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Field Guide to Phil. Mangroves.pdf

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Field Guide to Phil. Mangroves.pdf

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  3. 3. 1 J. H. Primavera, Ph. D. Copyright © 2009 JH Primavera and RDB Dianala Photos from: Primavera JH, Sadaba RS, Lebata MJHL, Altamirano JP. 2004. Handbook of Mangroves in the Philippines - Panay. SEAFDEC/AQD and UNESCO, unless specified otherwise. Mangrove species in this field guide are sorted by genera. Closeup photographs of distinctive features (leaves, flowers, fruits, bark, roots) are provided for visual comparison to facilitate identification of species.
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  5. 5. 3 Awareness of mangrove importance, particularly for coastal protection, has grown among the general public over the past several years. In turn, this has led to numerous planting initiatives by various groups. However, most of these programs did not yield positive results mainly due to lack of science- guided protocols, particularly on what species to grow under certain conditions. This field guide is an attempt towards broader awareness and appreciation of the common mangroves found in the Philippines. It is based on the original material, “Field Guide to Philippine Mangroves,” developed with support from the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation and SEAFDEC PREFACE Aquaculture Department, and published by the Zoological Society of London-Philippines. Seeing the vitality of this field guide, Philippine Tropical Forest Conservation Foundation, Inc. (PTFCF) partnered with ZSL-Philippines and Foundation for Communication Initiatives (FOCI) in repackaging this field guide for distribution to groups and individuals keen on mangrove rehabilitation. Together with the “Community-based Mangrove Rehabilitation Training Manual” and posters, this hopes to increase prospects of success for mangrove rehabilitation efforts, particularly in areas hit by Super Typhoon Yolanda, the most destructive typhoon ever recorded in modern history.
  6. 6. 4 4 FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Acanthus AcanthusFAMILY ACANTHACEAE Acanthus Local names: lagiwliw, ragoyroy Acanthus volubilis Acanthus ilicifolius Acanthus ebracteatus
  7. 7. 5 Acrostichum aureum Local name: palaypay 5 AcrostichumFAMILY PTERIDACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Acrostichum Acrostichum speciosum Local name: palaypay Tips of leaves blunt Tips of leaves elongated to pointed
  8. 8. 6 FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Aegiceras AegicerasFAMILY MYRSINACEAE Aegiceras corniculatum Local names: saging-saging, tinduk-tindukan Fruits curved 6
  9. 9. 7 FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Aegiceras AegicerasFAMILY MYRSINACEAE Fruits straight Aegiceras floridum Local names: saging-saging, tinduk-tindukan 7
  10. 10. 8 FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Avicennia AvicenniaFAMILY AVICENNIACEAE Avicennia alba Local names: bungalon, apiapi, miapi 8
  11. 11. 9 FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Avicennia AvicenniaFAMILY AVICENNIACEAE Avicennia marina Local names: bungalon, apiapi, miapi 9
  12. 12. 10 FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Avicennia AvicenniaFAMILY AVICENNIACEAE Avicennia officinalis Local names: bungalon, apiapi, miapi 10
  13. 13. 11 FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Avicennia AvicenniaFAMILY AVICENNIACEAE Avicennia rumphiana Local names: bungalon, apiapi, miapi Hairy, brownish leaf undersurface, hairy fruit 11
  14. 14. 12 BrownlowiaFAMILY TILIACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Brownlowia Brownlowia tersa Local name: maragomon 12
  15. 15. 13 BruguieraFAMILY RHIZOPHORACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Bruguiera Bruguiera cylindrica Local names: pototan, busain 13
  16. 16. 14 BruguieraFAMILY RHIZOPHORACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Bruguiera Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Local names: pototan, busain 14
  17. 17. 15 BruguieraFAMILY RHIZOPHORACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Bruguiera Bruguiera parviflora Local name: langarai 15
  18. 18. 16 BruguieraFAMILY RHIZOPHORACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Bruguiera Bruguiera sexangula Local name: pototan 16
  19. 19. 17 Camptostemon philippinensis Local name: gapas-gapas Camptostemon philippinensis FAMILY BOMBACACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Camptostemon philippinensis 17
  20. 20. 18 Ceriops decandra Local name: baras-baras CeriopsFAMILY RHIZOPHORACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Ceriops 18
  21. 21. 19 CeriopsFAMILY RHIZOPHORACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Ceriops Ceriops tagal Local names: tungog, tangal 19
  22. 22. 20 Excoecaria agallochaFAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Excoecaria agallocha Excoecaria agallocha Local names: lipata, buta-buta Male flowers Female flowers Fruits Leaves with milky sap 20
  23. 23. 21 Heritiera littoralis Local name: dungon Heritiera littoralisFAMILY STERCULIACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Heritiera littoralis Leaves with light undersurface Photo by: M. J. H. Lebata 21
  24. 24. 22 Kandelia candelFAMILY RHIZOPHORACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Kandelia candel Kandelia candel Found only in Baler and Casiguran Bay, Aurora Photo by: N. Duke Photo by: W. G. Licuanan Photo by: W. G. Licuanan 22
  25. 25. 23 LumnitzeraFAMILY COMBRETACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Lumnitzera Lumnitzera littorea Local names: tabao, culasi 23
  26. 26. 24 LumnitzeraFAMILY COMBRETACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Lumnitzera Lumnitzera racemosa Local names: tabao, culasi 24
  27. 27. 25 Nypa fruticansFAMILY ARECACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Nypa fruticans Nypa fruticans Local names: nipa, sasa 25
  28. 28. 26 Osbornia octodontaFAMILY MYRTACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Osbornia octodonta Osbornia octodonta Local names: tawalis, bunot-bunot 26
  29. 29. 27 Pemphis acidulaFAMILY LYTHRACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Pemphis acidula Pemphis acidula Local name: bantigi 27
  30. 30. 28 RhizophoraFAMILY RHIZOPHORACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Rhizophora Rhizophora apiculata Local name: bakhaw lalaki 28
  31. 31. 29 RhizophoraFAMILY RHIZOPHORACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Rhizophora Rhizophora mucronata Local name: bakhaw babae 29
  32. 32. 30 RhizophoraFAMILY RHIZOPHORACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Rhizophora Rhizophora stylosa Local name: bakhaw bato 30
  33. 33. 31 Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Local name: nilad Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea FAMILY RUBIACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea 31
  34. 34. 32 Sonneratia alba Local name: pagatpat SonneratiaFAMILY SONNERATIACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Sonneratia 32
  35. 35. 33 Sonneratia caseolaris Local name: pedada SonneratiaFAMILY SONNERATIACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Sonneratia 33
  36. 36. 34 Sonneratia ovata Local name: pedada SonneratiaFAMILY SONNERATIACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Sonneratia 34
  37. 37. 35 XylocarpusFAMILY MELIACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Xylocarpus Xylocarpus granatum Local name: tabigi 35
  38. 38. 36 XylocarpusFAMILY MELIACEAE FIELD GUIDE TO PHILIPPINE MANGROVES / Xylocarpus Xylocarpus moluccensis Local name: piag-ao 36
  39. 39. 37 PTFCF’s FOREST AND COMMUNITY REHABILITATION PROGRAM On November 8, 2013, Super Typhoon Yolanda (International name: Haiyan) hit the Philippines. It was the strongest and most destructive typhoon the country has experienced in recent history. It destroyed infrastructure, human habitations and livelihoods. To date, government authorities continue to validate the total death toll. Super Typhoon Yolanda also left various ecosystems, such as mangrove and beach forests damaged. In response to calls for support towards ecosystems rehabilitation, the Philippine Tropical Forest Conservation Foundation, Inc. (PTFCF) implemented its Forest and Community Rehabilitation Program. This program aspires to support efforts in the Yolanda-affected provinces of Capiz, Iloilo, Leyte, Eastern Samar and Northern Palawan by providing grants and technical assistance to people’s organizations (POs) and non-government organizations (NGOs) for ecosystems assessment, capacity building, actual forest protection and rehabilitation activities, and advocacy campaigns, among others. It was observed from assessments and field visits after Yolanda that many organizations are taking part in mangrove rehabilitation. The unfortunate truth however, is that some of these projects were against the natural growth and survival of mangroves. This prompted the PTFCF to partner with Zoological Society of London (ZSL)-Philippines and Foundation for Communication Initiatives, Inc. (FOCI) to implement a strategic communications project that aspires to disseminate the right information to the right people through proper knowledge management. Part of the project is this updated and enhanced Field Guide to Philippine Mangroves by J.H. Primavera, PhD. This field guide is based on the original material, “Field Guide to Philippine Mangroves,” developed with support from the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation and SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, and published by the Zoological Society of London. This field guide, together with Community-based Mangrove Rehabilitation Training Manual and posters will be distributed in Capiz, Iloilo, Eastern Samar, Northern Palawan, and other Yolanda-affected areas.
  40. 40. i The Philippine Tropical Forest Conservation Foundation, Inc. (PTFCF) was established under two bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States of America and the Republic of the Philippines under the U.S. Tropical Forest Conservation Act (TFCA). PTFCF works towards biologically diverse Philippine forests that are sustainably managed and equitably accessible to responsible stakeholders by working with non-governmental organizations and community groups in forest protection, natural resource management, capacity building, research, livelihood support, coastal forest resource management, as well as sustainable use of diverse animals and plants. From 2005 to 2014, PTFCF was able to support 383 projects, which effectively improved the management of approximately 1.5 million hectares of forest lands, restored approximately 4,200 hectares of forests through the re-introduction of appropriate native tree species, established over 40 community conserved areas in key biodiversity areas and critical watersheds, instituted over 60 community-level sustainable enterprises that provide additional income to community members, and increased awareness of forest conservation issues particularly the ecosystem services provided by the forests. 2/F Valderrama Building, 107 Esteban Street, Legaspi Village, Makati City 1223 Phone: +63 2 891-0595; email: admin@ptfcf.org; website: www.ptfcf.org THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON The Zoological Society of London (ZSL), a charity founded in 1826, is a world-renowned centre of excellence for conservation science and applied conservation. ZSL’s mission is to promote and achieve the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats. This is realized by carrying out field conservation and research in over 50 countries across the globe and through education and awareness at our two zoos, ZSL London Zoo and ZSL Whipsnade Zoo, inspiring people to take conservation action. We strive to achieve our mission by: • Conducting world-leading conservation science • Implementing effective field conservation projects globally • Providing decision-makers with the best possible conservation advice, and • Building conservation capacity and inspiring people to connect with the natural world. The Country Manager, Zoological Society of London-Philippines 48 Burgos St. La Paz, 5000 Iloilo City Phone: +63 33 330-0929 website: www.zsl.org

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