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Public Policy and Public Administration:Investing in Human Resources Development - Training

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  1. 1. Investing in Human Resource Development Group Presentation for Public Policy and Administration
  2. 2. • WHAT • WHY • HOW • Developed VS Developing Countries • Case Study (USA) Investing in HDR • Definition • General Benefits • Systematic Approach • Proposed Training System (Draft) • Training Evaluation TRAINING Content 2
  3. 3. Healthy Educated Skilled Labor Force Investing in HRD – Human Capital 3
  4. 4. • HRs are the principal asset of every country and required by all business enterprises • But without investment in developing the capacity to acquire skills, build knowledge and innovate, the potential for HRs to attract business investment is limited • More broadly, HRD contributes to civil liberties, political stability, improved population health and reduced crime and corruption, advancing economic development and further attracting inward FDI Investing in HRD – WHY? 4
  5. 5. • Start with the basics • Increase participation in basic schooling (P & LS) • Ensure appropriate economic incentives to acquire a higher formal education • To invest in human capital sufficient to encourage individuals to continue higher education (HS & T) • Increase total resources for higher and tertiary education • Raise the quality and efficiency of tertiary education • Training helps business to stay competitive Investing in HRD – HOW? 5
  6. 6. • Developed countries also have more resources than do developing countries to invest in basic and vocational education, training programs, and higher education. • As a result, workers and managers in developed economies typically receive more education and training • In 1998, for example, educational expenditures relative to the gross domestic product (the value of all goods and services produced within a nation's borders) were 5.6 percent in developed countries and 4.1 percent in developing countries Developed VS Developing Countries 6
  7. 7. Case Study: U.S.A (2003 data) 7
  8. 8. • Exercise (n.) • Drill/ Working out/ Keeping fit/ Physical activity • Preparation (n.) • Teaching/ Guidance/ Education/ Schooling/ Instruction/ Tuition • Acquiring of Skill: • the process of teaching or learning a skill or job TRAINING – Definition 8
  9. 9. • Training is one obvious means for correcting inadequate performance • It can defines training as "a planned, prepared, and coordinated program, course, curriculum, subject, system, or routine of instruction or education.“ • Training can cover any number of subjects that will aid individual and organizational performance and help accomplish a department's mission and goals TRAINING – Definition 9
  10. 10. • Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees • Increased employee motivation • Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain • Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods • Increased innovation in strategies and products • Reduced employee turnover • Enhanced organization image • Risk management General Benefits 10
  11. 11. • Analyze the organization's needs and identify training goals which, when reached, will equip learner's with knowledge and skills to meet the organization's needs. Usually this phase also includes identifying when training should occur and who should attend as learners. • Design a training system that learners and trainers can implement to meet the learning goals; typically includes identifying learning objectives (which culminate in reaching the learning goals), needed facilities, necessary funding, course content, lessons and sequence of lessons Overview of Systematic Approach 11
  12. 12. • Develop a training "package" of resources and materials, including, e.g., developing audio-visuals, graphics, manuals, etc. • Implement the training package, including delivering the training, support group feedback, clarifying training materials, administering tests and conducting the final evaluation. This phase can include administrative activities, such as copying, scheduling facilities, taking attendance data, billing learners, etc. • Evaluate training, including before, during and after implementation of training. Overview of Systematic Approach 12
  13. 13. I. The Policy Foundation for Employment and Performance II. Basic Training Policy III. Roles and Responsibilities of members of HRD IV.Training Administration and Operations Proposed Training System (Draft) 13
  14. 14. • The foundation principle upon the principle of merit means that hiring, retention, and promotion should be based upon an employee's qualifications and performance, not on his or her political affiliation • Employees should receive training and education when training will lead to improved individual and organizational performance • Employment should be a function of acceptable performance while "inadequate performance should be corrected, and employees should be separated who cannot or will not improve their performance to meet required standards." I. Merit : Policy Foundation 14
  15. 15. • Require a specific foundational policy for training employees • E.g. Government Employees Training Act (GETA) • It is necessary and desirable in the public interest that self-education, self-improvement, and self- training be supplemented and extended by Government-sponsored programs for the training of such employees in the performance of official duties and for the development of skills, knowledge, and abilities which will best qualify them for performance of official duties II. Basic Training Policy 15
  16. 16. • E.g. Government Employees Training Act (GETA) • ... such programs shall be designed to lead to: a) improved public service b) money savings c) the building and retention of a permanent d) lower turnover of personnel e) reasonably uniform administration of training, consistent with the missions of the Government departments and agencies, and f) fair and equitable treatment of Government employees with respect to training II. Basic Training Policy 16
  17. 17. • Given the size and scope of training for the workforce, a number of different actors are involved, including 1. The Office of Personal Management (OPM) 2. Department and Agency Heads 3. Training Vendors and Employees 4. Rights and Responsibility of Trainees • Each actor’s roles, duties and prerogatives are defined through various policy statements III. Roles and Responsibilities 17
  18. 18. 1. The Office of Personal Management (OPM) III. Roles and Responsibilities • To make sure that employees are recruited, selected, developed, and promoted based on merit • To make issue, and enforce policies for training employees • To promote and coordinate training programs • To assist agencies in planning, programming, budgeting, operating, and evaluating training programs • To identify areas for interagency training cooperation 18
  19. 19. 1. The Office of Personal Management (OPM) III. Roles and Responsibilities • To provide training services either directly or by contracting with external suppliers • To identify and disseminate findings on HRD technology research • To maintain an information system for keeping track of training data needed to execute its duties, and the agency is also charged with keeping records of the training it provides to employees, such as leadership and management development programs, career development programs, academic degree programs, and certain soft skills and technical training 19
  20. 20. 2. Department and Agency Heads III. Roles and Responsibilities • Departments and agencies each have their own HRD offices to coordinate and/or provide the training needed by their employees • These HRD offices are under the direction of department and agency heads • Responsible for establishing, operating, maintaining, and evaluating programs for training the employees of their departments • Should be based on identified organizational, occupational, and individual training needs 20
  21. 21. 2. Department and Agency Heads III. Roles and Responsibilities • For example, each head is charged with the HRD duties of • Reviewing periodically the agency's programs for identifying needed training • Planning, programming, and evaluating training for both short- and long-range program needs • Establishing priorities for needed training, and providing both funds and staff in accordance with these priorities 21
  22. 22. 2. Department and Agency Heads III. Roles and Responsibilities • For example (II) • Utilizing job assignments to provide work experience that promotes employee growth and development as a step toward better quality and quantity of performance • Monitoring the effectiveness with which employee self-development is encouraged and on-the-job training is provided at all levels • Establishing the criteria for the selection of employees for training opportunities 22
  23. 23. 3. Training Vendors and Employees III. Roles and Responsibilities • Training may be supplied through a variety of sources • OPM provided courses • Agency training programs • Training services offered by other government agencies • Private schools, colleges or universities • Professional associations • Competent persons or groups in or out of government, and/or developmental work assignments such as details, rotations, or mentoring 23
  24. 24. 3. Training Vendors and Employees III. Roles and Responsibilities • Rights and Responsibilities of Trainees • Employees are responsible for self-development, for successfully completing and applying authorized training • They share with their agencies the responsibility to identify training needed to improve individual and organizational performance • The head of each agency shall foster employee self-development by assuring that opportunities for training and self-study materials are reasonably available where the employee is stationed 24
  25. 25. • To use appropriated funds or other available funds to pay for training programs • Financial management policies specify procedures for procuring training products and services • Other policies deal with issues related to employees' compensation or training expenses • permits departments and agencies to pay all or a part of employees' salaries during periods of training • To establish and use interagency training programs to meet common training needs whenever possible IV. Administration and Operation 25
  26. 26. • To specify how training plans and resources are to be communicated to employees • provided information about the process by which employees are selected and assigned to training • given advance notice of the purpose, expected content, and methods of the training they could be attending • identify the kinds of training records that are to be kept, to whom training information should be reported IV. Administration and Operation 26
  27. 27. • Require to issue nondiscrimination policies for the selection of employees into training • To conduct periodic reviews of individual employees training needs (done annually at a minimum) • To evaluate training programs in terms of their short- term and long-term effects on the achievement of agency goals • To offer technical advice and support in planning, needs assessment, and program evaluation IV. Administration and Operation 27
  28. 28. • Evaluation of training compares the post-training results to the objectives expected by administrators, trainers, and trainees • "any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effects of a training program, and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information” • To improve the training program • To provide feedback to program planners, managers, and participants • To justify the RESOURCES spend on training Training Evaluation 28
  29. 29. Summary Investing in HDR Healthy, Educated and Skilled Labor Force principal asset of every country and business Contributes to liberties, political stability, improved population health and reduced crime and corruption, advancing economic development TRAINING: Acquiring of Skilled for correcting inadequate performance 29
  30. 30. Summary TRAINING Benefits with Systematic Approach Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate Proposed Training System (Draft) Training Policy Foundation, Government Training System Act, Roles and Responsibilities, Administration Training Evaluation 30
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