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Martin Tto Best Practices Ver3


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4th Technology Commercialization Conference
Martin Tto Best Practices Ver3

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Martin Tto Best Practices Ver3

  1. 1. Tech Transfer Office (TTO) Best Practices The 4th Annual Conference on Technology Commercialization “ Technology Transfer (R&D and IP Commercialization, Policies, and Investment)” Amman Jordan (12 Nov 2008) Michael J. Martin President TechTransfer Associates, Inc .
  2. 2. Mike Martin <ul><li>BChE, and MBA </li></ul><ul><li>15 years Business Development: DuPont, PPG, Ciba-Geigy </li></ul><ul><li>11 years Michigan State U.: Increase Small Business Presence on Campus, Research Consortium, New Start-Ups, IP licensing. </li></ul><ul><li>10 years Virginia Tech: Commercialization of Research Results and IP in Research Contracts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Tech Transfer is important to MENA: the “World is Flat” <ul><li>Situation similar to USA in ’80’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invest in Higher Education and Research Centers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silos of scientific discipline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery but no Innovation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Brain Drain”: from the Midwest to the Coasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP more defensive than proactive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements for High Tech Business Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Inventions, especially basic discoveries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of multi-discipline collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robust IP protection </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Thomas Friedman: “The World is Flat” <ul><li>Global competition moving to global collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Introspection: Blacksburg, VA; Rapid City SD; Tunis, Tunisia </li></ul>
  5. 5. Thomas Friedman “The World is Flat” <ul><li>21 st Century Reform Retail – Bottom UP </li></ul><ul><li>(Reduction of Friction) </li></ul><ul><li>“enable the greatest number of your people to have the best legal framework within which to innovate, start companies, and become attractive partners…” </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not about jobs; e.g. Egypt </li></ul>
  6. 6. Government IP Strategic Management Capabilities <ul><li>Enabling TT through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law and Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training: Administrators, TT staff, and SME </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient Risk Capital (Social and $) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Licensing from Government Labs (NIH v USDA v DOD) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Government IP Strategic Management: Enablement US POLICY CHANGED IN 1980 <ul><li>Policy Goals : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance U.S. competitiveness through innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit public by encouraging commercialization of technologies that would otherwise not be developed into products due to lack of incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand Defense supplier base. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Laws Enacted to Achieve Policy Goals <ul><li>Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (FTTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Order 12591 “Facilitating Access to Science and Technology”, April 10, 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>The National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Success of Bayh Dole <ul><li>National Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$40 billion in economic activity that supported more than 270,000 jobs with 5,724 spinouts since 1980 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>628 Start-ups and 4,932 licenses in 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U of Cal System (9 universities ’91-’00) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4450 disclosures, 1055 “at risk” patent apps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31%(330) “at risk” patents licensed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13% (140) positive return, 0.28% (3) earned > $1 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stanford University (’70 – ’01) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4,300 disclosures; 30% licensed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% licensees < $10,000 income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 (0.69%) > $100,000; only one blockbuster </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Assistance from the US Government to protect IP <ul><li> : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 Country IP-Toolkits to aid American innovators and entrepreneurs protect their intellectual property. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center ; The U.S. International Trade Commission ; The USITC Trade Remedy Assistance Office ; The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR); The U.S. Commercial Service ; The Office of Intellectual Property Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The International IPR Advisory Program provides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help American businesses understand how to develop an intellectual property protection strategy for a foreign market; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to U.S. companies facing IPR disputes abroad pursue resolution to their problems; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To request a free consultation with a volunteer attorney or obtain additional information regarding this program, visit the ABA Section of International Law web site: </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Government IP Strategic Management: Enablement <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customized curricula for University administrators, TT staff and SME </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard outline: What is IP, How to protect it, Why and How to be successful at TT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patient Risk Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social: Venues for Innovation Technologists to meet plus Permission to fail plus Be Present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$: Valley of Death and Seed Venture Capital </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What are the Barriers to Effective TT Relationship <ul><li>Ownership of IP </li></ul><ul><li>Early funding: Valley of Death </li></ul><ul><li>Early Stage Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the deal, not the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Patient Risk Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Committed Champions </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient Understanding of University/Business Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Friends and Family </li></ul><ul><li>Federal and State Grants (SBIR and STTR) </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Self Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Angel Investors </li></ul><ul><li>Venture Capital </li></ul>The Valley Of Death Availability of Capital Basic Research Development & Scale-up Commercial Operation
  13. 13. Government IP Strategic Management: Action <ul><li>Mixed record at US Government labs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NIH v. USDA v DOD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxpayer has already paid, should not pay again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not important part of the mission: pre-license proposal, public notice of bid, focus on non-exclusive licenses, paperwork and executive review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Philippine Policy/Practice </li></ul>NIH TT Performance USDA TT Performance ~$90M/year Royalties ~250/year Invention licenses ~100/year Newly issued US patents ~400/year New Invention Disclosures $3.6 M/Year License Revenue 327 Total Licenses 35 US Patents Issued
  14. 14. University IP Strategic Management: Enablement <ul><li>Enabling TT through: policy, structure and executive support; Training of Faculty; and Patient Risk Capital (Social and $) </li></ul><ul><li>Tech Transfer Operations: Organization and Support </li></ul>
  15. 15. University IP Policy/Practice COI/ COC Patent Copyright Law Bayh-Dole Law Internal Revenue Code Code of Virginia SCHEV Guidelines University Tech Transfer Policy/Practice Research Contract Negotiations Ownership of Intellectual Property Commercialization of Intellectual Property University Culture
  16. 16. Intellectual Property Policy at Virginia Tech <ul><li>Policy 13000: Policy on Intellectual Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership: Scholarship vs. Research Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligation to Disclose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of Income = 50/40/10, unless Assigned Task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right of Appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership is transferred to VTIP which has total responsibility and authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines Ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluates Technical Merit and Potential Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommends Policy </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Setting up systems for effective management of IP <ul><li>Obligation to Disclose </li></ul><ul><li>Enablement </li></ul><ul><li>Embodiment </li></ul><ul><li>First Record of Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Inventive Contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Share of Proceeds </li></ul><ul><li>VIRGINIA TECH INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY DISCLOSURE     NOTE: Intellectual property disclosures are treated as confidential information. Except for individuals engaged in the evaluation and approval process, the information will not be divulged to others without the permission of the originator(s), except as required by law.   1. TITLE OF WORK:     2. TYPE OF WORK: Invention ___ Software ___ Book ____ Article ___ Video ______ Film ______ Other ____ (Describe)     3. LIST OF ORIGINATORS (authors, inventors, creators or other contributors) of the work.   </li></ul>
  18. 18. How do you measure success of University Tech Transfer? <ul><li>Depends on your goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service (Happy Faculty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Development (Start-ups) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused Investment (Return On Investment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid (Some or all of the above) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. How organize TLO <ul><li>Organization: Inside vs. External </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normally report to Chief Research Officer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funding is University budget with potential for sustainability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside: Foundation or Not for Profit Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase flexibility for hiring, services, and equity participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funding is foundation based with potential for sustainability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster multiple universities: Virginia (ALCOVE) and Florida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For profit companies supply services till demand justifies investment: BTG, ARCH, TechTransfer Assoc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Budget: Patient Risk Capital </li></ul>
  20. 20. What are the functions of a TLO? <ul><li>Research Agreements, MTA, CDA </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage and Evaluate Disclosures </li></ul><ul><li>IP Resource for University </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Development </li></ul><ul><li>Manage Patent Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Market Disclosures </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate Licenses </li></ul><ul><li>Manage Licenses </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain Patents </li></ul>Inactivate Inactivate Administration Faculty Industry
  21. 21. Tech Transfer Professional: Balance of Skills <ul><li>Social – Bridge two cultures and translate benefits/needs </li></ul><ul><li>Business – Work in both not for profit accounting and investment capital, product development analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Science – Understand the basic underpinnings and look beyond the initial application of discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Law – Understand the basics of intellectual property law and be able to read and negotiate license agreements </li></ul>Dealmaker (Market/Business/Product Developer + Sales+ Negotiator) Technician (Patent Agent + Scientist + Engineer)
  22. 22. University IP Strategic Management: Enablement <ul><li>Training of Faculty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate how it supports outreach and research mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard curriculum: What is IP, How to protect it, Why and How to be successful at TT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patient Risk Capital (Social and $) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up recognition events where faculty and entrepreneurs can meet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited gap funding ( $ 1 – 5k for prototype only) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Invention Patenting Patent Atty Disclosure Evaluation Marketing Licensing Protect if Publication is Imminent TECH TRANSFER: COMPLEX SYSTEM Products Business Spin offs Research Investment Inventor/ Additional Develop
  24. 24. Small and Medium Size Businesses (SME) <ul><li>Enabling TT through policy and executive support; Business Development Training; and Patient Risk Capital (Social and $) </li></ul><ul><li>How to source and develop innovation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Why SME should be interested in IP <ul><li>Competitive Advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double ROI if University Relationship (INC, ’93) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography: University in 29/30 High Tech Areas (Milliken) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leverage Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidized development cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to sophisticated facilities even with IRS Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows on the Future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Road Map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future Employees </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. IP management strategy for SME <ul><li>How does IP enhance the growth strategy of the SME </li></ul><ul><li>Valuation and Investment issues based on IP </li></ul><ul><li>Monetization of non-tangible assets of IP </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ideal IP Strategy for SME <ul><li>Practices of companies achieving the “Visionary” status ( best practices for industry) </li></ul><ul><li>Align IP strategy with corporate strategy and obtain management buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct competitive assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Patent strategically by identifying and exploiting trends in their industry to create new rules in the game </li></ul><ul><li>Manage their IP across multiple functions and have a proactive licensing organization. [1] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[1] Davis Julia, KMPG, Intellectual Asset Management: A View Across Many Companies, LES Winter Meeting, February 14, 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IP Value Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary (Drive growth) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated (Manage for growth) </li></ul><ul><li>Profit Center (Manage for profitability) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Control (Control costs, improve productivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive (Build portfolio, protect markets and technology) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Setting up systems for effective management of IP in an SME <ul><li>Appropriate Protection: Trade Secret, Patent, Copyright, Know How, Trademark </li></ul><ul><li>Timing: Status of Publications </li></ul><ul><li>If Patent: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select Appropriate Counsel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up Docket Management System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate Inventor/attorney meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon issuance, set up maintenance fee payment </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Triage of IP: Evaluation then Valuation of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Commercialization Decision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Merit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protectable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Licensing Negotiations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief from Royalty </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Determination of Monetization Strategy <ul><li>Based on Triage of Portfolio and Strategy of Firm: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define “Core” and “Non-Core” IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine best utilization of IP portfolio = Product Commercialization, Licensing, Assertion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confirm that sufficient patient assets are available to implement strategy. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Out comes of a successful business licensing operation <ul><li>Licensing revenues, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Licensing revenues, Net Licensing revenues, or Cost avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$ income/patent: IBM ~$30k/patent; DuPont ~$25k/p; Intel ~ $25k/p, and GE ~1.5k/p </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>licensing revenue received as a percentage of R&D dollars: DuPont = ~31%; IBM = ~23%; GE = ~4.5%; Intel = ~4% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchase Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Winning Design Competitions and Design Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Equity Potential </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase Discounts </li></ul><ul><li>Business Unit Synergies </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to Break Negotiation Deadlocks </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Don Merino, Success Factors in High Tech licensing, LES Annual Meeting, Sept, 24 2003) </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Development of License Goals & Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy Investment — Exclusivity / Focus on Leaders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light Investment — Probably Non-Exclusive / Cover All </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy Investment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated — Exclusive to Leader OR to Wanna-Be’s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmented — Non-Exclusive to any or all [tough sell] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light Investment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated — Exclusive to Leader or to Wanna-Be’s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmented — Non-Exclusive to all OR — Field of Use to grant Mini-Exclusives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Valuation Analysis to Determine Starting Point </li></ul>Implementation of Licensing Strategy
  33. 33. <ul><li>Develop single page, non-confidential description with: problem solved, benefits of solution, potential applications, and status. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct market research and identify opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Contacts: Primary source is Inventor </li></ul><ul><li>Use Web effectively </li></ul>Implementation of Licensing Strategy
  34. 34. Lessons Learned by TLO in Dealing with Faculty <ul><li>Work with only 10-20% of the faculty – identify the stars and determine their interest in commercialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions: not an expert in anything but IP and business development </li></ul><ul><li>Offer assistance to complete disclosures </li></ul><ul><li>Review negotiations and valuations but explain there can only be one person at the table </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing breeds success like success – “Porsche in Parking Lot” </li></ul>
  35. 35. Lessons Learned by TTO in Evaluation <ul><li>Policy must be clear about Ownership: Scholarship vs. Supported Research Results </li></ul><ul><li>TTO must Create Desire to Disclose </li></ul><ul><li>Initial review should be fast and based on interview with inventor. </li></ul><ul><li>Information reduces risk and raises value </li></ul><ul><li>Be the source of market feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ignore paperwork </li></ul>
  36. 36. Lessons Learned by TTO in Patent Management <ul><li>Has there been a prior art (patents and literature) search completed? </li></ul><ul><li>Has a patent application or copyright been filed? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the application status? </li></ul><ul><li>If not filed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the assessment of the: Novelty (Prior Art), Obviousness, Useful (Utility) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the invention is still confidential, is there a published procedure for maintaining a trade secret? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the scope of the claims in the Patent or the Patent Application – Broad or Narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Claims: Material of Composition, Method to Make, etc. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Lessons Learned by TTO in Patentability <ul><li>Is there freedom to operate? Are other patents required to utilize the invention? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the copyrighted material utilize any Open Source code? </li></ul><ul><li>Would patent infringement be detectable and enforceable? </li></ul><ul><li>Would patent claims protect a developer’s investment in developing and marketing a product or service? </li></ul><ul><li>Are International patents necessary to derive value sufficient for investment to commercialize the invention? </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has an assignment been completed by all identified inventors, including third parties? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there any prior claims to the invention or the copyrighted work? </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Lessons Learned by TTO in Negotiation <ul><li>Prepare your position/Understand theirs </li></ul><ul><li>Request an offer </li></ul><ul><li>Listen Actively… and carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Probe their rationale and yours </li></ul><ul><li>Create options/make counter offers </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm agreement and benefits to each side </li></ul><ul><li>Close firmly, amicably, and define the next step. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Lessons Learned by TLO in Start-ups <ul><li>University/Employee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict of Interest policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who negotiates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of TTO - Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Proceeds of License </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who holds equity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are proceeds distributed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WHY DO MOST START-UPS FAIL? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor planning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of management ability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient capital. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misreading the market. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional rather than logical decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego and greed. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Example: Direct Marketing with Start-up <ul><li>Initial Marketing VTIP/Atlas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product = Beta Tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price = $32,000 to $16,000 to $5,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion = Newsletters, Trade Shows, Testimonials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position = Another advancement from VT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected Niche = Loyal to Librarian Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now OCLC/Atlas </li></ul>
  41. 41. Conclusions <ul><li>Tech Transfer is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex, Non-Linear Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career with unique skill requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term investment for societal good (advance knowledge, new jobs, new products, and new businesses) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start-up operations require: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement on success, goals and source of capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient supply of disclosures and demand for licensing new technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration, Faculty, Governmental and Business Champion(s) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Invention Patenting Patent Atty Disclosure Evaluation Marketing Licensing Protect if Publication is Imminent Questions ???? Products Business Spin offs Research Investment