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Coal & Petroleum PPT

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This is a PPT based on the chapter of "Our Environment". The topic of this PPT is "Coal & Petroleum". This PPT is for the students of Class X.

Published in: Science
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Coal & Petroleum PPT

  1. 1. COALANDPETROLEUM Made By: Qhudwa Sarmad x.b r.i.s.y
  2. 2. What’sCoalAndPetroleum? Coal and petroleum are sources of energy that are non- renewable. They were made in the nature a long time before and they will finish after long-time use
  3. 3. Coal  Coal is a combustible ,sedimentary, organic rock, formed from vegetation.  In other words coal is a fossil fuel created from the remains of plants that lived millions of years ago.  it is considered as a non renewable source of energy because it takes too much time to form.
  4. 4. Typesofcoal  Lignite  Sub-bituminous coal  Bituminous coal  Anthracite  Graph
  5. 5. Whatiscoalmadeupof?  Coal mainly consists of carbon.  It also consists some metal compound and some other impurities.
  6. 6. Generalapplicationsofcoal  Coal as fuel  Coking and use of coke  Ethanol production  Coal tar
  7. 7.  Coal is used as a solid fuel to produce electricity.  Coal is used as a solid fuel to produce heat through combustion
  8. 8. coke  Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from low- ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal.  Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.  It is further used in making steel
  9. 9. Coke  The reaction of coal and natural gas was used for making Buna rubber.  This reaction makes ethanol and it is used to make Buna rubber.
  10. 10. CoalTar  Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of high viscosity, which smells like naphthalene and arom- atic hydrocarbons.  Being flammable, coal tar is sometimes used for heating or to fire boilers.
  11. 11. Miningofcoal  There are two ways to mine coal  Surface mining  Underground mining
  12. 12. Mapoftheearthshowingcoaldeposits
  13. 13. Howispetroleumformed?  Petroleum is a naturally occurring ,flammable liquid , that are found in geologic formations beneath the earth's surface.  It was produced when sea creatures died and got covered with sand and clay. Under high pressure , these dead organisms changed into petroleum and natural gases.
  14. 14. Usesofpetroleumproduct  Petroleum may be taken to oil refineries and the hydrocarbon chemicals separated by distillation and treated by other chemical processes, to be used for a variety of purposes like:  Asphalt  Diesel fuel, Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)  Lubricating oils
  15. 15. Typesofpetroleum  Petrochemicals  Fuel oils  Gasoline  Kerosene
  16. 16. ListofallOrganicFuels(FossilFuels)  Ethane and other short-chain alkenes  Diesel fuel (petro diesel)  Fuel oils  Gasoline (Petrol)
  17. 17. ListofallOrganicFuels(FossilFuels)  Jet fuel  Kerosene  Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)  Lubricants (light machine oils, motor oils, and greases).
  18. 18. somemoreUsesofpetroleum  Wax, used in the packaging of frozen foods, among others.  Sulfur or Sulfuric acid.  Bulk tar.  Asphalt
  19. 19. Somemoreusesofpetroleum  Petroleum coke, used in specialty carbon products or as solid fuel.  Paraffin wax  Aromatic petrochemicals to be used as precursors in other chemical production.  Plastics
  20. 20. Compositionofpetroleum elements Percentage Carbon 83 to 87% Hydrogen 10 to 14% Nitrogen 0.1 to 2% Oxygen 0.1 to 1.5% Sulfur 0.5 to 6% metals < 0.1%
  21. 21. What’sanoilwell? An oil well is a general term for any boring through the earth's surface that is designed to find and acquire petroleum oil hy- drocarbons. It is used to pump out petroleum.
  22. 22. Excessofpetroleumproductsusageleadsto…  Generation of hundreds of millions of tons of waste products is pro  Acid rain from high sulfur coal  Interference with groundwater and water table levels  Contamination of land and waterways and destruction of homes from fly ash spills  Impact of water use on flows of rivers and consequential impact on other land-uses
  23. 23. Excessofpetroleumproductsusageleadsto…  Dust nuisance  Subsidence above tunnels, sometimes damaging infrastructure  Coal-fired power plants shorten nearly 24,000 lives a year in the US, including 2,800 from lung cancer  Coal-fired power plants emit mercury, selenium, and arsenic which are harmful to human health and the environment  Release of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, which causes climate change and global warming according to the IPCC. Coal is the largest contributor to the human-made increase of CO2 in the air
  24. 24. Hazardsinvolvedduringtheprocessingofpetroleumproducts Extraction  Oil extraction is costly and sometimes environmentally damaging, although Dr. John Hunt of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution pointed out in a 1981 paper that over 70% of the reserves in the world are associated with visible macro seepages, and many oil fields are found due to natural seeps. Offshore exploration and extraction of oil disturbs the surrounding marine environment.
  25. 25. Hazardsinvolvedduringtheprocessingofpetroleumproducts Oil spills  Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged natural ecosystems in Alaska, the Galapagos Islands, France and many other places.  The quantity of oil spilled during accidents has ranged from a few hundred tons to several hundred thousand tons (e.g., Atlantic Empress, Amoco Cadiz). Smaller spills have already proven to have a great impact on ecosystems, such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
  26. 26.  Oil spills at sea are generally much more damaging than those on land, since they can spread for hundreds of nautical miles in a thin oil slick which can cover beaches with a thin coating of oil.  This can kill sea birds, mammals, shellfish and other organisms it coats. Oil spills on land are more readily containable if a makeshift earth dam can be rapidly bulldozed around the spill site before most of the oil escapes, and land animals can avoid the oil more easily.
  27. 27.  Control of oil spills is difficult, requires ad hoc methods, and often a large amount of manpower.  The dropping of bombs and incendiary devices from aircraft on the Torrey Canyon wreck produced poor results; modern techniques would include pumping the oil from the wreck, like in the Prestige oil spill or the Erika oil spill.
  28. 28. conclusion Both coal and petroleum are non- renewable sources of energy. We should decrease the intake of these resources. There is a need to bring cheap (less- expensive) technology for production of energy to meet our energy demands today. Also, there is a need to make use of the petroleum products more efficiently.

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