Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

General Power Quality

5,611 views

Published on

Come join the area's leading power quality experts as we demonstrate and replicate common power quality issues, problems and solutions in today's industrial and commercial electrical environments.

Published in: Education, Business

General Power Quality

  1. 1. GENERAL POWER QUALITY www.P3-Inc.com
  2. 2. <ul><li>CEU’s </li></ul><ul><li>Copy of slides </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation Form </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up information </li></ul>
  3. 3. POWER QUALITY GOOD POWER BAD POWER
  4. 4. <ul><li>What is good Power? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Bad Power? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conventional Industry Standard
  6. 6. IEEE Std 1100-2005 Conventional Industry Standard
  7. 7. What is good Power? IEEE is the most often quoted “Source” for definitions of Power IEEE stands for “Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers” IEEE defines Good Power as: Clean, pure power exhibits constant voltage and frequency, perfect sinusoidal waveshapes, and is free of harmonics, noise, and transients . Conventional Industry Standard
  8. 8. What is Bad Power? IEEE defines Bad Power as: Power that includes voltage variations, voltage swells, voltage sags, overvoltages and undervoltages, harmonics, transients, traveling waves, and power failures. Conventional Industry Standard
  9. 9. Over-voltages Under-voltages Sags Swells Harmonics Noise Transients Grounding The power quality BIG 8
  10. 10. Sags IEEE-1100 Swells IEEE-1100 Over-voltages IEEE-1100 Under-voltages IEEE-1100 Harmonics IEEE-519 and IEEE-1100 Noise IEEE-1100 Transients IEEE-C62.41 and IEEE 1100 Grounding IEEE-142 and IEEE 1100 The power quality BIG 8 Conventional Industry Standard
  11. 11. IEEE-1100-2.2.67: A… reduction in the ac voltage, at the power frequency, for durations from a 0.5 cycle to 1 Min. Voltage Sag Conventional Industry Standard
  12. 12. Voltage Sag Actual P 3 Power Quality Study
  13. 13. Voltage Swell IEEE 1100-2.2.78: An increase in… voltage or current at the power frequency for durations from 0.5 cycle to 1.0 min. Conventional Industry Standard
  14. 14. Voltage Swell Actual P 3 Power Quality Study
  15. 15. Over-voltages IEEE-1100-2.2.56: Increase in the ac voltage, at the power frequency, for a period of time greater than 1 min. Conventional Industry Standard
  16. 16. Actual P 3 Power Quality Study
  17. 17. Under-voltages IEEE 1100-2.2.56: Decrease in the ac voltage, at the power frequency, for a period of time greater than 1 min. Conventional Industry Standard
  18. 18. Actual P 3 Power Quality Study
  19. 19. Utility Standards Utility standards are defined by the various State Utility Boards. Most require the utility must adhere to this standard: 1. Voltage limits as stated by IEEE/ANSI C84.1 Conventional Industry Standard
  20. 20. IEEE/ANSI C84.1 Standard Voltage Voltage Range A Voltage Range B 120 114-126 110-127 120/240 114/228-126/252 110/220-127/254 208Y/120 197Y/114-218Y/126 191Y/110-220Y/127 480Y/277 456Y/263-504Y/291 440Y/254-508Y/293 13200Y 12870Y-13860Y 12504Y-13970Y “ Electrical supply systems shall be so designed and operated that most service voltages will be within the limits for range A” “ When…Range B… voltages occur, corrective measures shall be undertaken within a reasonable time to improve voltages to meet Range A requirements.” Conventional Industry Standard
  21. 21. IEEE-1100-2.2.83: A subcycle disturbance in the ac waveform that is evidenced by a sharp, brief discontinuity of the waveform. May be of either polarity and may be additive to, or subtractive from, the nominal waveform. Transient Conventional Industry Standard
  22. 22. Transient Actual P 3 Power Quality Study
  23. 23. Transient 8x20 µs Short Circuit Current TIME 3,000 10% 50% 20 µs 8 µs 0 90% Impulse / Combination wave Transient A M P E R E S
  24. 24. Transient 8x20 µs Impulse Location Category System Exposure Voltage (kV) Effective Impedance B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 Low Medium High Low Medium High 2 4 6 6 10 20 2 2 2 2 2 2 Current (kA) 1 2 3 3 5 10 Peak Values Conventional Industry Standard
  25. 25. Transient peak r Voltage Waveform B3 — 0.5 µs, 100 kHz Ring Wave V peak T = 10 µs (f = 100 kHz) 60% of V 0.9 V peak 0.1 V peak 0.5 µs t Ring Wave Transient
  26. 26. Transient Standard 0.5 µs - 100 kHz Ring Wave Location Category System Exposure Voltage (kV) Effective Impedance A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 Low Medium High Low Medium High 2 4 6 2 4 6 30 30 30 12 12 12 Current (kA) .07 .13 .2 .17 .33 .5 Peak Values Conventional Industry Standard
  27. 27. IEEE 1100-2.2.49: Unwanted electrical signals that produce undesirable effects in the circuits of the control- systems in which they occur. Noise Conventional Industry Standard
  28. 28. Noise Actual P 3 Power Quality Study
  29. 29. Harmonics A harmonic is the term used for current flow on your facilities power system at frequencies other than 60Hertz.
  30. 30. Harmonics Low Harmonic Waveform Actual P 3 Power Quality Study
  31. 31. Harmonics Actual P 3 Power Quality Study
  32. 32. Harmonic Problems <ul><li>Electrical and Electronic damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Overheating and less efficient transformers </li></ul><ul><li>Control System errors due to Electrical </li></ul><ul><li>noise caused by harmonics. </li></ul><ul><li>Blown Fuses for no APPARENT reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuisance tripping of Circuit Breakers. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Typical Harmonic frequencies: 3 x 60 = 180HZ 5 x 60 = 300HZ 7 x 60 = 420HZ 11 x 60 = 660HZ 13 x 60 = 780HZ
  34. 34. Power Factor
  35. 35. Power Factor <ul><li>What is Power Factor? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a good Power Factor? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a Bad Power Factor? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems are caused by </li></ul><ul><li>a bad Power Factor </li></ul><ul><li>How to correct for a bad </li></ul><ul><li>Power Factor. </li></ul>
  36. 36. What is Power Factor? <ul><li>Power Factor is the ratio of Active Power to Total Power </li></ul>Active Power Total Power = Power Factor
  37. 37. Active Power <ul><li>Active power is what we normally see as the electricity used in our facility. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in kW (Kilowatts). </li></ul><ul><li>This is normally what the power company charges against. </li></ul>Main Service Motor Control Center Sub- Power Panels Sub- Power Panels Lights Phones Computers Etc. kWh METER Motor Motor Motor
  38. 38. Total Power <ul><li>Total power is what our equipment needs to be sized for in our facility. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in KVA (Kilo-voltamps). </li></ul><ul><li>The power company may charge extra money (penalties) for a large KVA. </li></ul><ul><li>The large KVA is usually stated in Power Factor . </li></ul><ul><li>Total Power is a combination of Active Power </li></ul><ul><li>and something called Reactive Power . </li></ul>Active Power Total Power = Power Factor
  39. 39. Reactive Power Measured in Kvar <ul><li>Reactive Power takes into consideration the energy needed </li></ul><ul><li>to build all the magnetic fields in a facility. </li></ul><ul><li>Your facilities equipment must be sized large enough to handle </li></ul><ul><li>the extra energy needed to produce these magnetic fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic fields are produced in ALL current carrying equipment </li></ul><ul><li>in a facility. This includes Switchboards, Panelboards, Busway, </li></ul><ul><li>wiring, all equipment, and especially MOTORS. Motors have </li></ul><ul><li>thousands of feet of wire which add greatly to a facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive Power </li></ul>
  40. 40. Magnetic Fields Produced in your Facility <ul><li>In a AC (Alternating Current) system, current flow changes </li></ul><ul><li>direction 60 times every second. This is called 60 Hertz (Hz). </li></ul><ul><li>Each time the current changes direction a magnetic field is </li></ul><ul><li>developed around ALL current carrying parts of a circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes all the wire in your facility, all Motors </li></ul><ul><li>and all transformers. </li></ul>
  41. 41. 0V 680V 680V Section of Wire Magnetic Field Produced around wire
  42. 42. 0V 680V 680V Section of Wire Magnetic Field Produced around wire
  43. 43. Reactive Power <ul><li>The energy needed to produce this Magnetic Field is real. </li></ul><ul><li>You don’t see it on your energy bill because the power is </li></ul><ul><li>given back to the circuit in each quarter cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>The extra current flow is there. Therefore, you and your </li></ul><ul><li>power company must size equipment large enough to handle </li></ul><ul><li>the extra energy needed to produce these magnetic fields. </li></ul><ul><li>This is why many Power Companies add an extra charge (penalty) </li></ul><ul><li>to facilities with a large amount of reactive power. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Remember… Total Power is a combination of Active Power and Reactive Power . This is how they combine : Active Power (kW) Reactive Power (kvar) Total Power (kva) Active Power (kW) 2 + Reactive Power (kvar) 2 = Total Power (kva) 2
  45. 45. As Reactive Power increases Active Power stays the same however Total Power increases greatly. Active Power (kW) Larger Reactive Power (kvar) Larger Total Power (kVA)
  46. 46. Remember <ul><li>Power Factor is the ratio of Active Power to Total Power . </li></ul><ul><li>When Reactive Power is large Total Power increases. </li></ul><ul><li>With the formula below we now see that when Total Power </li></ul><ul><li>increases the Power Factor decreases. </li></ul>Active Power Total Power = Power Factor
  47. 47. <ul><li>When Total Power increases the Power Factor decreases. </li></ul>Active Power Total Power = Power Factor 1000 kW 1050 kVA .95 Power Factor = 1000 kW 1500 kVA .6 Power Factor
  48. 48. = 1000 kW 1050 kVA .95 Power Factor = 1000 kW 1500 kVA .6 Power Factor <ul><li>.95 to 1 is considered a good power factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything less than .9 can be considered a bad power factor . </li></ul><ul><li>Your Power Company may charge you or you may have internal </li></ul><ul><li>problems in your facility with Power Factors less than .9. </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>The best way solve a low Power Factor problem is to install </li></ul><ul><li>Power Factor Correction Capacitors. </li></ul><ul><li>These Power Factor Correction Capacitors capture the energy </li></ul><ul><li>from the collapsing magnetic field and give the energy back </li></ul><ul><li>on the next Quarter cycle. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Power Factor Capacitor Storage of Magnetic Fields Produced in your Facility Power Correction Capacitor 0V 680V 680V Section of Wire
  51. 51. Gaining capacity with Power Factor Capacitors If we increase Power Factor, what happens to KVA? = 1000 kW 1500 kVA .6 Power Factor = 1000 kW 1050 kVA .95 Power Factor
  52. 52. Gaining capacity with Power Factor Capacitors 1500 kVA on a 480 3 phase system is 1800 AMPS 1050 kVA on a 480 3 phase system is 1200 AMPS Could we use this gain of 600 amps? Absolutly!
  53. 53. Harmonics
  54. 54. What is a Harmonic? A harmonic is the term used for current flow on your facilities power system at frequencies other than 60Hertz.
  55. 55. What exactly is a Harmonic?
  56. 56. Linear use of power Volts Amps 0V 680V 680V 0A 200A 200A
  57. 57. Equipment that uses power in a linear fashion
  58. 58. Non-Linear use of power Volts Amps 0V 680V 680V 0A 200A 200A
  59. 59. Equipment that uses power in a NON-linear fashion Fluorescent Lights and Ballast's Copiers and other Office equipment Variable Frequency Drives All equipment that uses an AC to DC power supply Computers
  60. 60. 3 x 60 = 180HZ 5 x 60 = 300HZ 7 x 60 = 420HZ 11 x 60 = 660HZ 13 x 60 = 780HZ Typical Non-Linear frequencies that cause problems:
  61. 61. Why does Non-Linear current flow cause problems In my facility?
  62. 62. 0V 680V 680V Section of Wire Magnetic field produced around wire
  63. 63. Combination of Linear and Non-Linear power 0A 200A 200A Section of Wire
  64. 64. Harmonic Problems <ul><li>Electrical and Electronic damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Overheating and less efficient transformers </li></ul><ul><li>Control System errors due to Electrical </li></ul><ul><li>noise caused by harmonics. </li></ul><ul><li>Blown Fuses for no APPARENT reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuisance tripping of Circuit Breakers. </li></ul>
  65. 65. IEEE 519-1992 -Current Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion I SC / I L TDD 1-20 5% 20-50 8% 50-100 12% 100-1000 15% 1000+ 20% I SC= Maximum short circuit current I L= Maximum demand load TDD= Total Demand Distortion Conventional Industry Standard
  66. 66. Example: Typical Office Building 1200A 208Y/120 service 30K AIC The Maximum IEEE Harmonic distortion is: 30,000 AIC / 960 = 31 31 on the IEEE chart is 8% Current Harmonics
  67. 67. IEEE 519,1992 -Voltage Maximum Harmonic Voltage Distortion Voltage THD 69kV and below 5% THD=Total Harmonic Distortion Conventional Industry Standard
  68. 68. Installation involving Harmonic Cancellation Transformers in a typical four-story office building 480 Volt Main Switchgear Total Harmonic Distortion 2.8% 1 st Floor Panel with regular transformer Total Harmonic Distortion 5.1% 2nd Floor Panel with regular transformer Total Harmonic Distortion 5.4% 3rd Floor Panel with regular transformer Total Harmonic Distortion 5.9% 4th Floor Panel with regular transformer Total Harmonic Distortion 7.7% Harmonic levels on each floor are above the IEEE 519 maximum allowed level of 5%. The 7.7% level on the forth floor resulted in a distorted voltage waveform.
  69. 69. After installation of only one Harmonic Cancellation Transformer on the 4th floor the following readings were logged: 480 Volt Main Switchgear Total Harmonic Distortion 1.7% 1 st Floor Panel with regular transformer Total Harmonic Distortion 4.0% 2nd Floor Panel with regular transformer Total Harmonic Distortion 4.3% 3rd Floor Panel with regular transformer Total Harmonic Distortion 4.8% 4th Floor Panel with new transformer Total Harmonic Distortion 3.2% New Harmonic Cancellation Transformer Total Harmonic Distortion on the 4th floor dropped from 7.7% to an acceptable IEEE519 level of 3.2%. This also had an effect on the rest of the building power lowering the Harmonic levels as shown.
  70. 70. <ul><li>Installation of Transformers that treat harmonics have </li></ul><ul><li>many benefits, however the two largest benefits are: </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of harmonics that cause damage to or errors </li></ul><ul><li>with your sensitive equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy savings from eliminating harmonics in your </li></ul><ul><li>facility. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Transient Voltages And Surge Suppression Devices
  72. 72. <ul><li>Surge Protection Devices are used to help stop </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage Spikes and Surges from destroying your </li></ul><ul><li>facilities Electrical and Electronic Equipment and </li></ul><ul><li>Data. </li></ul><ul><li>They used to be called Transient Voltage Surge </li></ul><ul><li>Suppressors “TVSS” units. </li></ul><ul><li>They are now called Surge Protection Devices </li></ul><ul><li>“ SPD’s”. </li></ul>
  73. 73. TVSS SPD Sept. 2009
  74. 74. Voltage Spikes and Surges are known as: Voltage Transients, or just Transients. +170V Normal 120 Volt 60Hz AC Voltage Sine Wave -170V 0V +170V 120 Volt 60Hz AC Voltage Sine Wave With Transients -170V 0V
  75. 75. SPD Lightning/Surge Arrestor UL 1449 3 rd ed. Addressed by ANSI/IEEE 1100 No longer addressed by UL Not addressed by ANSI/IEEE 1100 Proper Design will limit voltages to ANSI/IEEE 3.4.3 Levels No standard for limiting Voltages SPD Lightning Surge Arrestor Conventional Industry Standard
  76. 76. What causes these Transients? Lightning Strikes Power Line Problems Motors Fluorescent Lights and Ballasts Copiers and other office equipment Welders and other industrial equipment
  77. 77. The Source of the Transients are from two areas. Internal in your Facility Motors Ballasts Office Equipment Industrial Equipment External to your Facility Lightning Power Company Problems 80% 20% Conventional Industry Standard
  78. 78. GE ® Study on Transients Generated by Switching Results of switching off a 2-bulb, four foot fluorescent fixture 24 transients in excess of 1200 volts Source: General Electric Instrumentation and Computer Service Laboratory 2000 1000 -1000 0 Volts* No Protector ® 10:1 Probe -10 µsec +10 µsec * Voltage scale corrected for probe attenuation factor Time -2E-5 -20 µsec 2E-5 +20 µsec OE-5 0
  79. 79. IEEE example of Transients Generated by Capacitor Switching
  80. 80. IEEE example of Transients Generated by energizing a transformer
  81. 81. Transient caused by switching a 120 volt 1500 Watt plug in heater Actual P 3 Power Quality Study
  82. 82. IEEE example Transients caused by Harmonics
  83. 83. IEEE example Transients caused by Motor switching
  84. 84. T ransients Oscillatory Transient (Ring Wave) Impulse Transient Time (mS) -7500 -5000 -2500 0 2500 5000 7500 14 12 10 0 80 60 40 20 0 -1.5 -1.0 -.05 .00 .05 1.0 1.5 2.0 100 Time
  85. 85. Some problems caused by Transients in your facility: <ul><li>Premature Equipment failure </li></ul><ul><li>Long term cumulative equipment damage </li></ul><ul><li>Power loss </li></ul><ul><li>Data losses and system resets </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophic equipment failure </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate operation shutdown </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive equipment repair and </li></ul><ul><li>replacement costs </li></ul>
  86. 86. Problems with Equipment <ul><li>Motor Windings </li></ul><ul><li>Premature or Complete Motor Failure </li></ul>
  87. 87. Contact Failure from lightning strike Problems with Equipment
  88. 88. Problems with Equipment
  89. 89. Problems with Equipment
  90. 90. Integrated Circuit Schematic From Innovative Technology, Inc
  91. 91. Electron Microscopic Photo Catastrophic Cumulative From Innovative Technology, Inc
  92. 92. The Protection Circuit Switchgear Motor Control Centers Lights Phones Computers Etc. 480V Incoming Power Neutral Ground 6000V Voltage Spike 600V Maximum Clamp by SPD SPD
  93. 93. The SPD is designed to: <ul><li>Limit the let through voltage so electrical </li></ul><ul><li>and electronic equipment is not damaged </li></ul>Therefore, the SPD must: <ul><li>Sense Over-voltages </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the let through voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Not interrupt Normal Service </li></ul><ul><li>Give an indication when it is not working </li></ul>
  94. 94. Common Components Component Strengths Weaknesses <ul><li>High energy-handling capability </li></ul><ul><li>Readily available </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-nanosecond response time </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent clamping levels </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation </li></ul>MOV
  95. 95. MOV Degradation New MOV Fully Functional Slight degradation from use Total Degradation Less Peak Surge More Let Through Voltage
  96. 96. Many TVSS units DO NOT include ALL MODE PROTECTION Surge Protection Design Built for Endurance & Peak Surge Capacity Line to Ground 3 modes Neutral to Ground 1 mode Line to Neutral 3 modes Phase A B C N G 5 6 7 4 1 2 3 6 4 5 7
  97. 97. Common Components Component Strengths Weaknesses <ul><li>Sub-nanosecond response time </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Small energy-handling capability </li></ul><ul><li>Must use many to get adequate protection, therefore large enclosures </li></ul>Transorb or Avalanche Diode
  98. 98. Common Components Component Strengths Weaknesses <ul><li>Filters ring wave transients </li></ul><ul><li>Provides EMI/RFI filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness is frequency sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>May draw significant current at idle </li></ul><ul><li>Large values may upset operating system </li></ul>Capacitor
  99. 99. <ul><li>IEEE Standard 1100- 3.4.3 states: </li></ul><ul><li>Electromechanical devices can generally tolerate voltages of several times their rating for short durations… solid-state devices can not tolerate more than twice their normal rating . </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, voltages more than 240volts on a 120volt system cause damage to most modern electronic equipment. </li></ul>Conventional Industry Standard
  100. 100. When comparing SPD’s you must: <ul><li>Check the let through (clamping) voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Determine which IEEE voltage was applied to the </li></ul><ul><li>SPD to determine the stated let through voltage. </li></ul><ul><li>At what point was the measurement taken on the </li></ul><ul><li>incoming waveform (90 Deg. Or 180 Deg.). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Where on the SPD was the measurement taken. </li></ul>
  101. 101. The two basic types of TVSS units
  102. 102. The two basic types of TVSS units
  103. 103. The two basic types of TVSS units
  104. 104. The new UL 1449 3 rd Edition Specification
  105. 105. Locations for SPD Types Type 1 Before service disconnect Type 2 (Type 1 permitted) After service disconnect Type 3 (Type 1 and 2 permitted) 30 feet of conductor between service disconnect and SPD Type 4 Component Level
  106. 106. <ul><li>Manufacturer chooses a current they want to test with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 1 – 10kA or 20kA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2 – 3kA, 5kA, 10kA or 20kA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complete SPD is tested along with any required overcurrent devices (fuse or breaker) </li></ul><ul><li>Measured let through voltage for a 6000V 3000A surge is recorded </li></ul><ul><li>SPD is subjected to 15 surges at chosen current one minute apart with rated voltage applied between surges </li></ul><ul><li>Measured let through voltage for a 6000V and 3000A surge is recorded again – let through voltage must not deviate more than 10% from original voltage (this is brand new!) </li></ul>Nominal Discharge Current - I n
  107. 107. <ul><li>Voltage Protection Rating is assigned to an SPD model by the NRTL from a table based on the average of the measured limiting voltage from 3 impulses of a 6000V/3000A Transient </li></ul>Voltage Protection Rating “VPR”
  108. 108. <ul><li>VPR gives an indication of the quality of </li></ul><ul><li>construction and expected performance </li></ul><ul><li>VPR replaces the old “SVR” surge voltage rating </li></ul><ul><li>which only tested with 6000V 500A. </li></ul><ul><li>VPR ratings will be higher than the old SVR ratings </li></ul><ul><li>because VPR uses 6000V 3000A </li></ul>Voltage Protection Rating “VPR”
  109. 109. The new UL 1449 3 rd Edition- Summary TVSS SPD Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor Surge Protection Device SVR VPR Surge Voltage Rating Voltage Protection Rating NDC- In Nominal Discharge Current Category A,B,C Type 1,2,3,4 Location A-1,2,3/B-1,2,3/C-1,2,3 Locations Out In
  110. 110. The new ANSI/IEEE C62.41 Standard
  111. 111. The new ANSI/IEEE C62.41 Standard 8x20 µs TIME 10% 50% 20 µs 8 µs 0 90% 0.5 µs, 100 kHz Ring Wave V peak T = 10 µs (f = 100 kHz) 90% peak 10% peak 0.5 µs peak 60% of V
  112. 112. <ul><li>ANSI/IEEE describes location categories </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI/IEEE also describes current and voltage levels that might be typical in these areas </li></ul>A B C The new ANSI/IEEE C62.41 Standard
  113. 113. <ul><li>ANSI/IEEE Standard 1100 3.4.3 states: </li></ul><ul><li>Electromechanical devices can generally tolerate voltages of several times their rating for short durations… solid-state devices can not tolerate more than twice their normal rating . </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, voltages more than 240volts on a 120volt system cause damage to most modern electronic equipment. </li></ul>Conventional Industry Standard
  114. 114. UPS Systems
  115. 115. IEEE 1100 Section 7 tells us: The correct UPS System can solve 7 of the 8 power problems that cause failure or malfunction of equipment in your facilities. Conventional Industry Standard
  116. 116. Conventional Industry Standard Overvoltage Undervoltage Sag Swell Transient Noise Long term outage Frequency variation Surge Protection Device Noise Filter Isolation Transformer Voltage Regulator Stand By Off Line UPS Line Interactive UPS Generator True On Line Double Conversion UPS N N N N Y ? N N N N N N N Y N N N N N N ? ? N N N N Y Y ? Y N N ? ? N N N N Y ? N N N N N N ? N Y Y N N N N ? ? Y Y Y Y Y Y ? Y
  117. 117. There are three basic types of Uninterruptible Power Supply systems available: 1. Stand by (Off line) 2. Line interactive (Off Line) 3. True On line Double Conversion
  118. 118. Equipment that needs uninterruptible power Power from normal power provider Batteries and DC to AC Inverter Stand By UPS System The stand by UPS system (sometimes called Off-line system) operates in the following manor: While the normal power provider is operational the equipment wired to the UPS system receives power from this normal power provider. When this normal power is lost (blackout) the UPS system activates (turns on) and supplies power to the equipment that needs uninterruptible power until the normal power returns. The way this UPS system creates power is by converting the DC power from batteries to AC via an inverter. The activation (turn on) time for the inverter and internal switch from normal power to inverter power is typically 8-16 milliseconds.
  119. 119. Equipment that needs uninterruptible power Power from normal power provider Batteries and DC to AC Inverter Stand By UPS System The stand by UPS system (sometimes called Off-line system) operates in the following manor: While the normal power provider is operational the equipment wired to the UPS system receives power from this normal power provider. When this normal power is lost (blackout) the UPS system activates (turns on) and supplies power to the equipment that needs uninterruptible power until the normal power returns. The way this UPS system creates power is by converting the DC power from batteries to AC via an inverter. The activation (turn on) time for the inverter and internal switch from normal power to inverter power is typically 8-16 milliseconds.
  120. 120. Equipment that needs uninterruptible power Power from normal power provider Batteries and DC to AC Inverter Stand By UPS System The stand by UPS system (sometimes called Off-line system) operates in the following manor: While the normal power provider is operational the equipment wired to the UPS system receives power from this normal power provider. When this normal power is lost (blackout) the UPS system activates (turns on) and supplies power to the equipment that needs uninterruptible power until the normal power returns. The way this UPS system creates power is by converting the DC power from batteries to AC via an inverter. The activation (turn on) time for the inverter and internal switch from normal power to inverter power is typically 8-16 milliseconds.
  121. 121. Equipment that needs uninterruptible power Power from normal power provider Batteries and DC to AC Inverter Stand By UPS System
  122. 122. Equipment that needs uninterruptible power Power from normal power provider Batteries and DC to AC Inverter Stand By UPS System
  123. 123. Stand by (Off Line) UPS Benefits : Inexpensive Small Footprint Disadvantages : Not Designed for Critical Loads No Power Conditioning Load Exposed to Surges, Sags, and transients Not Generator Compatible Switching Necessary to go from Utility to battery Power. Discontinuous Power during Switch to Battery Less Battery Life (Used more often) Poor Maintainability without maintenance Bypass
  124. 124. Equipment that needs uninterruptible power Power from normal power provider Batteries and DC to AC Inverter Voltage Regulator Typically A Buck Boost Transformer Line Interactive UPS System Line interactive (Off Line) UPS systems add extra features that give us, at a minimum, two advantages over the Stand By UPS system. One, they usually include some type of voltage regulator between the normal power provider and your equipment that needs uninterruptible power and two, they have activation times around 4-8 milliseconds.
  125. 125. Line Interactive UPS Benefits : Less Costly than True on Line Technology Some Power conditioning Disadvantages : Not Designed for Critical Loads Limited Power Conditioning Load Exposed to Surges, Sags, and Transients Not always Generator compatible Less Battery Life (Used more often) Poor Maintainability without a maintenance bypass
  126. 126. Power from normal power provider Equipment that needs uninterruptible power AC to DC Rectifier Batteries DC DC to AC Inverter True On Line UPS system Double Conversion The On Line UPS is the best option when your equipment cannot loose power for even a split second. With an On Line system power is constant and there is no activation time. The On Line system uses batteries and a DC to AC inverter just like to other two units mentioned above, however, it also uses something called a rectifier. The addition of the rectifier along with the batteries and inverter enable the On Line UPS to give constant power to your equipment that needs uninterruptible power. The inverter that supplies power to your equipment is always on. The inverter gets its power from either the normal power provider (via the rectifier) or the batteries. With power to your equipment being supplied constantly from the inverter you receive clean regulated power at all times. In many cases this On Line technology is the only answer to your sensitive equipment power needs.
  127. 127. Power from normal power provider Equipment that needs uninterruptible power AC to DC Rectifier Batteries DC DC to AC Inverter True On Line UPS system Double Conversion
  128. 128. Power from normal power provider Equipment that needs uninterruptible power AC to DC Rectifier Batteries DC DC to AC Inverter True On Line UPS system Double Conversion
  129. 129. True On Line Double Conversion UPS Benefits : Designed for Critical Loads Superior Power Conditioning Isolates Load from Surges, Sags, and Transients Generator Compatible Extended Battery Times available with Full Time inverter Extended Battery Life (Only used during emergencies) Easy to Maintain with maintenance Bypass Switch Disadvantages : More Expensive than lessor technologies Bigger Footprint
  130. 130. The True On Line UPS is the best solution if the Uninterrupted operation of your equipment is critical .
  131. 131. End

×