2010 August Harmonics & Energy Efficiency

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2010 August Harmonics & Energy Efficiency

  1. 1. Power Quality University Presents… Energy Savings
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Facility Power Today </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of todays facility power on equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading your equipment to save energy </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1882 AC Power Invented Milestones in the History of AC Power Distribution and Power Quality POWER DISTRIBUTION TIME LINE 1880 The Electric Light bulb 1888 AC Power,AC Motor, Transformer Patented PCs and Electronics Begin to Proliferate Air Conditioning Almost 100% Electronic Loads 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  4. 4. The Mix of Linear to Non-Linear Loads Shifted Suddenly After 1980 POWER DISTRIBUTION TIME LINE ALL LINEAR MOSTLY NON-LINEAR 1880 1980 PRESENT 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  5. 5. Two Types of Electrical Loads <ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Linear </li></ul>INDUCTION MOTORS INCANDESCENT LIGHTING COMPUTERS VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES FLUORESCENT & HID LIGHTING ELECTRONIC BALLASTS
  6. 6. Linear Loads Draw Power Evenly <ul><li>Electrical voltage and current “ebbs and flows” from plus to minus 60 times per second. </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage and Current follow the same rhythm perfectly in a linear load </li></ul>+ - Voltage Current 1/60 TH SEC.
  7. 7. Electronic loads are different
  8. 8. Non-Linear Loads Draw Power Unevenly <ul><li>Current is drawn in short “gulps” or pulses. </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage and Current waveforms are irregular and don’t match – waveforms are said to be “DISTORTED” </li></ul><ul><li>NON-LINEAR LOADS PRODUCE HARMONICS </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonics cause mis-operation of equipment and WASTE ENERGY. </li></ul>+ - Current Voltage 1/60 TH SEC.
  9. 9. Engineers Describe Electrical Distortion in Terms of Harmonic Content <ul><li>An undistorted power waveform is a pure sine wave with no harmonics </li></ul><ul><li>The power waveform has a frequency of 60 Hertz </li></ul><ul><li>A distorted waveform contains many related waveforms called harmonics </li></ul><ul><li>They usually include the 3 rd , 5 th and 7 th multiples of 60 Hertz </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonics waste energy </li></ul>Undistorted Waveform 3 rd 7 th 5 th 1 st Distorted Waveform
  10. 10. Voltage With No Computer Load <ul><li>Without the load the voltage waveform is un distorted </li></ul>
  11. 11. Voltage With Full Computer Load <ul><li>Increasing computer load shows an increase in voltage distortion. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What are Harmonics -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Personal Computer Profile Fundamental 3 rd @180cps 5 th @300cps 7 th @ 420 cps Harmonics are multiples of the fundamental frequency that when added to the fundamental component regenerate the original waveform Computer’s Pulse (in green) can be represented by the sum of fundamental (60Hz), 3 rd , 5 th , 7 th , … harmonics.
  13. 13. Single-Phase Harmonic Spectrum Mostly 3 rd , 5 th & 7 th Electronic loads
  14. 14. Non-Linear Loads Tax Our Facilities’ Electrical Systems and Decrease Reliability <ul><li>Transformers overheat impacting life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Circuits overload </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic equipment becomes unreliable </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical systems, new and old, appear inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Power distribution system become less energy efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonics caused by non-linear loads are the root cause </li></ul>POWER DISTRIBUTION TIME LINE ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
  15. 15. Transformer Derating Per IEEE-1100 “The Emerald Book ” <ul><li>50-60% Lost capacity from harmonic heating even if only half the load is nonlinear </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Aging Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>70% of buildings built before 1980 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50% of buildings built before 1970 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>CONSEQUENCE: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>up to 70% of installed transformers are approaching end of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformers are lightly loaded </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>about 35% load </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>60-80 Billion kWh losses annually </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$3-4 Billion Annually </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9 days generating capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Generation is largest </li></ul><ul><li>source of air pollution </li></ul>DOE Study Findings
  17. 17. In support of Power for the Future <ul><li>LEED US Green Building Council </li></ul><ul><li>ASHRAE </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Star </li></ul><ul><li>Some states and utilities provide rebates </li></ul>
  18. 18. Consequences of Harmonics <ul><li>Voltage distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Increased energy losses </li></ul><ul><li>Poor power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Increased maintenance & Downtime </li></ul>
  19. 19. IEEE-519: Voltage Quality at the Load Matters
  20. 20. Operating cost (transformer losses) are ignored, yet offer by far the largest opportunity for savings First Cost is only 4% of Total Ownership cost How much does your transformer cost Calculator
  21. 21. Delivers best voltage quality to connected equipment Improves voltage quality to connected equipment Better Power Quality Efficiency Harmonic Canceling Energy Efficient EE/HMT Energy Efficient EE (CSL3) Not UL Listed to feed load with load >5% current distortion (ANY mix of electronic equipment) TP-1/ Energy Star Harmonic Canceling HMT Standard UL Listed to survive when feeding electronic equipment Survival UL Issue Power Quality Power Quality & Efficiency Matrix K-Rated
  22. 22. K-rated Transformer Defined: <ul><li>Overbuilt transformer designed to deliver rated (nameplate) power to non-linear loads without overheating </li></ul><ul><li>K-rated transformer performs same job as conventional transformer but with less stress on itself </li></ul>K-RATED
  23. 23. Industry tests under Linear Load <ul><ul><li>Even K-rated transformers are tested with linear load only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Published data like efficiency applies to linear load only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Voltage THD performance data </li></ul></ul>Linear Load testing makes for uncertain real world performance 1500W losses = 15 x 100W Bulbs under linear load 4000W = 4000W Equivilent- Todays Non-Linear Loads
  24. 24. Typical Transformer Heat Losses 30 kW In 27 kW Out heat loss: 3 kW cost per year: $2102.40 * $ $ $ $ POWER POWER 10% loss *75 Kva Conventional Transformer 50% Loaded, 0.8 PF Non-linear Load 90% efficient 8 cents per KWhr
  25. 25. K-Rated Transformer Heat Loss 29.4 kW In 27 kW Out 2.4 kW heat loss cost per year: $1681.92 * $ $ $ $ POWER POWER 8% loss *75 Kva K rated Transformer 50% Loaded, 0.8 PF Non-linear Load 92% efficient 8 cents per KWhr
  26. 26. K-rated Transformers: <ul><li>Do nothing to reduce harmonics </li></ul><ul><li>Are not energy efficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costly to operate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not solve a long list of harmonics-related problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overloaded neutrals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overloaded circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaker tripping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate system capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voltage distortion </li></ul></ul>K-rated transformers fix the symptom, not the cause
  27. 27. Harmonic Cancellation Transformers Are More Efficient 27.4 kW In 27 kW Out *75 kVA EE/HMT 50% Loaded, 0.8 PF Non-linear Load 98.5% efficient 8 cents per KWhr POWER POWER 1.08% loss heat loss: 0.4 kW cost per year: $280.32 *
  28. 28. Typical Commercial Building Losses <ul><li>7 - 75kVA conventional transformers: </li></ul><ul><li>50% loaded </li></ul><ul><li>0.8 power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Non Linear Load </li></ul><ul><li>90% efficient </li></ul><ul><li>$0.08 / kWhr </li></ul><ul><li>Power Quality Poor: Vthd > 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Cost: </li></ul>$14,716.80/year losses P7 P6 P5 P4 P3 P2 P1 TX TX TX TX TX TX TX Main 480V DP
  29. 29. Typical Commercial Building Losses <ul><li>7 - 75kVA K rated transformers: </li></ul><ul><li>50% loaded </li></ul><ul><li>0.8 power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Non Linear Load </li></ul><ul><li>92% efficient </li></ul><ul><li>$0.08 / kWhr </li></ul><ul><li>Power Quality Poor: Vthd > 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Cost: </li></ul>$11,773.44/year losses P7 P6 P5 P4 P3 P2 P1 TX TX TX TX TX TX TX Main 480V DP
  30. 30. 480V Riser Design - Corrected <ul><li>7 - 75kVA Energy Efficient Harmonic Cancellation transformers: </li></ul><ul><li>50% loaded </li></ul><ul><li>0.8 power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Non Linear Load </li></ul><ul><li>98.5% Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>$0.08 / kWhr </li></ul><ul><li>Great Power Quality: Vthd < 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Cost: </li></ul>$1,962.24/year losses P7 P6 P5 P4 P3 P2 P1 TX TX TX TX TX TX TX Main 480V DP
  31. 31. The Right Choice Savings K-Rated E-SAVER K rated compared to EE/HMT Annual Life Cycle Operating Cost & Savings Operating Cost 25 years 40 years $11,774 $294,350 $470,960 $1,962 $49,050 $78,480 $9,812 $245,300 $392,480
  32. 32. Payback K-Rated vs. EE/HMT Savings of $9,812.00 per year with Energy Efficient Harmonic Cancellation Transformers Original cost of K-Rated Transformers is: $5000.00 each times 7 units is $35,000.00. Original cost of Energy Efficient Harmonic Cancellation Transformers is: $8000.00 each times 7 units is $56,000.00. Difference in price between of K-Rated and EE: $56,000.00 - $35,000.00 = $21,000.00. 1 st Payback in 2.14 years: $21,000.00 ÷ $9,812.00 = 2.14
  33. 33. The Right Choice Savings Conv. E-SAVER Todays Standard xformer compared to EE/HMT Annual Life Cycle Operating Cost & Savings Operating Cost 25 years 40 years $14,716 $367,900 $588,640 $1,962 $49,050 $78,480 $12,754 $318,850 $510,160
  34. 34. Payback Conv. Vs. EE/HMT Savings of $12,754.00 per year with Energy Efficient Harmonic Cancellation Transformers Original cost of Conventional Transformers is: $3000.00 Each times 7 units is $21,000.00. Original cost of Energy Efficient Harmonic Cancellation Transformers is: $8000.00 each times 7 units is $56,000.00. Difference in price between of K-Rated and EE: $56,000.00 - $21,000.00 = $35,000.00. Payback in 2.74 years: $35,000.00 ÷ $12,754.00 = 2.75
  35. 35. Electronic Load Loss Multiplier Reference: IEEE-1100 Standard “The Emerald Book” Example: Load mix of 50% Electronics, 50% linear => 50% derating = 2.0 loss multiplier
  36. 36. Efficiency Curve for Typical 75kVA K-rated UL listed transformer under IDEAL LINEAR LOAD (Published mfg data)
  37. 37. The SAME Efficiency Curve for Typical 75kVA K-rated UL listed transformer under Non-Linear (Harmonic) load (published-???) Significant drop In efficiency (“No”)
  38. 38. EE Efficiency vs. Typical 75kVA Nonlinear UL Listed transformer EE consistently high efficiency Typical Transformer is significantly lower under linear and electronic load Typical Transformer Linear Load <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonic </li></ul><ul><li>Cancellation </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Load </li></ul>Typical Transformer Non Linear Load <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonic </li></ul><ul><li>Cancellation </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Load </li></ul>
  39. 39. EE/HMT vs. K-Rated 300 kVA 300 kVA K13 52”H x 38”W x 30”D 2200 lbs Up to 76”H x 60”W x 50”D 3480 lbs 98.5% efficient (non-linear load) < 92% efficient (non-linear load) K-Rated Transformer <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Typically 4 to 5 times more energy efficient </li></ul><ul><li>One-third to two-thirds the operating cost </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid cost recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Recurring energy savings over 25 year life of product </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 37% less weight </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 74% less volume </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 62% less footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Treats harmonics, improves power quality, increases reliability of critical loads </li></ul>Energy Efficient Harmonic Cancellation
  40. 40. How do I implement a transformer savings program? <ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Quantify </li></ul><ul><li>Qualify </li></ul>Existing Facility
  41. 41. How do I implement a transformer savings program? EE HMT Transformer Energy Worksheet Copyright: MAXWARE 2008 Do not duplicate Transformer Number of You must input information in this colored area KVA Sizes Transformer(s) 15 0 30 0 Useful Life of Transformers 45 15 20 Years of expected Service or Amortization 75 0 112.5 15 150 0 225 0 300 0 500 0 2362.5 Total KVA 0.95 System Power Factor 2244.375 System KW 50% Peak Load 25% Off Peak load 10 Peak load Hours per Day 14 Off Peak load Hours per Day 365 Operating Days per Year 6,963,173 System kWh Per Year $ 0.03 kWh Charge $ 10.00 kWh Demand Charge $ 343,557.70 Actual Cost to Run Load Per Year 90.0% Efficiency of Standard TP1 Transformer(s) 98.3% Efficiency of EE HMT Transformer(s) 112.2 Standard TP1 Transformer kW Heat loss at Peak Load 56.1 Standard TP1 Transformer kW Heat loss at Off Peak Load $ 34,355.77 Cost per year due to heat losses on standard TP1 Transformer(s) $ 377,913.47 Total Electric Bill with Standard TP1 Transformer(s) 90.0% Efficient 19.1 EE HMT Transformer kW Heat loss at Peak Load 9.5 EE HMT Transformer kW Heat loss at Off Peak Load $ 5,840.48 Cost per year due to heat losses on EE HMT Transformer(s) $ 349,398.18 Total Electric Bill with EE HMT Transformer(s) $ 28,515.29 Total Electric Bill savings per Year with EE HMT Transformers 7.5 Percent Reduction per year $ 90,000.00 Cost of Standard TP1 Transformer(s) $ 232,000.00 Cost of EE HMT Transformer(s) 5.0 Year(s) payback for EE HMT Transformers 427 Tons of CO2 Reduction every year     1382 Tons of Coal Reduction every year     3344 kgs of SO2 Reduction every year     1440 kgs of Nox Reduction every year    
  42. 42. How do I implement a transformer savings program? First cost vs. Total cost New Facility
  43. 43. How do I implement a transformer savings program? EE HMT Transformer Energy Worksheet Copyright: MAXWARE 2008 Do not duplicate Transformer Number of You must input information in this colored area KVA Sizes Transformer(s) 15 0 30 0 Useful Life of Transformers 45 15 20 Years of expected Service or Amortization 75 0 112.5 15 150 0 225 0 300 0 500 0 2362.5 Total KVA 0.95 System Power Factor 2244.375 System KW 50% Peak Load 25% Off Peak load 10 Peak load Hours per Day 14 Off Peak load Hours per Day 365 Operating Days per Year 6,963,173 System kWh Per Year $ 0.03 kWh Charge $ 10.00 kWh Demand Charge $ 343,557.70 Actual Cost to Run Load Per Year 90.0% Efficiency of Standard TP1 Transformer(s) 98.3% Efficiency of EE HMT Transformer(s) 112.2 Standard TP1 Transformer kW Heat loss at Peak Load 56.1 Standard TP1 Transformer kW Heat loss at Off Peak Load $ 34,355.77 Cost per year due to heat losses on standard TP1 Transformer(s) $ 377,913.47 Total Electric Bill with Standard TP1 Transformer(s) 90.0% Efficient 19.1 EE HMT Transformer kW Heat loss at Peak Load 9.5 EE HMT Transformer kW Heat loss at Off Peak Load $ 5,840.48 Cost per year due to heat losses on EE HMT Transformer(s) $ 349,398.18 Total Electric Bill with EE HMT Transformer(s) $ 28,515.29 Total Electric Bill savings per Year with EE HMT Transformers 7.5 Percent Reduction per year $ 90,000.00 Cost of Standard TP1 Transformer(s) $ 232,000.00 Cost of EE HMT Transformer(s) 5.0 Year(s) payback for EE HMT Transformers 427 Tons of CO2 Reduction every year     1382 Tons of Coal Reduction every year     3344 kgs of SO2 Reduction every year     1440 kgs of Nox Reduction every year    
  44. 44. What about 80°C Rise Transformers ? <ul><li>Below 60% load, the higher losses of the 80 °C rise equal a standard 150°C rise </li></ul><ul><li>Remember most transformers are less than 50% loaded </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Efficient HMT losses run lower across the board </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonic </li></ul><ul><li>Cancellation </li></ul>
  45. 45. Delta-Wye Transformer all harmonic currents flow in windings <ul><li>Harmonic current in secondary wye induces flux in core </li></ul><ul><li>Flux induces current in delta primary </li></ul><ul><li>One full coil per leg means full harmonic coupling </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore Heat and Voltage THD are substantial </li></ul>B C A N
  46. 46. Energy Efficient Harmonic Cancellation is Different B C A N B C A N Standard Wye Secondary Harmonic Cancellation Secondary
  47. 47. Harmonics and energy losses with motors Source: AllAboutCircuits.com
  48. 48. Harmonics and energy losses with motors Source: AllAboutCircuits.com
  49. 49. Harmonics and energy losses with motors “… the life span of the motor will be shortened by half if the overheating is increase by 8°C, 10°C, and 12°C for the insulation classes E, B, and F respectively.” IEEE Document 0-7803-4509-6/98 Effects of Voltage Harmonics on the Electrical and Mechanical Performance of a Three-Phase Induction Motor Harmonic # Increase in Operational Temperature 3 rd Alone 3.5 °C 5 th Alone 5 °C 9 th Alone 3.8 °C
  50. 50. What doesn’t save you energy? Super fantastic, all new, state of the art, super GREEN, politically correct, Energy Saving, black box!
  51. 51. PFC Demo
  52. 52. I 2 losses calculator I squared losses Copyright: MAXWARE 2008 Do not duplicate     User Input Data               Calculated by program         21 amps Input Full Load Amps of your motor     480 volts Input Voltage of your motor       17 kW Wattage developed by the motor in kW     1 cond. Input number of parallel conductors used to wire motor 0.000739 ohms/ft Ohms per foot of conductor used to wire motor (sheet 3) 25 ft Input length of conductor(s) used to wire motor   0.018475 ohms Total Ohms of conductor(s) used to wire motor   10 % Input % reduction expected from PFC installation (sheet 2) 2.1 amps Motor Circuit Amperage after PFC installation   0.006599455 kW I Squared losses of conductor supplying motor   8 cents/kWh Input utility rate in cents per kW hour     $ 0.0005 Dollars I squared losses per hour in dollars     $ 0.0127 Dollars I squared losses per day in dollars     $ 4.62 Dollars I squared losses per year in dollars     This assumes the motor is running at full load 24 hours a day 365 days a year.  
  53. 53. What doesn’t save you energy? Super fantastic, all new, state of the art, super GREEN, politically correct, Energy Saving, Surge Suppression Device!
  54. 54. Test Circuit Circuit Breaker Panelboard Utility Feed SPD Switch
  55. 55. kWH usage Week 1 Week 2
  56. 56. Actual Load profile Week 1 Week 2
  57. 57. How much does this 400 amp switch cost per year?
  58. 58. How much does this 400 amp switch cost per year? You Must Monitor ! KWH Cost Sterling 1 7/6/2010 480 Voltage 400 Amperage 192000 Watts $ 0.080 Cost per KWH 192 1 Phase KWH   332.16 3 Phase KWH                     $ 15.360 1 Phase cost per hour $ 26.573 3 Phase cost per hour                 $ 368.640 1 Phase cost per day $ 637.747 3 Phase cost per day (24 Hours)                 $ 134,553.60 1 Phase cost per year $ 232,777.73 3 Phase cost per year (365 Days)  
  59. 59. Legacy Data Center - Power 500KVA UPS N 500KVA UPS N+1 500KVA STS/PDU <ul><li>Large up front cost </li></ul><ul><li>Low up front Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple systems that do not </li></ul><ul><li>communicate with each other </li></ul>
  60. 60. Legacy Data Center - Power
  61. 61. 21 st Century Data Center- Power UPS Add N+1 AT ANY TIME! 10KW PM 10KW PM 10KW PM 10KW PM 10KW PM 10KW PM 10KW PM 10KW PM 10KW PM RIM RIM Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries Batteries Disc 10KW load 20KW load 30KW load 40KW load 50KW load 60KW load 70KW load 80KW load
  62. 62. 21 st Century Data Center- Power Never Used !
  63. 63. Legacy Data Center - Cooling
  64. 64. 21 st Century Data Center- Cooling
  65. 65. Data Center PUE P ower U sage E ffectiveness PUE = Total Facility Power IT Power only Total power into Facility IT Power Non-IT Power
  66. 66. Data Center PUE Data center PUE
  67. 67. <ul><li>Power for the Future: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose Energy Savings over First Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose Power Quality over First Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose Life Cycle (both Energy Savings and Power Quality) over First Cost </li></ul></ul>Conclusion

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