Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Pd2Product Design & Development - 2


Published on

Product Design & Development

Published in: Design, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Pd2Product Design & Development - 2

  1. 1. Product Conceptual Design
  2. 2. Concept Development <ul><li>Concept = Idea </li></ul><ul><li>It ’ s hard to make a good product out of a poor concept. </li></ul><ul><li>First “ Understand the FUNCTION ” , then think of the FORM … Separation not always possible! </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION is a complex expression of CUSTOMER NEEDS </li></ul>
  3. 3. Understanding the FUNCTION <ul><li>The first step in product development is to investigate and understand its FUNCTION. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality-Function Deployment (QFD) is one method for understanding product function based on customer needs. </li></ul><ul><li>QFD will be studied later. </li></ul><ul><li>For now, assume that you have investigated the product function and that you understand it fully. </li></ul><ul><li>It is now required to find a product FORM. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Concept Generation <ul><li>Assumption: A function can be achieved by more than one way (concept) </li></ul><ul><li>Generate as many concepts as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>If U generate 1 concept, it is probably a poor one. If U generate many concepts, U may have a good one. </li></ul><ul><li>By focusing on ONE concept, U realize only that concept. By considering several concepts, U realize the problem! </li></ul><ul><li>Successful design is achievable only based on optimizing among possible design alternatives (solutions) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Techniques for Concept Generation 1. Study product prototypes : <ul><li>Designers before U have spent many years developing the existing designs; why repeat their effort? Just study and benefit from it. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Not-Invented-Here, ” NIH, Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Studying an existing product may require DECOMPOSING it into its primary components. </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposition would uncover design strategy, component functions and subfunctions. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In DECOMPOSING an existing product, examine component interfaces with each other and the interfacing of the product with other objects. </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION involves material, energy, and information transfer; It happens mainly at interfaces between product components and between product components and external objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall FUNCTION =  SUBFUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>To understand a component function, try removing it from the assembly and examining the effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Computer Components. Competitors cold war against decomposition. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2. BRAINSTORMING <ul><li>A group of experts conducting a design session. </li></ul><ul><li>1 head is good; 2 is better. </li></ul><ul><li>Two subgroups: Idea Generators and Idea Evaluators </li></ul><ul><li>Idea generators generate as many ideas as possible. No attempts to evaluate at this step. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect all ideas generated. Reject none. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators begin to judge ideas based on customer requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>The most promising (feasible) ideas pass into further treatment. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Exercise <ul><li>Generate at least 10 ways to keep a small stack of paper together. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3. Use Sources: Patents, Journals, Books, Catalogues <ul><li>Sources = Economy of Thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Patents usually are tested solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Journal articles are peer reviewed, innovative, and are based on a study of previous experience in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>Books provide basic and common solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Let authorities influence you. They would inspire your creativity. Don ’ t let them bound it. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4. Use of Analogies <ul><li>Consider the FUNCTION and Ask: What else provides this function? Learn from existing devices, objects, or phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1: Sudden friction causes spark  friction lighters. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: Birds  Airplanes. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 3: Human Arm  Manipulators </li></ul>
  11. 11. 5. The Method of Extremes <ul><li>Better concepts may be generated from a given one. </li></ul><ul><li>Transform the features of a current concept to extremes. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1: Lenses are used for eye glasses and for telescopes. Lenses of infinity focal length = plain window glass. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: A very rigid spring = solid. Extremely soft spring = no effect. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 6. The Use of Inverses <ul><li>Consider inverting the current concept. The concept remains the same, but performance may be much better. </li></ul><ul><li>Invert moving and fixed members. Example: Piston-Cylinder pair for a car washing station. </li></ul><ul><li>Invert male and female members. Example: Electric plugs for computers and some home appliances. </li></ul><ul><li>Invert straight and curved components. Example: Cam-shaft operation on ICE valves. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 7. Ask Experts <ul><li>If U have little experience in the domain, a quick and good method is to consult with experts. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 8. The Morphology Method <ul><li>Morphology = Study of product structure </li></ul><ul><li>Divide product function into subfunctions </li></ul><ul><li>Develop concepts for subfunctions </li></ul><ul><li>Combine concepts (develop interfaces) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: coffee grinder </li></ul>
  15. 15. TRIZ: The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving <ul><li>Systematic Innovation! </li></ul><ul><li>TRIZ will be introduced later. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Conservation Principle <ul><li>Material and energy are conserved: Their transformation and transfer should be tracked. </li></ul><ul><li>Output = Input </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Input mechanical energy transformed into heat should be dissipated – How? </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: A cooling fluid should be dispensed or circulated – How? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>Teamwork is a critical factor to concept development. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate as many concepts as possible to overcome your mental inertia. </li></ul><ul><li>A good concept is the key to building quality into the product. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to sources and use the expertise of others... Try to not reinvent the wheel! </li></ul><ul><li>Genius is 1 percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration … (Thomas Edison) </li></ul>