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Module 2.2
1
Module 2.2
2
Introduction
Techniques and tools used to commit computer crimes
Categories of computer crime
Protecting yourself against cybercrime
Test and improve your knowledge
3
 Computer crime can be seen in two
ways –
where a computer system is the
target of the crime (e.g. ‘hacking’)
and where computer technology is
used to enable or commit the crime.
4
Any attempt to manipulate or ‘con’ someone into
giving out information such as a password or
account number which can be used to impersonate
them.
Software specifically designed to install itself without
the user’s knowledge and to affect or harm a
computer system . This includes viruses and spyware.
5
6
It refers to attempts from
people to con the user into
giving out personal and
confidential details such as PIN
numbers and passwords, etc. by
posing as a legitimate
organisation, usually via e-mail.
7
E-mail spoofing is the forgery
of an e-mail header so that
the e-mail appears to be from a
different origin (or person).
8
A computer worm is malware that is able
to distribute itself over a network,
normally via e-mail, without a person
having run an infected program.
9
Written to disrupt the normal
functioning of a person’s computer
without their knowledge or consent.
 Used to turn your computer into a ‘bot’
to spread malware or
 to create security loopholes for other
programs to exploit.
10
Tries to monitor and track the way you
use your computer. It then sends this
information to third parties without your
consent or knowledge.
11
Records your keystrokes as you type and
can possibly even record the movements
of your mouse and take screenshots of
what is displayed on your screen.
12
Type of malware which is a destructive
program disguised as a useful
application.
13
When a computer is ‘hacked’ so that
when the user types in a ‘valid’ URL in
their browser they are taken to another
website, which is often a replica.
14
A computer that has been compromised
(or infected) and can be controlled
remotely when it is on and connected to
the Internet.
15
Software that downloads onto your
computer and bombards your computer
with adverts that pop-up whenever you
are connected to the Internet.
! !
16
17
Cyberstalking Spam
Uploading unauthorised pictures on
the Web
Cyberbullying
18
business
cyber
attacks
website
cyber
attacks
cyberterrorism
denial of
service
attacks
19
Bandwidth
Identity
Processing time and power
Money
Copyrighted material
Data/Intellectual property
20
The criminal either has to:
 obtain essential information, such as a
user name and password, in order to access a
secure system
 get physical access to a computer so that
data can be downloaded directly onto
portable media.
21
22
 Assume nothing
 Believe no one
 Check everything
A B
C
23
Anti-virus software
Computer programs that scan computer files for
viruses and eliminate them.
24
Firewall software
Software that allows you to control which
programs can access the Internet and protects your
computer or network from unauthorised access.
25
Anti-spyware software
Anti-spyware software detects spyware that has
been installed on a computer.
26
 Be careful when installing ‘free’
software .
 Have good password policies.
 Stay informed.
27
 Don’t give out personal information.
 Don’t click on links in pop-ups.
 Don’t open attachments or programs
unless you are sure of what they are.
 Don’t be gullible.
28

29
30

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Techniques and Categories of Computer Crime

  • 3. Introduction Techniques and tools used to commit computer crimes Categories of computer crime Protecting yourself against cybercrime Test and improve your knowledge 3
  • 4.  Computer crime can be seen in two ways – where a computer system is the target of the crime (e.g. ‘hacking’) and where computer technology is used to enable or commit the crime. 4
  • 5. Any attempt to manipulate or ‘con’ someone into giving out information such as a password or account number which can be used to impersonate them. Software specifically designed to install itself without the user’s knowledge and to affect or harm a computer system . This includes viruses and spyware. 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. It refers to attempts from people to con the user into giving out personal and confidential details such as PIN numbers and passwords, etc. by posing as a legitimate organisation, usually via e-mail. 7
  • 8. E-mail spoofing is the forgery of an e-mail header so that the e-mail appears to be from a different origin (or person). 8
  • 9. A computer worm is malware that is able to distribute itself over a network, normally via e-mail, without a person having run an infected program. 9
  • 10. Written to disrupt the normal functioning of a person’s computer without their knowledge or consent.  Used to turn your computer into a ‘bot’ to spread malware or  to create security loopholes for other programs to exploit. 10
  • 11. Tries to monitor and track the way you use your computer. It then sends this information to third parties without your consent or knowledge. 11
  • 12. Records your keystrokes as you type and can possibly even record the movements of your mouse and take screenshots of what is displayed on your screen. 12
  • 13. Type of malware which is a destructive program disguised as a useful application. 13
  • 14. When a computer is ‘hacked’ so that when the user types in a ‘valid’ URL in their browser they are taken to another website, which is often a replica. 14
  • 15. A computer that has been compromised (or infected) and can be controlled remotely when it is on and connected to the Internet. 15
  • 16. Software that downloads onto your computer and bombards your computer with adverts that pop-up whenever you are connected to the Internet. ! ! 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. Cyberstalking Spam Uploading unauthorised pictures on the Web Cyberbullying 18
  • 20. Bandwidth Identity Processing time and power Money Copyrighted material Data/Intellectual property 20
  • 21. The criminal either has to:  obtain essential information, such as a user name and password, in order to access a secure system  get physical access to a computer so that data can be downloaded directly onto portable media. 21
  • 22. 22
  • 23.  Assume nothing  Believe no one  Check everything A B C 23
  • 24. Anti-virus software Computer programs that scan computer files for viruses and eliminate them. 24
  • 25. Firewall software Software that allows you to control which programs can access the Internet and protects your computer or network from unauthorised access. 25
  • 26. Anti-spyware software Anti-spyware software detects spyware that has been installed on a computer. 26
  • 27.  Be careful when installing ‘free’ software .  Have good password policies.  Stay informed. 27
  • 28.  Don’t give out personal information.  Don’t click on links in pop-ups.  Don’t open attachments or programs unless you are sure of what they are.  Don’t be gullible. 28
  • 30. 30