Noise is often defined as „sound which is undesired
by the recipient‟.
The most common definition of noise is "unwanted sound." A sound might be unwanted
because it is:
Loud Unpleasant or annoying Intrusive or distracting
The word „Noise‟ descends from a Latin word “nausea”
I. Pleasant to hear
V. Unit is Hertz (Hz)
VI. Hz= cycle/sec.
I. Unpleasant to hear
III.No regular periodic
V. Unit is decibel (dB)
VI. dB=10 log(intensity
Noise which is produced by irregular
vibrations is considered hazardous
because it adversely affects
wildlife, human activities depending
upon it’s intensity and duration of
exposure .It is also capable of
damaging physical structures on a
regular, repeating basis.
The quality of noise is determined by
its frequency and loudness. The more
the quality the more the noise.
Noise is an underrated environmental
problem because of the fact that we
can’t see, smell, or taste it . World
Health Organization stated that
“Noise must be recognized as a
major threat to human well-being”
The noise pollution is a type of energy pollution in which
distracting, damaging or irritating sounds are freely
audible. As with other forms of energy pollution , noise
pollution contaminants are not physical particles but waves
which interfere with naturally occurring waves of a similar
type in the same environment. In simple words, noise
pollution can be defined as “ Too much noise in our
surroundings that disrupts normal conditions of the
environment in a certain area.”
1.Headache, fatigue, sleep disturbances , insomnia , tinnitus
2.Damages eardrum, impaired hearing
3.Affects cardio vascular system, increased rate of heartbeat, increased
vasoconstriction leading to rise in B.P., coronary artery disease, risk of myocardial
4.Affects digestive system, triggers stomach disorders, digestive spasms, stomach
ulcers, damages liver
5.Dilation of pupil of eye
6.Affects nervous system, decreases work efficiency, hinders proper
communication, behavior and peace of mind, speech problems, rise in adrenalin
7.affects embryo in mother’s uterus, causes abortion, birth defects( low
weight, harelip, cleft palate, spine defects)
8.Affects endocrine system, increases cholesterol elevates vertigo, causes injury to
tympanic membrane, poor cognitive function, dysgraphia
Anxiety ,stress ,fright , nervousness
, hypertension, annoyance , mood
swings, despair, discontent, phobias, anti-
behavior, irritability, aggression, lack of
Psychological impact on humans
It is well known to all
that plants are similar
to human being. They
are also as sensitive
as man. There should
be cool & peaceful
environment for their
better growth. Noise
pollution causes poor
quality of crops in a
1.Increased risk of death
2.Loss of hearing
3.Reduction of usable
noise free habitat
resulting in extinction of
6.Panic & Escape
9. Increase in Loudness
of Inter species
Loud noise is very
and monuments. It
creates waves which
struck the walls and
put the building in
danger condition. It
weakens the edifice
Noise pollution in urban cities is a serious problem and steadily increasing over the years. This has direct
and indirect affect to the people that can lead to the health hazard.
To find out environmental noise induced health effect on people residing in an urban community and to
predict the risk of the environmental noise induced hearing loss.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
One hundred fifty questionnaires were filled up for the environmental noise pollution survey. For the
case control study, 36 exposed and 25 non-exposed residents of Kupondole were included. Based
on the place of residence (main road and 20 min. walking distance from the main road), subjects
were divided into exposed and non-exposed group concerning environmental noise. Demographic
data and information about health problems was obtained by a structured interview. Audiometric
test was performed using manual audiometer. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals
(95% CI) for noise induced hearing loss were estimated using logistic regression. Adjustment for
occupational noise was done.
The major health effect induced by the environmental noise was observed as lack of concentration
followed by irritation, fatigue and headache. The crude OR and 95% CI for the exposed subjects was
4.2 (1.4, 12). After adjustment for occupational noise, the OR (95% CI) was 4.0 (1.2, 13).
This study shows that exposure to noise causes wide range of health effects. For the exposed subjects
there was an increased risk of noise induced hearing loss. The risk was significantly increased also
after adjusting for occupational noise.
1. Use of better automobile
2. Reduction in braking and
acceleration by ensuring
smooth traffic flow
3. Use of noise barriers
4. Use of horns with jarring
sounds to be banned
1. Use of quieter jet engines
2. Alternating flight paths and
time of day runway1. Redesign industrial equipment
2. Screens and enclosures around
machinery to obstruct noise path.
3. Construction of sound proof rooms
for noisy machines.
4. Use shock absorbing materials.
5. Use white noise machine
6. Use mufflers or noise reducers
7. Location of factories to be away from
8. Use earpiece for workers
I. Insulator usually employed in theatre and cinemas are curtain to avoid
the formation of echo during theatrical performance.
II. Law to be enforced to check misuse of loudspeakers and public
III. To enforce silence zones near schools , colleges and hospitals.
IV. Regular automobile servicing
V. Use of double glazed glass for doors and windows
VI. Planting of green tress to absorb noise.
VII. Construction of sound barrier between settlements and noisy highway.
VIII.Increasing awareness Education through films and newspapers about
the hazards of noise pollution
IX. Sound proofing to doors walls ceilings to decrease level of noise
X. . Protection of exposure by using ear plugs and ear muffs. Legislation to
restrict the use of loud speakers etc.
Factories Act 1948:The Factories Act does not contain any specific
provision for noise control. However, under the Third Schedule Sections
89 and 90 of the Act, noise induced hearing loss, is mentioned as
notifiable disease. Similarly, under the Modal Rules, limits for noise
exposure for work zone area have been prescribed.
Motor Vehicle Act 1939:In Motor Vehicle Act, rules regarding
use of horns and any modification in engine to reduce noise
levels are made.
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment
Act, 1987:The word noise was inserted under the definition of
air pollutants by the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Indian Pénal code (I.P.C.) Public Nuisance 268-295:Chapter IV of Indian
Penal code deals with offences relating to public health, safety, decency
, morals under Sections 268, 269, 270, 279, 280, 287, 288, 290 291 294.
Noise pollution can be penalized with the help of above section.
Criminal Procedure Code (Cr.P.C.) 1973:Under Cr.P.C.
Section 133, the magisterial court has been empowered
to issue order to remove or abate nuisance caused by
noise pollution. Section 133 empower an executive
magistrate to interfere and remove a public nuisance in
the first instance with a conditional order and then with
a permanent one. The provision can be utilized in case
of nuisance of environment nature. For prevention of
danger to human life, health or safety the magistrate
can direct a person to abstain from certain acts.
Constitution of India:Right to Life: - Article 21 of
the Constitution guarantees life and personal
liberty to all persons. It is well settled by repeated
pronouncements of the Supreme Court that right
to life enshrined in Article 21 is not of mere
survival or existence. It guarantees a right of
persons to life with human dignity. Any one who
wishes to live in peace, comfort and quiet within
his house has a right to prevent the noise as
pollutant reaching him.
Environmental Protection Act 1986:
As per rule 3(1) and 4 (1) of this act, Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of noise of
different categories of areas have been mentioned. These standards are as follows.
Limits in dB(A) Leq.
Day Time Night Time
A Industrial area 75 70
B Commercial area 65 55
C Residential area 55 45
D Silence Zone 50 40
trim bushes or shrubs by hand, don't use a noisy bush trimmer.
Sound proof rooms that might have music conducted in them, like a room with a piano or if
someone in the house plays drums or guitar or whatever. This can be done simply with
curtains, window inserts, carpeting, and closing windows and doors.
Don't blast music on the radio or computer or speakers. Be considerate of your own ears
and those of other around you.
Don't slam doors / car doors, close them easily and with only as much force as needed.
People don't usually think of this, but imagine - how loud is it when you slam your car
door? Pretty tolerable. But imagine thousands of people doing so. Now that can start to
Turn off the TV or radio when you aren't actually fully listening to it.
Train your dog not to bark so much.
Don't yell. Have civil conversations. Call someone or go find them instead of yelling across
the street for them, for example.
Plant trees and bushes around you house. They help keep the air clean, absorb sound, give
privacy, and add nice design and looks to a house.
Do noisy things (dishes, hammering, ect.) over or on a rubber mat to reduce noise.
Put carpets, rugs, mats, throw rugs, ect. in your house / mats outside.
Put fabric window coverings instead of plastic or wooden shades / blinds.
Don't rev up a motorcycle or car unless it is actually needed for the drive.
Don't beep your car horn "just because", make sure it is a legitimate reason.