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Internet services
and connections
MODULE 2.1
Internet services
and connections
MODULE 2.1
Content
 Introduction
 Internet connections
 Internet Service Providers
 Criteria to consider when choosing a type of Internet
connection
 Wired versus wireless connections
 Internet access using smartphones and tablets
3
Content
 Internet services
 Real-time messaging
 VoIP
 Video conferencing
 Cloud computing
 File sharing
 Grid computing
 Government Internet services
 Test and improve your knowledge
4
Introduction
5
The Internet
A worldwide computer network that consists of
computers and networks
that are linked using telephone lines, undersea
cables, satellite and microwave connections
for the purpose of communicating and sharing
resources.
WAN: to facilitate communication and the
transfer of files over a wide geographical
area.
WAN
Cellphone network
Bank network
The Internet (GAN)
6
Internet connections
7
Internet Service Provider 8
 a company that has a
permanent, fast
connection to the
Internet and sell access
and services for a
monthly fee
ISPs offer the following
services:
9
E-mail
Web page hosting
Wireless and wired Internet access
Fax-to-e-mail
Spam filtering
Criteria to consider when
choosing a type of Internet
connection
Most people would prefer broadband – a high-speed, high-
bandwidth connection to the Internet.
10
Criteria
Mobility
Speed of the
line or
connection
Cap
Shaped
and
unshaped
Wired versus wireless connections
 Wired connections – ADSL
A permanent digital connection to the Internet that operates
through a fixed landline.
 More bandwidth for downloading than uploading.
11
Advertised
speed
Maximum download speed Maximum upload speed
Kbps Mbps Kbps Mbps
1 MB 1024 Kbps 01.00 Mbps 512 Kbps 00.50 Mbps
512 Kb 512 Kbps 00.50 Mbps 256 Kbps 00.25 Mbps
Wired versus wireless connections
 Wired connections – ADSL
 Cost of Internet connection includes a monthly ISP
cost and a fixed monthly cost for the line rental.
 Advantages
 Make phone calls on your landline and use the line for
Internet access at the same time.
 A permanent connection which is always on.
 Includes WiFi connectivity.
12
Wired versus wireless connections
 Wired connections – ADSL
 Disadvantages
 ADSL may not be available in your area.
 Data speed may be limited by your physical location.
 Not a mobile solution.
13
Wired versus wireless connections
 Modem / router
Data Terminating Devices that use different technologies to
send and receive data over different media.
14
Wired versus wireless connections
 Wireless connections – Dedicated WiFi
technology (e.g. iBurst or Neotel)
 You can only access this type of network using a modem
supplied by the company. Coverage is limited to where the
company has placed radio towers.
15
Wired versus wireless connections
 Wireless connections – The existing
cellular technology (3G/4G)
 These technologies are implemented by a cellular
communications company (for example, Vodacom, MTN, 8ta
and Cell C) using their existing infrastructure.
16
Wired versus wireless connections
 Wireless connections – The existing
cellular technology (3G/4G)
 Advantages
 Mobile access 24/7 to the Internet from anywhere in the world.
 Use smartphone or tablet to access the Internet.
 No cables to connect to the Internet.
17
Wired versus wireless connections
 Wireless connections – The existing
cellular technology (3G/4G)
 Disadvantages and limitations
 Limited or slow access if in area with poor coverage.
 No cables to connect to the Internet.
 Never escape communication (such as e-mail and browsing).
 Online privacy or security could be an issue.
18
Overview 19
Type of
Internet
connection
Wired ADSL
Mobile
device
can
connect
via WiFi
to ADSL
and
InternetWireless
Dedicated
WiFi: iBurst
or NeotelCellular
technology:
3G/3G
WiFi
 A way of connecting to an existing Internet connection (e.g.
an ADSL connection) wirelessly.
 Multiple devices can connect to a single WiFi access point.
 WiFi can provide faster data at a lower cost than if you access the
Internet using a 3G connection.
 WiFi connection at home: mobile devices use cheaper faster
data; devices detect WiFi automatically.
20
WiFi
 Public WiFi (Hotspots or access points): restaurants,
hotels, airports and shopping malls provide WiFi
connectivity as a service.
 ‘Hotspot’ or an ‘access point’.
 Protected by a password.
 Public WiFi can be free or charged per hour.
 Efficient if you are using a laptop and don’t have a 3G
modem.
21
Internet access using
smartphones and tablets
 People prefer data communication that is as follows:
 Always on and everywhere
 Fast and reliable
 A hassle-free connection
22
Internet access using smartphones
and tablets
 People expect their mobile devices:
 To be ‘always on’
 To be always connected
 To tell you when you are being
communicated with via phone, SMS, instant
messaging, e-mail or even through services
such as VoIP.
23
How does it work?
 Most mobile devices have built-in 3G cellular
technology and the hardware to connect to any
standard WiFi network.
 Connect to the Internet using cellular technology
whenever there is a cellphone signal available.
 Automatically switch over to a WiFi connection whenever
one is available because WiFi data is usually faster and
cheaper than cellular data.
24
Study Internet connections
 Read page 78 – 83
 Study Summary on page 90
 Complete Written module activity
 Page 91 – 92
 Number 1 – 9
25
Internet services
26
Real-time messaging
 IM (Instant Messaging) and chat
 Mxit, BBM (BlackBerry Messenger Services) and
WhatsApp and online applications such as Google
Chat, IM facility in Facebook.
27
Real-time messaging
 Advantages
 Cost effective.
 Chat in real-time with more than one person at a time.
 Indicate if available to ‘chat’.
 Some applications can be used on a variety of operating
systems.
28
Real-time messaging
 Disadvantages and limitations
 Leads to anti-social behaviour.
 Creates opportunities for cyber-stalking, cyber-bullying and
identity theft, etc.
 No control to ensure that people are who they claim to be.
29
VoIP
 Protocol that allows telephone calls to be made over
LANs, WANs and the Internet.
 Voice is transmitted on a network in the same way in
which data is transmitted.
 Conference call technology.
30
VoIP
 Advantages
 VoIP calls are cheaper than normal phone calls.
 The software is generally free.
 VoIP allows you to transfer files, as well as make video
conference calls.
31
VoIP
 Disadvantages
 Need an Internet connection; both users need to use the
same software.
 Need to purchase credits to call phones that are not on
the Internet.
 Call quality may be poor if you have a slow Internet
connection.
 You can quickly use up your data cap, especially when
using video.
32
Good practices when using
VoIP software such as Skype
 Check times zones before calling someone in another country.
 Only use video when necessary.
 Use decent headset and microphone.
 Pay attention to your contact’s status.
33
Video conferencing
Video conferencing is an application that allows two or more people to
hold online conferences at different locations using a computer
network to transmit audio and video as if they were all in the same
room.
34
 Advantages of video conferencing
 People you are communicating with are visible.
 Cheaper than normal phone calls or travelling to a
meeting.
 Disadvantages of video conferencing
 You need a fast Internet connection.
 You use a lot of data (cap) especially when using video.
35
Video conferencing
Video conferencing
 Good practices when video conferencing
 Work in a well-lit location.
 Make sure what your camera can ‘see’.
 Test the sound and video before you make the call.
36
Cloud computing
The sharing of resources
offered as services over the Internet.
 The online storage of files
 The use of programs that run on servers on the
Internet (you see the interface to the software in your
web browser and use the software as if it is running on
your computer)
37
Cloud computing
 Examples of online software
 Amazon
 Google Drive – access to web-based word processing,
etc.
 Gmail and Yahoo! Mail – web-based e-mail services.
38
Cloud computing
 Advantages
 Software is always up-to-date.
 Don’t have to download or install any software.
 Can use the software and access your data anywhere in the
world as long as you have an Internet connection.
 Does not take up space on your local computer.
 Server may be more powerful than your own CPU.
 Can share documents with other users.
 Documents automatically get backed up by the system.
39
Cloud computing
 Disadvantages and limitations
 Can only be used effectively if you have a fast, reliable
Internet connection.
 No longer have full control over the security of your data
or backup.
 May have to pay a monthly fee.
 Software might not have all the features or capabilities of
desktop software.
 Might run slower, depending on the speed of your
Internet connection.
40
File sharing –
e-mail attchments
 Inexpensive way to transfer files, relatively fast method.
 But: not suitable for large files, some e-mail systems
block some file extensions, not always secure,
restrictions on the number of recipients, have to send
to each recipient.
41
File sharing –
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
 A protocol used for the fast and easy transfer of files
between remote computers that have an Internet
connection.
 Files uploaded to FTP server, users download from FTP
server.
42
File sharing –
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
 Advantages
 Large files can be transferred easily.
 Security can be maintained by using a username and
password.
 Transfer of a file can be scheduled for time when network
is not so busy.
43
File sharing –
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
 Disadvantages and limitations
 People do not know how to use FTP.
 Connections can be interrupted.
 Not all companies have FTP servers.
 FTP can be quite technical – people prefer drag and drop
facilities.
44
File sharing –
Online storage
 Keeping your data ‘in the cloud’
45
Install the
(generally) free
software
Register with the
site
Upload your files
to the site and
send the
recipient a link
and password for
the relevant
folder
File sharing –
Online storage
 Advantages
 A a simple, cost-effective method to share and transfer
files.
 File extensions are not blocked.
 The system backs up the files.
 You can save space on your local hard drive.
 You can use these systems to synchronise (‘sync’) your
files.
46
File sharing –
Online storage
 Disadvantages and limitations
 The amount of space allocated for saving files is quite
small for free usage.
 The people you have shared folders with or given access
to these files can remove the files by mistake.
47
Grid computing
 A system whereby the resources of different
computers are shared and used at the same time to
solve a single problem.
 Uses distributed processing where the processing that
is necessary to solve a problem is distributed amongst
computers, which increases the total processing
power.
 Used for scientific or technical applications that require
large amounts of data to be processed, or high
processing power.
48
Grid computing
 Examples
 A scientist studying scientific concepts has the ability to
use an entire network of computers in order to analyse
data.
 A businessman has the ability to access an entire network
of computers in order to forecast the growth of particular
stock.
49
Grid computing
 Advantages
 Offers a cost-effective solution and the ability to use
many resources.
 Provides a method to solve problems that need an
enormous amount of processing power.
 Saves both money and resources by utilising the power
of ‘idle’ computers.
50
Grid computing
 Disadvantages and limitations
 A fast network connection between the computers and
networks is necessary.
 The computers that are used may not be fast enough or might
be slowed down.
 The computers may be affected by malware infections.
51
Government Internet services
 Examples
52
Renewal of television licences & post boxes - online
Election information accessed online / SMS.
Up-to-date info / forms accessed.
UIF & tax details added / updated & payments online.
Telephone accounts & call logs – Telkom.
Educational publications, guidelines & past papers -
Education Department’s website
Government Internet services
 Advantages
 Improved communication.
 Better access to services.
 No long queues or long travel distances.
 Immediate feedback.
 Up-to-date information and documents.
 Increased efficiency and lower costs.
 Smartphones can access many sites and services.
 Need for hard copies is reduced – green computing.
53
Government Internet services
 Obstacles
 The Digital Divide.
 The initial cost.
 Concerns about the security, privacy and use of information.
 You’re at the ‘mercy of technology’.
 Blame technology for what might actually be human error.
 Two systems need to be maintained – the traditional ‘manual’
system and the electronic ‘self-service’ system.
54
Study Internet services
 Read page 83 – 89
 Study Summary on page 91
 Complete Written module activity
 Page 92 – 93
 Number 10 – 21
55
Test and improve your
knowledge
56
Terms
WAN Internet Bandwidth Broadband
‘modem /router’ ISP Wired: ADSL
Wireless:
3G/4G
Cap
‘shaped
connection’
‘unshaped
connection’
WiFi
Hotspot
Real-time
messaging
VoIP
Video
conferencing
Cloud
computing
FTP
Online
storage
Grid
computing
e-Government
57
Written module activity
58

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2 1 internet services and connections

  • 3. Content  Introduction  Internet connections  Internet Service Providers  Criteria to consider when choosing a type of Internet connection  Wired versus wireless connections  Internet access using smartphones and tablets 3
  • 4. Content  Internet services  Real-time messaging  VoIP  Video conferencing  Cloud computing  File sharing  Grid computing  Government Internet services  Test and improve your knowledge 4
  • 5. Introduction 5 The Internet A worldwide computer network that consists of computers and networks that are linked using telephone lines, undersea cables, satellite and microwave connections for the purpose of communicating and sharing resources.
  • 6. WAN: to facilitate communication and the transfer of files over a wide geographical area. WAN Cellphone network Bank network The Internet (GAN) 6
  • 8. Internet Service Provider 8  a company that has a permanent, fast connection to the Internet and sell access and services for a monthly fee
  • 9. ISPs offer the following services: 9 E-mail Web page hosting Wireless and wired Internet access Fax-to-e-mail Spam filtering
  • 10. Criteria to consider when choosing a type of Internet connection Most people would prefer broadband – a high-speed, high- bandwidth connection to the Internet. 10 Criteria Mobility Speed of the line or connection Cap Shaped and unshaped
  • 11. Wired versus wireless connections  Wired connections – ADSL A permanent digital connection to the Internet that operates through a fixed landline.  More bandwidth for downloading than uploading. 11 Advertised speed Maximum download speed Maximum upload speed Kbps Mbps Kbps Mbps 1 MB 1024 Kbps 01.00 Mbps 512 Kbps 00.50 Mbps 512 Kb 512 Kbps 00.50 Mbps 256 Kbps 00.25 Mbps
  • 12. Wired versus wireless connections  Wired connections – ADSL  Cost of Internet connection includes a monthly ISP cost and a fixed monthly cost for the line rental.  Advantages  Make phone calls on your landline and use the line for Internet access at the same time.  A permanent connection which is always on.  Includes WiFi connectivity. 12
  • 13. Wired versus wireless connections  Wired connections – ADSL  Disadvantages  ADSL may not be available in your area.  Data speed may be limited by your physical location.  Not a mobile solution. 13
  • 14. Wired versus wireless connections  Modem / router Data Terminating Devices that use different technologies to send and receive data over different media. 14
  • 15. Wired versus wireless connections  Wireless connections – Dedicated WiFi technology (e.g. iBurst or Neotel)  You can only access this type of network using a modem supplied by the company. Coverage is limited to where the company has placed radio towers. 15
  • 16. Wired versus wireless connections  Wireless connections – The existing cellular technology (3G/4G)  These technologies are implemented by a cellular communications company (for example, Vodacom, MTN, 8ta and Cell C) using their existing infrastructure. 16
  • 17. Wired versus wireless connections  Wireless connections – The existing cellular technology (3G/4G)  Advantages  Mobile access 24/7 to the Internet from anywhere in the world.  Use smartphone or tablet to access the Internet.  No cables to connect to the Internet. 17
  • 18. Wired versus wireless connections  Wireless connections – The existing cellular technology (3G/4G)  Disadvantages and limitations  Limited or slow access if in area with poor coverage.  No cables to connect to the Internet.  Never escape communication (such as e-mail and browsing).  Online privacy or security could be an issue. 18
  • 19. Overview 19 Type of Internet connection Wired ADSL Mobile device can connect via WiFi to ADSL and InternetWireless Dedicated WiFi: iBurst or NeotelCellular technology: 3G/3G
  • 20. WiFi  A way of connecting to an existing Internet connection (e.g. an ADSL connection) wirelessly.  Multiple devices can connect to a single WiFi access point.  WiFi can provide faster data at a lower cost than if you access the Internet using a 3G connection.  WiFi connection at home: mobile devices use cheaper faster data; devices detect WiFi automatically. 20
  • 21. WiFi  Public WiFi (Hotspots or access points): restaurants, hotels, airports and shopping malls provide WiFi connectivity as a service.  ‘Hotspot’ or an ‘access point’.  Protected by a password.  Public WiFi can be free or charged per hour.  Efficient if you are using a laptop and don’t have a 3G modem. 21
  • 22. Internet access using smartphones and tablets  People prefer data communication that is as follows:  Always on and everywhere  Fast and reliable  A hassle-free connection 22
  • 23. Internet access using smartphones and tablets  People expect their mobile devices:  To be ‘always on’  To be always connected  To tell you when you are being communicated with via phone, SMS, instant messaging, e-mail or even through services such as VoIP. 23
  • 24. How does it work?  Most mobile devices have built-in 3G cellular technology and the hardware to connect to any standard WiFi network.  Connect to the Internet using cellular technology whenever there is a cellphone signal available.  Automatically switch over to a WiFi connection whenever one is available because WiFi data is usually faster and cheaper than cellular data. 24
  • 25. Study Internet connections  Read page 78 – 83  Study Summary on page 90  Complete Written module activity  Page 91 – 92  Number 1 – 9 25
  • 27. Real-time messaging  IM (Instant Messaging) and chat  Mxit, BBM (BlackBerry Messenger Services) and WhatsApp and online applications such as Google Chat, IM facility in Facebook. 27
  • 28. Real-time messaging  Advantages  Cost effective.  Chat in real-time with more than one person at a time.  Indicate if available to ‘chat’.  Some applications can be used on a variety of operating systems. 28
  • 29. Real-time messaging  Disadvantages and limitations  Leads to anti-social behaviour.  Creates opportunities for cyber-stalking, cyber-bullying and identity theft, etc.  No control to ensure that people are who they claim to be. 29
  • 30. VoIP  Protocol that allows telephone calls to be made over LANs, WANs and the Internet.  Voice is transmitted on a network in the same way in which data is transmitted.  Conference call technology. 30
  • 31. VoIP  Advantages  VoIP calls are cheaper than normal phone calls.  The software is generally free.  VoIP allows you to transfer files, as well as make video conference calls. 31
  • 32. VoIP  Disadvantages  Need an Internet connection; both users need to use the same software.  Need to purchase credits to call phones that are not on the Internet.  Call quality may be poor if you have a slow Internet connection.  You can quickly use up your data cap, especially when using video. 32
  • 33. Good practices when using VoIP software such as Skype  Check times zones before calling someone in another country.  Only use video when necessary.  Use decent headset and microphone.  Pay attention to your contact’s status. 33
  • 34. Video conferencing Video conferencing is an application that allows two or more people to hold online conferences at different locations using a computer network to transmit audio and video as if they were all in the same room. 34
  • 35.  Advantages of video conferencing  People you are communicating with are visible.  Cheaper than normal phone calls or travelling to a meeting.  Disadvantages of video conferencing  You need a fast Internet connection.  You use a lot of data (cap) especially when using video. 35 Video conferencing
  • 36. Video conferencing  Good practices when video conferencing  Work in a well-lit location.  Make sure what your camera can ‘see’.  Test the sound and video before you make the call. 36
  • 37. Cloud computing The sharing of resources offered as services over the Internet.  The online storage of files  The use of programs that run on servers on the Internet (you see the interface to the software in your web browser and use the software as if it is running on your computer) 37
  • 38. Cloud computing  Examples of online software  Amazon  Google Drive – access to web-based word processing, etc.  Gmail and Yahoo! Mail – web-based e-mail services. 38
  • 39. Cloud computing  Advantages  Software is always up-to-date.  Don’t have to download or install any software.  Can use the software and access your data anywhere in the world as long as you have an Internet connection.  Does not take up space on your local computer.  Server may be more powerful than your own CPU.  Can share documents with other users.  Documents automatically get backed up by the system. 39
  • 40. Cloud computing  Disadvantages and limitations  Can only be used effectively if you have a fast, reliable Internet connection.  No longer have full control over the security of your data or backup.  May have to pay a monthly fee.  Software might not have all the features or capabilities of desktop software.  Might run slower, depending on the speed of your Internet connection. 40
  • 41. File sharing – e-mail attchments  Inexpensive way to transfer files, relatively fast method.  But: not suitable for large files, some e-mail systems block some file extensions, not always secure, restrictions on the number of recipients, have to send to each recipient. 41
  • 42. File sharing – File Transfer Protocol (FTP)  A protocol used for the fast and easy transfer of files between remote computers that have an Internet connection.  Files uploaded to FTP server, users download from FTP server. 42
  • 43. File sharing – File Transfer Protocol (FTP)  Advantages  Large files can be transferred easily.  Security can be maintained by using a username and password.  Transfer of a file can be scheduled for time when network is not so busy. 43
  • 44. File sharing – File Transfer Protocol (FTP)  Disadvantages and limitations  People do not know how to use FTP.  Connections can be interrupted.  Not all companies have FTP servers.  FTP can be quite technical – people prefer drag and drop facilities. 44
  • 45. File sharing – Online storage  Keeping your data ‘in the cloud’ 45 Install the (generally) free software Register with the site Upload your files to the site and send the recipient a link and password for the relevant folder
  • 46. File sharing – Online storage  Advantages  A a simple, cost-effective method to share and transfer files.  File extensions are not blocked.  The system backs up the files.  You can save space on your local hard drive.  You can use these systems to synchronise (‘sync’) your files. 46
  • 47. File sharing – Online storage  Disadvantages and limitations  The amount of space allocated for saving files is quite small for free usage.  The people you have shared folders with or given access to these files can remove the files by mistake. 47
  • 48. Grid computing  A system whereby the resources of different computers are shared and used at the same time to solve a single problem.  Uses distributed processing where the processing that is necessary to solve a problem is distributed amongst computers, which increases the total processing power.  Used for scientific or technical applications that require large amounts of data to be processed, or high processing power. 48
  • 49. Grid computing  Examples  A scientist studying scientific concepts has the ability to use an entire network of computers in order to analyse data.  A businessman has the ability to access an entire network of computers in order to forecast the growth of particular stock. 49
  • 50. Grid computing  Advantages  Offers a cost-effective solution and the ability to use many resources.  Provides a method to solve problems that need an enormous amount of processing power.  Saves both money and resources by utilising the power of ‘idle’ computers. 50
  • 51. Grid computing  Disadvantages and limitations  A fast network connection between the computers and networks is necessary.  The computers that are used may not be fast enough or might be slowed down.  The computers may be affected by malware infections. 51
  • 52. Government Internet services  Examples 52 Renewal of television licences & post boxes - online Election information accessed online / SMS. Up-to-date info / forms accessed. UIF & tax details added / updated & payments online. Telephone accounts & call logs – Telkom. Educational publications, guidelines & past papers - Education Department’s website
  • 53. Government Internet services  Advantages  Improved communication.  Better access to services.  No long queues or long travel distances.  Immediate feedback.  Up-to-date information and documents.  Increased efficiency and lower costs.  Smartphones can access many sites and services.  Need for hard copies is reduced – green computing. 53
  • 54. Government Internet services  Obstacles  The Digital Divide.  The initial cost.  Concerns about the security, privacy and use of information.  You’re at the ‘mercy of technology’.  Blame technology for what might actually be human error.  Two systems need to be maintained – the traditional ‘manual’ system and the electronic ‘self-service’ system. 54
  • 55. Study Internet services  Read page 83 – 89  Study Summary on page 91  Complete Written module activity  Page 92 – 93  Number 10 – 21 55
  • 56. Test and improve your knowledge 56
  • 57. Terms WAN Internet Bandwidth Broadband ‘modem /router’ ISP Wired: ADSL Wireless: 3G/4G Cap ‘shaped connection’ ‘unshaped connection’ WiFi Hotspot Real-time messaging VoIP Video conferencing Cloud computing FTP Online storage Grid computing e-Government 57