitsHas five different settings Lets you choose the settings you preferSends regular updates to Gives you peace of mindyour phoneIncludes a built-in Save time and ensure youcalendar, memo and always have the right infoaddress book at hand
    78. 78. ‘SELL A GOOD NIGHT’S SLEEP – NOT THEMATTRESS .’ Instructor atAcademy of ArtUniversity, Advertising program
    79. 79. Seach and online copy
    80. 80. Online copy is read by:
    81. 81. And it has to be relevant to both
    82. 82. They crawl the web
    83. 83. Index web pages
    84. 84. Process search queries
    85. 85. Return results
    86. 86. If you’re not on the first page…
    87. 87. Search engines look for:• Relevance• Importance• Popularity And we give it to them,• Trust by optimising• Authority
    88. 88. Building search friendly sitesWe need to do everything in our power to help thespiders crawl and index our site – this is done byremoving various technical barriers
    89. 89. Copy must…• Provide information to readers• Engage readers• Convince them to do what you wantSEO copy must do all of that AND send signals of relevance to the search engines with content
    90. 90. Targeted content that is…• To target, we need to find out where to aim – enter keyword / key phrase research• Keywords can be considered as “areas in which you wish to compete”• You’ll be competing for position on the SERPs
    91. 91. What to consider?• Search volume• Competition• Propensity to convert• Value per lead
    92. 92. 3 phasesBrainstorm: Think like auserResearch: Who’ssearching for whatRefine: Search volumeand competition
    93. 93. Now we need to send those signals• URLs• Page title• Meta data• Headers <h>• Body copy• Links• Anchor text• Alt tags• Link text
    94. 94. Page title
    95. 95. Meta data
    96. 96. Here’s what we see
    97. 97. H tags
    98. 98. Body copy
    99. 99. Image alt tags
    100. 100. Anchor text
    101. 101. All of this is sending signals of relevance to searchengines
    102. 102. SEO vs Copywriter
    103. 103. PLATFORMS
    104. 104. Platforms• Websites• Mobisites• Social media• Paid media• PR and blogging• Email• Display
    105. 105. Websites
    106. 106. What’s the point?• Providing information about who you are• Offering an explanation of what users can expect to find on your website• Making a statement• Building trust and credibility
    107. 107. Writing for websites• Writing text that can be easily scanned• Using meaningful headings and sub-headings• Having a well-organised site• The inverted pyramid• Using paragraphs effectively• Keeping copy concise
    108. 108. Parts of a website• A good home page• An about page• A contact page• A products or services page• Common page elements (CPEs)• Main navigation links• A search box• Forms
    109. 109. Headings
    110. 110. Subsections
    111. 111. Navigation
    112. 112. CTAs
    113. 113. Links
    114. 114. Footers
    115. 115. Contact
    116. 116. Personalisation
    117. 117. Error pages
    118. 118. Site content: processReceive• Creative brief – this is put together by the client service team in association with the client• Functional specification document and wireframes - put together by the UX teamReview• Team reviews the documentation, has a project kick-off and feedback session
    119. 119. Site content: processUpdate• Documents are updated and re-circulated before the work kicks offSEO input• The SEO team delivers the SEO strategy and key phrases to the team (while they do have their own processes in determining these, it is important to understand this process and to have a general understanding of how it works)
    120. 120. Site content: processWriting• The copywriter takes the SEO phrases and begins writing• Work on copy for two+ pages together with a designer to present to the client• The client then feeds back on tone, creative direction etc. before and entire deck is created• The copywriter then creates an entire deck which goes through internal and external rounds of feedback
    121. 121. Site content: processDesign review• The copywriter reviews the flat art design with their copy included in it to see if everything is correct and to determine what needs to be amended to complement the design
    122. 122. Site content: processFinalisation•Once the copy and design are signed off it goes toHTML and Engineering•Once completed, copywriter reviews the functioningsite to ensure that all copy has been correctlyimplemented•Entire team reviews the site before completion•Site goes live•The copywriter drinks bottle of champers and does ahappy dance
    123. 123. Some things to considerHow does it look and read? Professional and slick?Are there clear CTAs to direct readers?Are prominent phone numbers and addresses abovethe fold of certain web pages?Have you used testimonials on each page?Is your content content fresh and updated?Is your site free of errors?
    124. 124. Mobile
    125. 125. Mobile reading“Out of South Africa’s 6.8 million Internet users, 2.48million South Africans use only their cellphones toaccess the internet, and there are just 820,000 ADSLlines in use.” Internet World Stats, Dec 2011
    126. 126. Mobile reading
    127. 127. Who are we writing for?• People who are bored and browsing while waiting (in a queue perhaps)• Those who are task driven and urgently looking for information, like someone trying to get their flight details or the number for a taxi• Those who are performing a repeated action, like checking the weather
    128. 128. Writing for mobile• Mobile websites• Mobile advertising• SMS/MMS/USSD• Apps
    129. 129. Limitations• A small screen size, often with tiny text.• Scrolling – no mouse• Navigation is limited• Downloads are often slow• Data can be expensive for mobile phone users
    130. 130. Responsive
    131. 131. Responsive
    132. 132. Mobile advertising 25 characters for the title 70 characters for the advert text 35 characters for a display URL
    133. 133. Apps
    134. 134. SMS tips• Know who you are writing to: Define your audience (it’ll help you to determine when to send the message as well)• Don’t use SMS speak: Txt spk isn’t gr8 2 use txt speak cos it isn’t professional. Remember that the messages you write are representative of your organisation and should adhere to brand tone guidelines• Start off with a bang and focus on the benefits: capture your reader’s attention immediately
    135. 135. SMS tips• Keep the message simple:You only have 160 characters per SMS so use them wisely and eliminate all the unnecessary text. But ensure our message still makes sense• Encourage conversation: Great opportunity for engagement, so capitalise on this. Encourage feedback and questions and always respond as quickly as possible. And use them to direct traffic to your mobisite
    136. 136. Social
    137. 137. Facebook
    138. 138. Twitter
    139. 139. Twitter tips• Always consider your goal• Be informative• Stick to one or two points in your message• Use the active voice• Be wary of acronyms and abbreviations• Reply to your followers• Use keywords #tags• Use a URL shortener
    140. 140. Pinterest
    141. 141. Instagram
    142. 142. YouTube
    143. 143. Social copy tips•Research is vital: You need to understand what typeof content community members want. You need toknow who you are targeting and then whatinformation they will find meaningful•Remember it’s a conversation: Your content must bepersonable and appealing. Social media is no placefor stuffy corporate speak•Shareable content is credible content
    144. 144. Social copy tips•Remember that your content should offer value andbe insightful. Ultimately you should aim to create anoverall perception that your brand is the thoughtleader in its industry•Avoid overly promotional content•Community members are likely to see right througha sales pitch
    145. 145. Paid search
    146. 146. Tips for paid advert copy• Heading – 25 characters• Line 1 – 35 characters• Line 2 – 35 characters• Display URL - 35• Use vanity URLs• You can put a CTA in the advert copy• No repeated exclamation marks
    147. 147. Tips for paid advert copy• No word may be written in capitals only• No claims of “best”, “number one” or superlatives may be used unless they can be verified by a reliable third-party source• Product numbers may be used• Test, test, test
    148. 148. PR and blogging
    149. 149. Blogging tips• Industry relevant • Meaningful and• Appeal to your target attention-grabbing market headlines• Transparent and • Use links honest • Optimise• Personal and • Write for easy entertaining scanning• Regularly updated • If you want readers to engage – provoke it
    150. 150. Email
    151. 151. • Transaction emails• Promotional emails• Newsletters
    152. 152. Writing for email
    153. 153. Parts of an email
    154. 154. Subject lines: consider the following:Use questions - Looking for a tool to driveconversions?Use numbers - 5 killer tips on creating a powerfulimpressionCreate a sense of urgency or time factor - Onlyavailable until midnight!
    155. 155. Email tipsPay attention to subject linesClear CTAsGet to the pointPay attention to the dataAdd valueBuild relationships
    156. 156. Email tips• Solve a problem: The key to a successful newsletter is providing solutions and relevant information to your readers• Share industry secrets: For example, consultants could share their advice on best practices and tips for growing a business• Share your knowledge: What benefits could you provide to your consumers? Highlight these in your newsletter. For example, a health spa could offer home relaxation tips or advice
    157. 157. Email tips• Ask a question: Consider what answers your consumers are looking for, and ask an appropriate question in the subject line• Offer the reader a teaser: Try using a cleverly worded subject line to entice your reader in. For instance, ‘Four reasons your staff are costing you money’• Tell the reader what’s in it for them: Consumers want to know how things will benefit them. Make this clear in the subject line
    158. 158. Email tips• Turn your readers’ questions into content: If you have regular questions or concerns from readers, use these to create content• Show your softer side: Highlight charitable events, wellness endeavours and community focused initiatives through your newsletters• Be creative: Think laterally and craft newsletters in new and creative ways• Take a poll: It can be useful to take a poll and gauge what content your users would like
    159. 159. Display
    160. 160. Display tips•Simplicity is key•Use strong headlines or questions• Focus on one clear benefit• Find a need and then offer a solution• Use Calls to Action effectively
    161. 161.  
    162. 162. • HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language,  and it is the foundation of online documents. • HTML tags tell web browsers how to present  content. HTML tags are in the brackets that look  like arrows: < >
    163. 163. The basics Bold: <strong>phrase you wish to bold</strong>Italics: <em>phrase you wish to italicise</em>Underline: <u>phrase you wish to underline</u>List: <li>lines you wish to list</li>Praragraph break: <p>paragraph text</p>Line break: <br/>Hyperlink: <a href=“page url”>phrase you wish to link</a>Main headong: <h1>heading</h1>Second level heading: <h2>heading</h2>Third level heading: <h3>heading</h3>
    164. 164. WYSIWYGWhen imnplementing online copy, you can use an HTML editor, where you insert the tags yourself, or a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) editor which works in a similar way to a word processor.  An HTML editor codes your writing so it is ready for you to place on your website. Some programs may even create entire web pages that you can upload. 
    165. 165. Online HTML editors • http://www.onlinehtmleditor.net/• http://htmledit.squarefree.com/• http://www.quackit.com/html/online-html-editor• http://www.free-online-html-editor.com HTML Tutorial: http://www.w3schools.com/html
    166. 166. YUPPIECHEF
    167. 167. YUPPIECHEF
    168. 168. YUPPIECHEF
    169. 169. YUPPIECHEF
    170. 170. YUPPIECHEF
    171. 171. YUPPIECHEF
    172. 172. YUPPIECHEF
    173. 173. YUPPIECHEF
    174. 174. YUPPIECHEF
    175. 175. YUPPIECHEF
    176. 176. YUPPIECHEF
    177. 177. YUPPIECHEF
    178. 178. YUPPIECHEF
    179. 179. YUPPIECHEF
    180. 180. YUPPIECHEF
    181. 181. YUPPIECHEF
    182. 182. YUPPIECHEF
    183. 183. YUPPIECHEF
    184. 184. YUPPIECHEF
    185. 185. YUPPIECHEF
    186. 186. Evaluating your copy:  •Self evaluation•Readability tests•Spelling and grammar checks•A/B split testing and multivariate testing
    187. 187. Self evaluation 
    188. 188. Self evaluation: credibility checksPurpose• Is the purpose clearly defined and carried through  all elements of the content?• Is the copy easy to understand?Authority• Have you told the reader who you are?• Have you indicated why you are well positioned to  communicate your message across?
    189. 189. Self evaluation: credibility checksCurrency• Is your content fresh and new? • Have you indicated that you are aware of industry  developments and are aware of what is going on in  the world?Accuracy• Have you verified facts and statistics?• Have you referenced sources and provide links to  external proof?
    190. 190. Self evaluation: credibility checksObjectivity• Does content convey a balanced perspective?• Have you avoided showing your agenda overtly?• If there is bias in your copy, have you stated this  up-front?• Have you mentioned any affiliations up-front?Uniqueness• Is your content different to that of competitors?• Does it approach the topic in a creative way?
    191. 191. Self evaluation: credibility checksEmpathy• Does your copy reflect an understanding of the  consumer?• Have you shown that you understand their needs?• Have you admitted a shortfall or possible negative  element for the sake of transparency? 
    192. 192. Self evaluation: digital copy checksIs the content written for easy scanning? • Clear and concise headings • Bulleted and numbered lists • Bold and italics • Descriptive links Have you used short paragraphs effectively and written in the inverted pyramid style?
    193. 193. Self evaluation: digital copy checksHave you optimised the copy for SEO effectively?   • Optimised heading • Key phrases in the body copy • Other elements that might apply such as page title,  meta description etc. 
    194. 194. Self evaluation: digital copy checks• Have you written concisely so that the information  is easy to digest, particularly for time-starved  readers? If not, can you shorten phrases and  sentences?• Can you shorten and tighten the copy?• Have you included links to other relevant content?
    195. 195. Tone, conventions and techniques checks • Does your copy convey brand personality through  the words chosen and general tone?• Have you used the active voice to speak directly  to your readers?• Have you used a persuasive technique?• Have you employed a convention such as  storytelling? (if appropriate)
    196. 196. http://www.fightthebull.com/bullfighter.asp
    197. 197. Online readability A tool using a number of readability measures: http://www.addedbytes.com/lab/readability-score/http://wordscount.info/http://flesh.sourceforge.net/http://www.niace.org.uk/misc/SMOG-calculator/smogcalchttp://www.wordscount.info/hw/smog.jsp
    198. 198. Spelling and grammar tests
    199. 199. Split testing 
    200. 200. AB split testing 
    202. 202. Multivariate testing If you chose to test 3 elements of your page:Headline,  CTA and length of body copyYou’d have 3 variables with 2 versions each and test all to see which combination of variables works best 
    203. 203. Multivariate testing Headline 1 + CTA 1 + Body copy 1Headline 1 + CTA 1 + Body copy 2Headline 1 + CTA 2 + body copy 1Headline 1 + CTA 2 + body copy 2Headline 2 + CTA 1 + body copy 1Headline 2 + CTA 1 + body copy 2Headline 2 + CTA 2 + body copy 1Headline 2 + CTA 2 + body copy 2
    204. 204. What to test?• Headline: Test different wording, as well as  different text sizes• CTA text: Test different Calls to Action to see  which is more effective• CTA position: Test a few different positions• Body copy length: Test different copy lengths• Body copy format: Test out different formats,  changing lists subheadings, paragraphs, bolding,  italics etc.  
    205. 205. What to test?• Copy tone and style: Consider changing the tone  and style• Navigation and other linked text: Test variations in  the wording you use• Corresponding images: While not strictly copy, the  images you opt to use with your text can have a  huge impact on conversions, especially when  selling a physical product. Test out which images  work best, how many images are optimal and how  large those images should be
    206. 206. What to test?• Different offers: You may want to test different  offers to see which one works best. Try to set up  your offers so that they have similar values (to  prevent skewed results). For example, you might  offer one group of visitors free shipping, and the  other group 10% off• If your page is long and requires scrolling,  consider having your Call to Action button  repeated several times on the page
    207. 207. Testing tools Google’s Content Experiments: http://www.google.com/analytics/features/content.html Visual website optimiser: http://visualwebsiteoptimizer.com/ Split test calculator: http://www.usereffect.com/split-test-calculator  
    208. 208. • Write in plain English  • Edit like a mo fo • Get to the point • Talk like a human • Get feedback• Test and iterate • Practise • Read more (good stuff) 
    209. 209. • Write headlines with impact• Optimise headlines • Keep active • Read your copy OUT LOUD• Write for easy scanning• Use simple, clear, precise language • Use bulleted lists• Short, concise sentences and paragraphs • Use bolding or italicising for important text
    210. 210. • Limit the flowery fluffy adverbs • Write the most important info above the fold• Write using the inverted pyramid• Focus on the benefits• Use persuasive writing• Optimise your copy for SEO
    211. 211. Quirk Education courses • Writing for Digital: Foundations and Application • Digital PR: Foundations and Best Practice • Email Marketing: Foundations and Best Practice • SEO 1: Foundations and Application• Web Analytics: Foundations and Application• Digital Marketing  http://www.quirk.biz/courses/home  http://www.quirk.biz/emarketingtextbook/ 
    212. 212. //FIN