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Serverless Container with Source2Image


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Serverless Computing 2019, November 2019, London: Talk by Josef Adersberger (@adersberger, CTO QAware)

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There will be a future where container workloads and serverless platforms are BFF. An essential building block on this way is Source2Image. It provides the magic of source code being transformed automatically into an executable container image containing all required runtime components. Think of it as a black box continuous integration server for containerized applications. The talk will introduce, showcase, and compare leading Source2Image open source projects like Skaffold, OpenShift S2I,, Draft, Knative Build, and Garden.

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Serverless Container with Source2Image

  1. 1. Dr. Josef Adersberger, CTO & Co-Founder QAware Serverless containers … with source-to-image
  2. 2. Inventor's workshop and assembly line ready? ready!
  3. 3. The evolution of software delivery The dark ages: Export JAR, upload to deployment server, write ticket, wait until application is deployed to multi-project application server by far shore ops team. The container era: Build application, package with runtime into container image, push to image registry, deploy to container manager. PaaS & Serverless heaven: git push + magic happens here industrialization process: 1. lower change lead time 2. higher quality confidence 3. lower vertical integration
  4. 4. Rule #1: Avoid too much magic at early stages
  5. 5. Trust me...
  6. 6. Serverless flavors git push functions git push something in a container generic container CI/CD pipeline FULL SERVERLESS MILD SERVERLESS serverlessy: black box application runtime and infrastructure resources Why you might need mild serverless: regulatory compliance, shift left quality checks & automated tests, complex staging and deployment patterns, decoupling from cloud vendors or immature open source projects serverlessy: scale-to-zero, elastic
  7. 7. The anatomy of a mild serverless toolchain Watch for code changes Choose compilation method and base image Compile code, prepare image, inject binaries Deploy image to target container manager Source-to-Image workflow Developer's workspace aka inventor's workshop CI/CD pipeline aka assembly line Static analysis, test automation, staging and promotion, image scanning, ... Image builders
  8. 8. 8 With the volkswagen CI plugin you can completely focus on source-to-image
  9. 9. The source-to-image challengers: WORKFLOW TOOLS (inner loop & outer loop) ● Skaffold ( ● Tilt ( ● Garden ( BUILDER TOOLS ● OpenShift Source2Image ( ● ( ● Draft ( ● Jib (
  10. 10. 10 SHOOT OUT !
  11. 11. # install pack tool (buildpack reference implementation) brew tap buildpack/tap brew install pack # get suggested builders for sample application # build image for sample application
  12. 12. Buildpack internals Builder Image (e.g. heroku/buildpacks or cloudfoundry/bionic) App Image StackBuild Base Image Run Base Image Lifecycle Buildpack 1 Buildpack n ... Detection Analysis Build Export bin/detect bin/build Runtime Layer Dependency Layer App Layer
  13. 13. # install s2i brew install source-to-image # get and build source2image for springboot & java git clone docker build --build-arg MAVEN_VER=3.6.2 --build-arg GRADLE_VER=5.6.3 -t springboot-java . # build image for sample application s2i build --incremental=true . springboot-java skaffold-example-god
  14. 14. S2I internals BUILDER IMAGE Pre-defined scripts: APP IMAGE Build Base Image building the application artifacts from source and placing them into the appropriate directories inside the app image executing the application (entrypoint) Runtime Layer Build Layer Artifact Layer CLI tool: entrypoint: run
  15. 15. # install draft along with helm brew install kubernetes-helm helm init brew install azure/draft/draft # create draft files for application (Helm chart, draft.toml, Dockerfile) draft create --> Draft detected Shell (46.149372%) --> Could not find a pack for Shell. Trying to find the next likely language match... --> Draft detected Batchfile (28.163621%) --> Could not find a pack for Batchfile. Trying to find the next likely language match... --> Draft detected Java (12.213444%) --> Ready to sail # build image for sample application and deploy application to k8s draft up # connect to the application endpoint draft connect
  16. 16. Draft internals BUILDER HELM CHART APPLICATION HELM CHART [environments] [environments.development] name = "god" namespace = "default" wait = true watch = false watch-delay = 2 auto-connect = false dockerfile = "Dockerfile" chart = "" draft.toml java primary language detection by github linguist and mapped to chart directory by language name generated by draft create
  17. 17. Draft flatline sadness
  18. 18. ./mvnw compile jib:dockerBuild -Dimage=skaffold-example-god pom.xml
  19. 19. Custom (SH)
  20. 20. # install skaffold brew install skaffold # build & deploy image (once) skaffold run # build & deploy image (everytime the code changes) skaffold dev apiVersion: skaffold/v1beta16 kind: Config build: artifacts: - image: skaffold-example-god context: . jib: {} deploy: kubectl: manifests: - src/k8s/*.yaml apiVersion: skaffold/v1beta16 kind: Config build: artifacts: - image: skaffold-example-god custom: buildCommand: ./ dependencies: paths: - . deploy: kubectl: manifests: - src/k8s/*.yaml #!/bin/bash set -e images=$(echo $IMAGES | tr " " "n") for image in $images do pack build $image --builder cloudfoundry/cnb:bionic if $PUSH_IMAGE then docker push $image fi done driven by skaffold.yaml:
  21. 21. Builder performance comparison with Skaffold Builder Time s2i (--incremental=true) 1:23m Draft 1:14m Buildpacks 0:42m jib 0:21m median of 3 runs timed by "time" command after an initial warming run and a code change between each run - build and caching behaviour not optimized time skaffold run -f=skaffold-s2i.yml time skaffold run -f=skaffold-buildpacks.yml time skaffold run -f=skaffold-jib.yml time draft up
  22. 22. Builder shootout (lower is better) Criteria s2i Draft Jib Speed ● lead time to change ● image size (docker image ls) ● rebasing 2 4 3 1 Supported application technologies Java, Node.JS, Python, GoLang, ... 2 3 1 4 (k.O. if non-Java) Auto-detection of application technologies yes / no 1 3 1 3 Maturity / future proof 3 2 4 (k.O.) 1 8 12 9 (k.O.) 9
  23. 23. # install Tilt brew tap windmilleng/tap brew install windmilleng/tap/tilt # build & deploy image (with every change) tilt up # Deploy: tell Tilt what YAMLs to deploy k8s_yaml('src/k8s/pod-god.yaml') # Build: tell Tilt what images (name) to build from which directories docker_build('skaffold-example-god', '.') # Watch: tell Tilt how to connect locally (optional) k8s_resource('web', port_forwards=8080) driven by Tiltfile (Starlark, a Python dialect):
  24. 24. Tilt UI TERMINAL UI WEB UI
  25. 25. # install Garden brew tap garden-io/garden brew install garden-cli # build & deploy image (once) garden build # build & deploy image (with # every change) garden dev kind: Project name: god-project environments: - name: local providers: - name: local-kubernetes context: docker-desktop --- kind: Module name: god description: God service type: container services: - name: god ports: - name: http containerPort: 8080 healthCheck: httpGet: path: / port: http ingresses: - path: / port: http driven by garden.yml containing garden-defined resource types as abstractions for k8s primitives:
  26. 26. Garden UI TERMINAL UIWEB UI
  27. 27. Workflow shootout (lower is better) Criteria ⇒ Position Skaffold Tilt Garden Pipeline integratability ● As pipeline tasks in Jenkins Pipelines, Tekton, Build tools ● Support for container testing ● Deployment options: Helm, Kustomize, kubectl 1 3 2 Supported image builders ● Plain Docker ● Daemon-less builds ● Builders: Buildpacks, Draft, s2i, Jib 2 3 1 Multi-environments Support for multiple environments like local, dev, prod 1 3 1 Multi-image projects Support for code repositories containing multi-image projects 1 1 1 Local dev support Local build, local run, build-on-change 1 1 1 Maturity / future proof 1 2 2 7 13 8
  28. 28. 1. The way from source to image can be done in a generic way 2. If you're doing Java then go for the Google guys: Skaffold and Jib 3. If you're polyglot then go for Skaffold and 4. Use the same workflow & builder tool for local builds and CI/CD builds 5. Optimize the change lead time for features and the local round trip time for developers 5 things:
  29. 29. @adersberger
  30. 30. 37 A possible journey towards full serverless as commodity Serverless Build Serverless Run
  31. 31. Bonus slide: Change lead time optimization 1. Use well-architectured, security-hardened and minimal base images like: a. Google Distroless Images ( b. RedHat Universal Base Images ( 2. Use a Docker daemon-less image builder with excessive caching: a. Google Kaniko ( b. uber Makiso ( c. Docker BuildKit ( d. Google Bazel ( 3. Use an efficient pipeline orchestrator with task parallelization capabilities: a. Tekton ( b. Argo CD (