25 July 2012Media in Italy and the digital challengePart 3:Internet and Online JournalismBy Iginio Gagliardoneand Davide M...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012   The Mapping Digital Media project   In early 2011 the Open Societ...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012             Access to internet: Italy lags behind             Italy...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012                                     Still very few people online…  ...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012                          …yet access to mobile internet increases  ...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012   New ways to search for information   According to Censis, in 2011...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012   The most popular websitesTop 10 websites in Italy – Unique monthl...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012   The most popular information websitesThe top 10 information websi...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012Internet and journalism: novelties and paradoxes                    ...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012   Journalism online: is anything changing?   The largest players wi...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012Journalism online: survival as success   Though internet has decreas...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012   Internet, journalism and politics                                ...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012   Internet, journalism and paradoxes   Together, economic and cultu...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012What could be useful, but isn’t there (yet?)   Beyond the Italian bo...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012   Online newsrooms: what changes    The net has nevertheless set ne...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012   Online newsrooms: pros and cons   These new journalistic routines...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012   Conclusions: technology and culture   To fully take advantage of ...
Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012   Useful links   Open Society Foundation, Mapping Digital Media – I...
Thanks!If you appreciated the presentation forward it to your friends                    and support our project!         ...
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Internet and Online Journalism in Italy (part 3)

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While broadband penetration in Italy is still at the lowest levels in Europe, the effects of internet on Italian media to date have been mixed. Although new information spaces have appeared, the web has not had a strong impact on the dominance of large media players or on the close relationship between journalism and politics. What Italy is still missing are authoritative voices, able to overcome partisan interests and act as ‘watchdogs’ of politics and information alike.
This slide-show is the last part of the project "Media in Italy and the digital challenge", which quattrogatti.info has carried out with the support of the Open Society Foundation. In addition to a preview on the reform of Italy's state television RAI, previous episodes have focussed on information sources and digital terrestrial television. To know more, go to www.quattrogatti.info!

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Internet and Online Journalism in Italy (part 3)

  1. 1. 25 July 2012Media in Italy and the digital challengePart 3:Internet and Online JournalismBy Iginio Gagliardoneand Davide MorisiWith the support of
  2. 2. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 The Mapping Digital Media project In early 2011 the Open Society Foundation (OSF) launched the Mapping Digital Media project to study the opportunities and risks linked to the transition from traditional to digital media. Among the 60 countries in the study, the situation in Italy was analysed in a detailed report published in October 2011. Thanks to funding from OSF quattrogatti.info has developed a series of presentations and videos highlighting key aspects of this report as well as new data and analysis. In this last presentation we concentrate on the spread of internet in Italy and its effects on journalism. www.quattrogatti.info
  3. 3. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 Access to internet: Italy lags behind Italy ranks among the last countries in Europe for internet access, with only one family out of two connected to high speed internet, against a 68% average in Europe. Comparing the diffusion of broadband, only Greece, Bulgaria and Romania lag behind. 100 Households with access to internet (2011) 90 80 70 60 Non banda% of households 50 larga 40 30 broad- 20 Banda band 10 larga 0 www.quattrogatti.info www.quattrogatti.infoSource: Eurostat, Internet use in households and by individuals in 2011
  4. 4. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 Still very few people online… The low diffusion of the net leads to low frequency of use: • only one person in two browses the web at least once a week, against a European average of 2 out of 3; • a staggering 39% of italians has never used internet, a percentage which is among the highest in Europe1. 100% Individuals who have accessed the internet at least once a week in 2011 90% Source: Eurostat, Internet use in households and by individuals in 2011 80% 70%% of individuals on the population 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% www.quattrogatti.info1. 2011 Data, Digital Agenda for Europe www.quattrogatti.info
  5. 5. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 …yet access to mobile internet increases The penetration of 3G technology is now triggering a positive shift in Italy. Allowing people to navigate online through mobile phones, 3G is contributing to compensate for broadband‟s lack of take-up. 60 Italy: subscribers to internet and 3G mobiles as a percentage of overall population 50 40% of overall population 30 20 10 0 2005 2005 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 Internet non banda larga Internet banda larga Telefonia mobile 3G www.quattrogatti.infoSource: Open Society Foundations, “Mapping Digital Media – Italy”.
  6. 6. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 New ways to search for information According to Censis, in 2011 some 50% of Italians used internet to search for information2. However, percentages vary radically by age group: • 83% of 14 to 29 year olds searches for information on the net, • this is as low as 51% for adults 30 to 64, and 19% for over 65s. The search for information online is Immagine di Peter Brough increasingly mediated by news aggregators, information portals and especially social media, used by a third of Italians at least once a week3.2. It should be noted that, according to Censis, almost all Italians online (53%) use internet to search forinformation (52%). Source: Censis, Nono rapporto sulla comunicazione, 2011. www.quattrogatti.info3. Eurobarometre, n. 76 (autumn 2011). Data for Italy is in line with the European average (35%).
  7. 7. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 The most popular websitesTop 10 websites in Italy – Unique monthly visitors (x 1000) 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 The list of Italy‟s most-clicked Google 24039 websites is topped by: Facebook 20836 • Search engines (with Google YouTube 16742 leading the way),MSN / Bing / WindowsLive 16446 • Webmail portals, • Facebook, boasting over 20 Virgilio 14680 million visitors a month, Yahoo! 14092 • Youtube (which also belongs to Google). Microsoft 13992 Libero 13187 No information website linked to Wikipedia 12363 traditional media such as newspapers and TV figures in the Blogger 10153 Source: Audiweb, June2011 top-10. www.quattrogatti.info (from Bruno and Nielsen, 2012)
  8. 8. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 The most popular information websitesThe top 10 information websites in ItalyUnique monthly visitors (x 1000) La Repubblica and Corriere della 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 Sera top the list on the web as they doLa Repubblica 8607 with their paper editions, proving that La Repubblica – 926.000Corriere della 7895 internet has not yet disrupted pre- Sera Internazionale - 237.000 existing power dynamics within the press. Il Fatto Quotidiano – 758.000 TGCOM 6029 Corriere della Sera - 690.000 News portals (such as Libero News and Il Sole 24 Ore - 123.000 Libero News 5022 Virgilio) and news aggregators such as La Stampa.it 4010 Google News are the real news of online information. ANSA 3715 Quotidiano.n It is interesting to note the high ranking 3354 et of Il Fatto Quotidiano on Facebook Virgilio Notizie 2383 (given its very low „paper‟ readership), as an example of how innovative uses of Google News 2000 First 5 information websites on Facebook* social media can multiply readers. Il Fatto Number of fans – 5/5/2012 Quotidiano 2119 * The list of websites on Facebook does not include sports www.quattrogatti.infoSource: Audiweb, June 2011 (from Bruno and Nielsen, 2012) newspapers and blogs
  9. 9. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012Internet and journalism: novelties and paradoxes The growing importance of internet has had contrasting effects on journalism: • It has offered new opportunities for experimentation, transforming some online journals into „communities‟ and creating new spaces for sharing information, where the relationship between journalists, audience and sources has become more integrated; • It hasn‟t (for now) challenged the dominance of large conglomerates and the strong relationship between journalism and politics. This fight between new and old has created tensions and paradoxes… www.quattrogatti.info
  10. 10. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 Journalism online: is anything changing? The largest players with most resources to innovate have demonstrated scarce creativity and ability to launch new products. Neither RAI nor Mediaset have succeeded in „reinventing‟ themselves online. La Repubblica and Corriere della Sera dominate the market for journalism on the net. However, while they have been offering new content on different platforms (such as smartphone and tablet), they have been much Foto di itBox24 more reluctant in experimenting new forms of journalism. Moreover, legislative measures have been favouring large conglomerates, while there have been no incentives to do journalism exclusively online. www.quattrogatti.info
  11. 11. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012Journalism online: survival as success Though internet has decreased entrance barriers for those who want to start up informative websites, new players who only operate online find it hard to emerge, but above all to survive. Websites that try to re-launch investigative journalism such as Linkiesta or that try and innovate styles and create community such as Il Post have obtained funding to kick-off, though it is unclear how they will become sustainable in the longer term given that advertisements alone are not enough.4. The vast majority of advertisements online are captured by very few groups, first and foremost Google Italia5.4. Nicola Bruno and Rasmus Nielsen, „Survival is Success: Journalistic Online Start-Ups in Western Europe‟ www.quattrogatti.info5. Open Society Foundations, “Mapping Digital Media – Italy”, p. 75
  12. 12. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 Internet, journalism and politics Immagine di OpenSourceWay Barriers to innovation in journalism aren‟t only proprietal. They are also cultural and they depend on the model that has characterised the relationship between journalism and freedom of expression in Italy. In the country, freedom of expression has historically established itself as the guarantee of a plurality of opinions, through laws such as the par condicio, and defended by newspapers in favour of one political party or the other. This system, over time, has forced many journalists to become politically partisan or to act as mere moderators of others‟ political opinions. Except for a few rare cases, a type of journalism that could rise above politics (such as in England and Germany) has failed to emerge. www.quattrogatti.info
  13. 13. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 Internet, journalism and paradoxes Together, economic and cultural factors have had paradoxical consequences on online journalism: • New ideas and talents who grew up with the internet find it hard to attract resources, while traditional players (who re- propose the same old logic to the new media) still dominate the market; • The number of players online has increased, many of them declaring they say what others don‟t say. However, there is a lack of authoratitative sources that control politics and information, as is common in many other countries. www.quattrogatti.info
  14. 14. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012What could be useful, but isn’t there (yet?) Beyond the Italian borders, new media have triggered new forms of journalism, through initiatives that allow citizens to hold politics and information accountable. • Factcheck and Bildblog verify news items on the main media sources, in the US and Germany; • Politifact verifies statements made by politicians to see whether they mantain the promises they made during their campaigns; • The Datablog by the Guardian experiments with new forms of journalism based on data; • Spot.us collects resources online to finance investigative reports; • Propublica and The Bureau of Investigative Journalism promote new models of investigative journalism sustained by foundations. Apart from a few timid attempts none of these projects has yet been launched in Italy. www.quattrogatti.info
  15. 15. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 Online newsrooms: what changes The net has nevertheless set new challenges for old and new players alike: • A new “news cycle” There is no longer any deadline (when the newspaper goes to print) so news Foto di SourceFabric gets launched „in real time‟. • „Do it all‟ journalists Online newsrooms are staffed by less and less specialised people6. • New „communities‟ Online jounalism bases itself on a careful choice of topics, which are then debated and commented on by other journalists and readers. www.quattrogatti.info6. As the director of the Post, Luca Sofri, explained “everyone does everything” – Linkiesta, 7 May 2010
  16. 16. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 Online newsrooms: pros and cons These new journalistic routines have pros and cons: Pros: • A piece of news can grow a little at a time, with journalists adding details and multimedia materials as the story unveils. • Readers can become sources of information (such as in catastrophic events) and they can contribute to „check‟ on the news story through their comments. • A stronger sense of community is created. Cons: • Fact-checking becomes more difficult with an increased dependence on institutional sources, press agencies, and events such as press conferences. • The filtering of comments adds a large burden on journalists (so much so it is sometimes tendered out) and appears like „censoring‟ to readers. • It is increasingly difficult to develop investigative journalism that requires human and financial resources that are not sustainable for online newsrooms. www.quattrogatti.info
  17. 17. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 Conclusions: technology and culture To fully take advantage of the possibilities for Foto di Uwe Hermann change offered by new media two large steps ahead are needed in Italy. The first is structural. The digitalization of the country needs to be completed, investing in broadband. Italy is now paying its set-back in this sector, both economically and socially7. The second step is cultural. The country must overcome the idea that freedom of expression is simply the existence of a plurality of conflicting opinions, and instead focusing on strengthening the independence and reliability of information. What Italy is still missing are authoritative voices, able to overcome partisan interests and act as „watchdogs‟ of politics and information alike.7. According to European Commissioner Neelie Kroes, this gap costs Italy a loss between 1 and 1,5% ofGDP (Neelie Kroes, forum Confindustria digitale, 11 aprile 2012). www.quattrogatti.infoSee also Open Society Foundations, “Mapping Digital Media – Italy”.
  18. 18. Internet and Online Journalism in Italy – 25 July 2012 Useful links Open Society Foundation, Mapping Digital Media – Italy Report in inglese / Report in italiano (versione non aggiornata) On internet and journalism online • Nicola Bruno and Rasmus Nielsen (2012) Survival is Success: Journalistic Online Start-Ups in Western Europe • William H. Dutton (2008) The Fifth Estate Emerging Through the Network of Networks • Jonathan Gray, Liliana Bounegru, Lucy Chambers Data Journalism Handbook • Online journalism blog Datasets • Digital Agenda for Europe, Country profile – Italy • Eurostat, Internet use in households and by individuals in 2011 • Eurobarometro, Standard Eurobarometer 76, Autumn 2011 • Censis, Nono rapporto sulla comunicazione, 2011 • Agcom, Relazione annuale 2011 www.quattrogatti.info
  19. 19. Thanks!If you appreciated the presentation forward it to your friends and support our project! www.quattrogatti.info We thank Nicola Bruno and Cristian Vaccari for comments To contact the authors : info@quattrogatti.info To participate: partecipa@quattrogatti.info

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