Product Design & Development

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Product Design & Development

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Product Design & Development

  1. 1. Understanding the problem and the Development of Engineering Specifications
  2. 2. Understanding the Problem <ul><li>Surveys show that poor product definition is a factor in 80% of all time-to-market delays. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a lot of time and money can be wasted solving the wrong problem. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) <ul><li>QFD is a popular product design technique. </li></ul><ul><li>QFD is organized to develop major pieces of information necessary to understanding the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Using QFD, Toyota was able to reduce the costs of bringing a new car model to market by over 60% and to decrease the time required for its development by 33%. </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota achieved the above results while improving the quality of the product. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The House of Quality (HOQ) <ul><li>Applying the QFD steps builds the house of quality . </li></ul><ul><li>HOQ is a house of many rooms, each containing valuable information. </li></ul>
  5. 6. QFD Steps <ul><li>Step 1: Identify the customers: determine exactly WHO they are. </li></ul><ul><li>Customers can be internal or external to the company. </li></ul><ul><li>For many products, the most important customers are the consumers, the people who will buy the product and tell other consumers about its quality (or lack thereof). </li></ul>
  6. 7. Step 2: Determine the customers’ requirements: WHAT do the customers want? <ul><li>Typically, as customer surveys show, the consumers want a product that works as it should, lasts along time, is easy to maintain, looks attractive, and has many features. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, the production customer wants a product that is easy to manufacture and assemble, uses available resources, uses standard parts and methods, uses existing facilities, and produces a minimum of scarps and rejected parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, the marketing/sales customer wants a product that meets consumers’ requirements; is easy to package, store, and transport; is attractive; and is suitable for display. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Collection methods for customer requirements <ul><li>Observations = observing customers using the existing product. </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys = questionnaires through e-mail, over the telephone, or in face to face interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups = a specially designed meeting with a carefully chosen group of 7 to 10 potential customers. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Step 3: Determine relative importance of the requirements: WHO versus WHAT <ul><li>Relative importance can be evaluated by generating a weighting factor for each requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, the customers are asked to rate each requirement on a scale from 1 to 10. </li></ul><ul><li>A better method, the fixed sum method, is to tell each customer that they have 100 points to distribute among the requirements. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Step 5: Generate engineering specifications: HOW will the customers’ requirements be met? <ul><li>Engineering specifications are the restatement of the design problem in terms of parameters that can be measured and have target values. </li></ul><ul><li>Parameters are developed in this step and the target values for these parameters are developed in step 8. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Step 6: Relate customers’ requirements to engineering specifications: HOW to measure WHAT ? <ul><li>This is the central part of HOQ. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Medium relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Weak relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Blank = no relationship </li></ul>
  11. 12. Step 7: Set engineering targets: HOW MUCH is good enough? <ul><li>Target values are used to evaluate the product’s ability to satisfy customers’ requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Two actions: </li></ul><ul><li>To ascertain how the competitors (step 4) meets the engineering specifications, and </li></ul><ul><li>To establish the targets for the new product. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Step 8: Identify relationships between engineering requirements: How are the HOWs dependent on each other? <ul><li>Engineering specifications may be dependent on each other. It is best to realize these dependences early in the design process. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative (-1) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong negative (-3) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong positive (9) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive (3) </li></ul>
  13. 14. A Reduced HOQ Form
  14. 15. QFD can be applied at all phases
  15. 16. QFD Example <ul><li>Propose a HOQ for the design of a steam iron. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>The QFD technique ensures that the problem is well understood. </li></ul><ul><li>The HOQ automatically documents and records the evolution of the product design. </li></ul><ul><li>The HOQ is an excellent communication tool for the design team. </li></ul><ul><li>The QFD technique can be applied at any of the design phases. </li></ul>

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