Made By: Qhudwa Sarmad x.b
Coal and petroleum are sources of energy
that are non- renewable. They were made
in the nature a long time before and they
will finish after long-time use
Coal is a combustible
,sedimentary, organic rock,
formed from vegetation.
In other words coal is a
fossil fuel created from the
remains of plants that lived
millions of years ago.
it is considered as a non
renewable source of energy
because it takes too much
time to form.
Coal mainly consists of carbon.
It also consists some metal compound
and some other impurities.
Coal as fuel
Coking and use of coke
Coal is used as a solid fuel to produce
Coal is used as a solid fuel to produce
heat through combustion
Coke is a solid carbonaceous
residue derived from low-
ash, low-sulfur bituminous
Coke is used as a fuel and as
a reducing agent in
smelting iron ore in a blast
It is further used in making
The reaction of coal and
natural gas was used for
making Buna rubber.
This reaction makes
ethanol and it is used to
make Buna rubber.
Coal tar is a brown or black
liquid of high viscosity,
like naphthalene and arom-
Being flammable, coal tar
is sometimes used for
heating or to fire boilers.
There are two ways to mine coal
Petroleum is a naturally occurring
,flammable liquid , that are found
in geologic formations beneath
the earth's surface.
It was produced when sea creatures
died and got covered with sand and clay.
Under high pressure , these dead
organisms changed into petroleum and
Petroleum may be taken to oil
refineries and the hydrocarbon chemicals
separated by distillation and treated by
other chemical processes, to be used for a
variety of purposes like:
Diesel fuel, Liquefied petroleum
Ethane and other short-chain alkenes
Diesel fuel (petro diesel)
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Lubricants (light machine oils, motor
oils, and greases).
Wax, used in the packaging
of frozen foods, among others.
Sulfur or Sulfuric acid.
Petroleum coke, used in
specialty carbon products
or as solid fuel.
Aromatic petrochemicals to
be used as precursors in
other chemical production.
Carbon 83 to 87%
Hydrogen 10 to 14%
Nitrogen 0.1 to 2%
Oxygen 0.1 to 1.5%
Sulfur 0.5 to 6%
metals < 0.1%
An oil well is a general
term for any boring
through the earth's
surface that is designed
to find and
acquire petroleum oil hy-
drocarbons. It is used to
pump out petroleum.
Generation of hundreds of millions of tons
of waste products is pro
Acid rain from high sulfur coal
Interference with groundwater and water
Contamination of land and waterways and
destruction of homes from fly ash spills
Impact of water use on flows of rivers and
consequential impact on other land-uses
Subsidence above tunnels, sometimes damaging
Coal-fired power plants shorten nearly 24,000 lives
a year in the US, including 2,800 from lung cancer
Coal-fired power plants emit mercury, selenium, and
arsenic which are harmful to human health and the
Release of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, which
causes climate change and global warming according
to the IPCC. Coal is the largest contributor to the
human-made increase of CO2
in the air
Oil extraction is costly and sometimes
environmentally damaging, although
Dr. John Hunt of the Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution pointed out in
a 1981 paper that over 70% of the
reserves in the world are associated with
visible macro seepages, and many oil
fields are found due to natural seeps.
Offshore exploration and extraction of
oil disturbs the surrounding marine
Crude oil and refined
fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have
damaged natural ecosystems in Alaska,
the Galapagos Islands, France and
many other places.
The quantity of oil spilled during accidents
has ranged from a few hundred tons to
several hundred thousand tons
(e.g., Atlantic Empress, Amoco Cadiz).
Smaller spills have already proven to have a
great impact on ecosystems, such as
the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
Oil spills at sea are generally much more
damaging than those on land, since they can
spread for hundreds of nautical miles in a
thin oil slick which can cover beaches with a
thin coating of oil.
This can kill sea birds, mammals, shellfish
and other organisms it coats. Oil spills on
land are more readily containable if a
makeshift earth dam can be
rapidly bulldozed around the spill site before
most of the oil escapes, and land animals can
avoid the oil more easily.
Control of oil spills is difficult, requires ad
hoc methods, and often a large amount of
The dropping of bombs and incendiary
devices from aircraft on the Torrey
Canyon wreck produced poor results; modern
techniques would include pumping the oil
from the wreck, like in the Prestige oil
spill or the Erika oil spill.
Both coal and petroleum are non-
renewable sources of energy. We should
decrease the intake of these resources.
There is a need to bring cheap (less-
expensive) technology for production of
energy to meet our energy demands
today. Also, there is a need to make use
of the petroleum products more