Achieving food security in the face of climate change


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Achieving food security in the face of climate change

  1. 1. November 2011Achieving food security in the face of climate changeSummary for policy makers from the Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change Commissioners: Professor Sir John Beddington, Chair, United Kingdom Dr Mohammed Asaduzzaman, Bangladesh Dr Adrian Fernández, Mexico Dr Megan Clark, Australia Dr Marion Guillou, France Professor Molly Jahn, United States Professor Lin Erda, China Professor Tekalign Mamo, Ethiopia Dr Nguyen Van Bo, Viet Nam Dr Carlos A Nobre, Brazil Professor Robert Scholes, South Africa Dr Rita Sharma, India Professor Judi Wakhungu, Kenya
  2. 2. A C H I E V I N G F O O D S EC U R I TY I N T H E F A C E O F C L I M AT E C H A N G ECommissioners Acknowledgments Professor Sir John Beddington, Chair, United Kingdom  Mr Odd Arneson, Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation Dr Mohammed Asaduzzaman, Bangladesh Institute of Development (Norad) Studies, Bangladesh  Dr Marie-Caroline Badjeck, WorldFish Centre Dr Adrian Fernández, ClimateWorks Foundation, Mexico  Mr Paul Barnett, CSIRO Dr Megan Clark, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research  Dr Ademola Braimoh, World Bank Organisation (CSIRO), Australia  Dr Bruce Campbell, Consortium of International Agricultural Research Dr Marion Guillou, French National Institute for Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food (INRA), France Security (CCAFS) Professor Molly Jahn, University of Madison-Wisconsin, United States  Mr Volli Carucci, World Food Programme (WFP) Professor Lin Erda, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China  Ms Beatrice Darcy-Vrillon, INRA Professor Tekalign Mamo, Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia  Professor Alex Evans, New York University Dr Nguyen Van Bo, Viet Nam Academy of Agricultural Science, Viet Nam  Ms Rebecca Fisher-Lamb, United Kingdom Government Office for Science Dr Carlos A Nobre, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation,  Professor Charles Godfray, Oxford University Brazil  Mr Elwyn Grainger-Jones, International Fund for Agricultural Professor Robert Scholes, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Development (IFAD) (CSIR), South Africa  Dr Herve Guyomard, INRA Dr Rita Sharma, National Advisory Council, India  Dr Stefan Hajkowicz, CSIRO Professor Judi Wakhungu, African Center for Technology Studies (ACTS),  Dr Ulrich Hoffmann, United Nations Conference on Trade and Kenya Development (UNCTAD)  Mr David Howlett, University of Leeds  Dr Brian Keating, CSIRO  Mr Danny Martinez, International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)Commission Secretariat  Mr Musa Muwanga, National Organic Agricultural Movement of Uganda (NOGAMU) Commission Coordinator: Dr Christine Negra  Dr Henry Neufeldt, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Communications Manager: Ms Vanessa Meadu  Mr Randall Purcell, WFP Events Coordinator: Ms Ratih Septivita  Mr Scott Ronchini, WFP Research Assistants: Ms Cecilia Schubert, Ms Helena Wright  Professor Cynthia Rosenzweig, Columbia University  Professor Tim Searchinger, German Marshall Fund/Princeton University  Ms Emmy Simmons, Meridian Institute AGree Initiative  Dr Egizio Valceschini, INRA  Dr Sonja Vermeulen, CCAFS  Dr Paul West, University of Minnesota  Dr Elizabeth Warham, United Kingdom Government Office for ScienceDisclaimer Creative Commons LicenseThis report contains the findings of the Commission on Sustainable Agriculture andClimate Change. The findings represent the independent views of the authors andshould not be interpreted as the views of their institutions or their funders, nor of theCGIAR or the Global Donor Platform for Rural Development.Financial support This publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution – NonCommercial- CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Global Donor Platform for Rural Development (GDPRD) This publication may be freely quoted and reproduced provided the source isPublished by acknowledged. No use of this publication may be made for resale or other commercialThe CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security purposes.(CCAFS). © 2011 CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food SecurityContact information (CCAFS)CCAFS Coordinating Unit, Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Faculty of LifeSciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 21, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Front cover photoDenmark Sorghum at Sawla market in Ghanas Northern Region, by N Palmer (CIAT)Tel: +45 35331046Email: ProductionOnline: Scriptoria CommunicationsCorrect citationBeddington J, Asaduzzaman M, Fernandez A, Clark M, Guillou M, Jahn M, Erda L, Mamo To learn more, visit, Van Bo N, Nobre CA, Scholes R, Sharma R, Wakhungu J. 2011. Achieving foodsecurity in the face of climate change: Summary for policy makers from theCommission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change. CGIAR Research Programon Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark.Available online at:
  3. 3. CO M M I SS I O N O N S U S TA I N A B L E A G R I C U LT U R E A N D C L I M AT E C H A N G EAchieving food security in the face of climate changeSummary for policy makers from the Commissionon Sustainable Agriculture and Climate ChangeBusiness as usual in our globally interconnected food system will not bring us food security andenvironmental sustainability. Several converging threats – from climate change, populationgrowth and unsustainable use of resources – are steadily intensifying pressure on humanity andworld governments to transform the way food is produced, distributed and consumed1.On a planet with sufficient food for all, a billion people go consumption is lost or wasted across the global food system6.hungry2. Another billion over-consume, increasing risks from It is clear that our collective choices related to agriculture andchronic diseases3. The food system faces additional pressure food systems must be the global population grows, to around 9 billion by 20504,and as diets shift towards higher consumption of calories, fats Our climate is changing and, given the levels of greenhouseand animal products. Food insecurity afflicts communities gases already in our atmosphere, will continue to do so.throughout the world wherever poverty prevents assured Extreme weather events, such as high temperatures,access to food supplies. As well as causing widespread droughts and floods, are already more frequent and severe,human suffering, food insecurity contributes to degradationand depletion of natural resources, migration to urban areasand across borders, and political and economic instability. Global food prices have risen dramatically in the last few years and are forecast to rise further and become moreInefficiencies in food supply chains have a negative impact on volatile.the environment, lower productivity and waste food. Current In 2007/8, food price rises shocked many policymakersfarming practices, including land clearing and inefficient use from the belief that stable or declining food prices andof fertilizers and organic residues, make agriculture a assured supplies could be taken for granted. Before thesignificant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions on the price spike, poverty meant that 800 million people wereplanet. From the farm gate to consumers, refrigeration and hungry. Following the price spike, this number increased toother supply chain activities are an additional major source of a little over 1 billion people7 (a rise that significantly setgreenhouse gas emissions. As global demand for food, fodder back progress towards the UN Millennium Development Goal to halve the proportion of people suffering hungerand bioenergy crops grows, many agricultural systems are between 1990 and 20158). It is estimated that andepleting soil fertility, biodiversity and water resources. In additional 44 million people have since fallen into extrememany regions there are large gaps between potential and poverty due to the rise in food prices since June 20109.actual crop yields. Every year, an estimated 12 million These events have drawn increased attention to the facthectares of agricultural land, which could potentially produce that a significant proportion of humanity remains20 million tonnes of grain, are lost to land degradation, chronically undernourished, even during periods of relatively normal prices and low volatility.adding to the billions of hectares that are already degraded5.It is estimated that a third of food produced for human1 This summary for policy makers will shortly be complemented by a detailed report of findings and recommendations, and background documents.2 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2010. 6 Gustavsson et al. 2011.3 Foresight. 2007; WHO / FAO. 2003; Haslam and James. 2005. 7 FAO. 2009.4 United Nations Population Division. 2010. 8 HMG. 2010.5 UNCCD. 2011; Bai et al. 2008. 9 World Bank. 2011b. 3
  4. 4. A C H I E V I N G F O O D S EC U R I TY I N T H E F A C E O F C L I M AT E C H A N G Eand have dire social, economic and ecological The Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climateconsequences. Ever-higher average global temperatures are Change has reviewed the scientific evidence to identify alikely without dramatic changes in greenhouse gas pathway to achieving food security in the context of climateemissions across a wide range of human activities. In the change. Food systems must shift to better meet humancoming decades, global climate change will have an adverse needs and, in the long term, balance with planetaryoverall effect on agricultural production and will bring us resources. This will demand major interventions, at local totoward, and perhaps over, critical thresholds in many global scales, to transform current patterns of foodregions. Areas currently suffering from food insecurity are production, distribution and consumption. Investment,expected to experience disproportionately negative effects. innovation, and deliberate effort to empower the worldsTo reduce the effect of climate change on food supplies, most vulnerable populations will be required to construct alivelihoods and economies, we must greatly increase global food system that adapts to climate change andadaptive capacity in agriculture – both to long-term climatic ensures food security while minimizing greenhouse gastrends and to increasing variability – as an urgent priority. emissions and sustaining our natural resource base. Greatly expanded investments in sustainable agriculture, including improving supporting infrastructure and restoring degraded Table 1. Status of selected global parameters. ecosystems, are an essential component of long-term economic development. The sooner they are made, the People in the world (2011)10 7 billion greater the benefits will be. Undernourished people (2010)11 0.9 billion Over the course of the 21st century, the world will need to Overweight people over age 1.5 billion produce significantly more food in order to deliver a basic, 20 (2008)12 but adequate, diet to everyone. The amount of food required People living on less than USD 1.25 1.4 billion will be even greater if current trends in diets and the per day (2005)13 management of food systems continue. We need to make People living in dryland areas 2 billion concurrent efforts to establish climate-resilient agricultural (2007)14 production systems, make efficient use of resources, People dependent on degrading 1.5 billion develop low-waste supply chains, ensure adequate nutrition land15 and encourage healthy eating choices. Together, these will Losses due to climatological events USD 7.5 billion constitute a sustainable food system. Intensification of food (extreme temperature, drought, production must be accompanied by concerted action to forest fire) (2010)16 reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to avoid Area of agricultural land (2009)17 4.9 billion hectares further acceleration of climate change and avert threats to the long-term viability of global agriculture. Making these Area of croplands, pasture and 3.7 billion hectares grazing lands devoted to raising changes, although technically feasible, requires urgent, animals18 collective and substantially increased action internationally, nationally and locally. Annual growth in world agricultural 2.2% production (1997-2007)19 As climate change amplifies the environmental and Food produced for human 1.3 billion tonnes consumption lost or wasted socioeconomic drivers of food insecurity, it is imperative that annually20 we prioritize where, how and when to act. The threats posed by climate change to food supplies and livelihoods are likely to be spatially variable. We will need to identify global10 welcome-seven-billionth-citizen.html hotspots where the threats are greatest and to develop11 FAO. 2010. specific, practical interventions to boost resilience in these12 World Health Organization. 2011.13 World Bank: Poverty and Equity Data. areas. For example, some of the worlds major food- producing regions lie in mega-deltas which are threatened14 UNCCD. 2011.15 Ibid. by escalating rates of saltwater intrusion. In Africa, the16 Munich RE NatCatSERVICE. 2010. pronounced gaps between actual and potential crop yields17 Foley et al. 2011.18 Ibid. and shrinking per capita land base21 inhibit food security.19 Bruinsma. 2009.20 Gustavsson et al. 2011. 21 United Nations Population Division. 2010.4
  5. 5. CO M M I SS I O N O N S U S TA I N A B L E A G R I C U LT U R E A N D C L I M AT E C H A N G E Image: Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal Fertilization -50% -15% 0 +15% +35% No data Figure 1. Projected changes in agricultural production in 2080 due to climate change22.In Europe, North America and elsewhere, a combination of should increase or stabilize food production. Where the pathintensive agriculture, food storage practices, retail systems to long-term sustainability means reducing productivity inand eating habits generates high per capita greenhouse gas the short term, economic incentives and transitionalemissions and food waste. The environmental and human programmes will be required. Specific actions must be takendiversity of the planet forbids the imposition of one-size-fits- to assist those most vulnerable to long- and short-termall solutions. increases in the price of food rather than relying on trickle- down economic effects. Appropriate targeting of a portfolioHumanitarian, environmental and global security concerns of interventions at key points of vulnerability, such asdemand a global commitment to improve the lot of the large meeting the food and nutritional needs of mothers andproportion of the human population that is currently food young children, will have disproportionately positive payoffsinsecure or vulnerable to food insecurity. This requires that in future productivity and development.we must build resilience to climate shocks and food pricevolatility, halt land degradation, and boost productive assetsand infrastructure. There are many entry points for action.Many policies and programmes provide ample evidence ofmultiple benefits for livelihoods and the environment, withmeaningful participation at local and regional scales.Many millions of people around the world depend onagriculture for basic subsistence. Efforts to reduce netgreenhouse gas emissions from agriculture must not haveperverse effects on the food security and livelihoods ofthese people. Techniques for restoring degraded areas andsequestering soil carbon to enhance future productivity22 Cline. 2007. Projections assume a uniform 15% increase in yields Traditional maize storage, Yunnan, China. due to carbon fertilisation Photo: E. Phipps (CIMMYT) 5
  6. 6. A C H I E V I N G F O O D S EC U R I TY I N T H E F A C E O F C L I M AT E C H A N G E 18% of total UK greenhouse gas With a population emissions are linked to food supply With 6% average over 150 million and chains25. Approximately 22% of annual agricultural 70% of land area 5 household food and drink is wasted26. GDP growth, meters or less above sea level28, each chemical fertilizer In France, 70% of food is year, environmental use in China30 purchased in supermarkets hazards temporarily (383.6 kilograms Government subsidies and more than 40% of send half a million per hectare31) is of nearly USD 20 billion calories in the average diet Bangladeshis to contributing to went to US corn and come from lipids. 4 out of urban areas and non-point source soybean producers in 10 adults are overweight displace 64,000 pollution and 2003-200523. Climate or obese27. people29. greenhouse gas change is predicted to emissions32. substantially reduce corn exports in coming decades24. A major rice- exporting country, Viet Nams average wet season rice Forest area in Ethiopia production declines by 1% each achieves only 63% year. 98,490,000 cubic of economic yield meters of woodfuel were and 50% of consumed in 200839. climatic yield potential33. Mexican agriculture Post-harvest losses accounts for 77% of of annual fruit and water use, but only vegetable production 4% of GDP and 13% in India are estimated of total land area. at 20% due to 3.2% of Mexican inadequate transit land is irrigated43. packaging34 and refrigeration35. Largest economy in A changing climate Africa with an 88% and water over- literacy rate, but life One of the best- allocation threaten expectancy of only 52 developed economies the Murray-Darling Deforestation and land use years40. One-fifth of in eastern Africa, but Basin which supplies changes associated with South Africans live on one-third of Kenyans water to over 3 agriculture account for over less than USD 1.2541. are undernourished37. million people and to 70% of greenhouse gas 4 out of 5 Kenyans irrigated agriculture emissions in Brazil, a major depend on agriculture worth USD5 billion global food producer42. for their livelihoods38. annually36. Figure 2. Regional examples of threats from climate change, population growth and unsustainable resource use.23 National Academy of Sciences. 2010. 34 Choudhury. 2006.24 Nelson et al. 2011. 35 Mittal. 2007.25 Cabinet Office. 2008. 36 Prosser. 2011.26 WRAP. 2008. 37 FAO. 2011a.27 FAO Country Profiles: France; Etilé. 2010; Reardon et al. 2003. 38 World Bank. 2010a.28 World Bank. 2010a. 39 FAO. 2011b.29 Foresight. Migration and Global Environmental Change. 2011. 40 FAO Country Profiles: South Africa30 Foley et al. 2011. 41 World Bank. 2010b.31 FAO Country Profiles: China 42 World Bank. 2010a.32 World Bank. 2010a. 43 FAOStat: Mexico33 Laborte et al. 2011.6
  7. 7. CO M M I SS I O N O N S U S TA I N A B L E A G R I C U LT U R E A N D C L I M AT E C H A N G EThe multiple emergent challenges – food insecurity and information system will give us a richer understanding of theundernutrition, climate change, increasing competition for dynamic systems we depend on and enable us to renew andenergy and water, degradation of land and biodiversity – are broaden our efforts to secure a more sustainable andconnected in complex ways and demand an integrated healthy food system for our own and future approach. Adaptive management andgovernance to improve nutritional security, economic As a global community, we need to navigate toward a safeprosperity and environmental outcomes will require a much operating space that provides adequate food and nutritionbetter global system for integrating spatially explicit for everyone without crossing critical environmentalinformation about agriculture, ecosystem services, markets thresholds. Plotting a course towards this space will requireand human populations in real time. Existing and future innovative technologies, institutions and policies, and willinvestments in information and knowledge must be severely test our social, technological and agriculturalstructured to identify limits, inform trade-offs and deliver ingenuity. In all circumstances, we will need governance atpractical guidance for a sustainable future, not simply to multiple levels that accommodates participation, learningmaximize single components of the food system. Such an and the ability to correct course. To be successful we will Figure 3. Safe operating space for interconnected food and climate systems. The global community must operate within three limits: the quantity of food that can be produced under a given climate; the quantity needed by a growing and changing population; and the effect of food production on the climate. At present we operate outside that safe space, as witnessed by the enormous number of people who are undernourished. If current trends in population growth, diets, crop yields and climate change continue, the world will still be outside this safe operating space in 2050. The situation then will be unsustainable and there will be very little room to maneuver. There are various changes we can make to either enlarge the safe space or move ourselves into the safe space. For instance, the global demand for food will increase with population growth, but the amount of food per person that needs to be produced can be brought down by eliminating waste in supply chains, ensuring more equitable access to food and moving to more resource-efficient (and healthier) vegetable-rich diets. Agricultural innovation, including genetic improvements and careful matching of crops to environments, can help adapt food systems to climate change, but not if the world warms excessively. In a much warmer world it will be impossible to even produce current levels of food. Mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases from activities related to agriculture will allow people to be fed while helping keep the global climate within a tolerable range. Data provided by University of Minnesota, Global Landscapes Initiative. 7
  8. 8. A C H I E V I N G F O O D S EC U R I TY I N T H E F A C E O F C L I M AT E C H A N G Eneed a robust, widely shared appreciation of agriculture as a of agricultural adaptation will be sufficient under themultifunctional enterprise that delivers nutritious food, rural destabilized climate of the future. While change will havedevelopment, environmental services and cultural heritage, significant costs, the cost of remaining on the current path isthrough and beyond the 21st century. already enormous and growing. Given the already intolerable conditions for many livelihoods and ecosystems, and theWithout a global commitment to reducing greenhouse gas time lag between research and development andemissions from all sectors, including agriculture, no amount widespread application, we need to take urgent action.Measuring greenhouse gas emissions from rice.Photo: N. Palmer CIAT8
  9. 9. CO M M I SS I O N O N S U S TA I N A B L E A G R I C U LT U R E A N D C L I M AT E C H A N G EPhoto: P Casier (CCAFS)Key messages and action pointsThe transition to a global food system that satisfies human  Finance early action to drive change in agriculturalneeds, reduces its carbon footprint, adapts to climate production systems towards increasing resilience tochange and is in balance with planetary resources requires weather variability and shocks, while contributingconcrete and coordinated actions, implemented at scale, significantly to mitigating climate change. This includessimultaneously and with urgency. Based on robust scientific supporting national climate risk assessments, developingevidence, the Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and mitigation and adaptation strategies, and programmeClimate Change has identified critical leverage points and implementation.high-priority policy actions.  Develop common platforms at global, regional and national levels for coherent dialogue and policy actionThe Commission proposes the following evidence-based related to climate change, agriculture, crisis responseactions to achieve food security in the face of climate and food security, at global, regional and national levels.change. By taking these steps we can deliver long-term These include fostering country-level coalitions for foodbenefits to communities in all countries. security and building resilience, particularly in countries most vulnerable to climate shocks.1. Integrate food security and sustainableagriculture into global and national policies 2. Significantly raise the level of global investment in sustainable agriculture and food systems in the next Establish a work programme on mitigation and decade adaptation in agriculture in accordance with the principles and provisions of the United Nations  Implement and strengthen the existing G8 LAquila Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), programmes and commitments to sustainable agriculture based on Article 2, as a first step to inclusion of and food security, including long-term commitments for agriculture in the mainstream of international climate financial and technical assistance in food production and change policy. to empower smallholder farmers. Make sustainable, climate-friendly agriculture central to  Enable UNFCCC Fast Start46 funding, major development Green Growth44 and the Rio+20 Earth Summit45. banks and other global finance mechanisms to prioritize44 Green Growth is a policy focus that emphasizes environmentally sustainable 46 The Copenhagen Accord notes developed countries commitment to providing economic progress to foster low-carbon, socially inclusive development. developing countries with fast start finance for enhanced action on mitigation (including Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, REDD),45 Rio+20, United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro, adaptation, technology development and transfer and capacity building. Brazil, June 4-6, 2012. 9
  10. 10. A C H I E V I N G F O O D S EC U R I TY I N T H E F A C E O F C L I M AT E C H A N G E crops by strengthening land and water rights, increasing access to markets, finance and insurance, and enhancing local capacity (for example through farmer and community-based organizations).  Identify and modify subsidies (such as for water and electricity) that provide incentives for farmers to continue agricultural practices that deplete water supplies or destroy native ecosystems. Introduce compensation schemes that target the poor.  Couple economic incentives for sustainable intensification of agriculture with strengthening governance of land tenure and land zoning to prevent further loss of forests, wetlands and grasslands.A pig farm in the United Kingdom.Photo: K Robinson (Panos) sustainable agriculture programmes that deliver food security, improved livelihoods, resilience to climate change and environmental co-benefits. Such programmes should emphasize improving infrastructure and land rehabilitation. Adjust national research and development budgets, and build integrated scientific capacity, to reflect the significance of sustainable agriculture in economic growth, poverty reduction and long-term environmental sustainability, and focus on key food security issues (for Smallholder agroforestry in Kenya is an example of sustainable intensification. example, developing nutritious non-grain crops and Photo: N Palmer (CIAT) reducing post-harvest losses). Increase knowledge of best practices and access to innovation by supporting revitalized extension services, 4. Develop specific programmes and policies to assist technology transfer and communities of practice (for populations and sectors that are most vulnerable to example, North-South, South-South, cross-commodity climate changes and food insecurity and farmer-to-farmer exchanges), with emphasis on low- to high-income countries and on women farmers.  Develop funds that respond to climate shocks, such as index-linked funds that provide rapid relief when3. Sustainably intensify agricultural production while extreme weather events affect communities, throughreducing greenhouse gas emissions and other public-private partnerships based on agreed principles.negative environmental impacts of agriculture  Moderate excessive food price fluctuations by sharing country information on production forecasts and stocks, Develop, facilitate and reward multi-benefit farming strengthening market databases, promoting open and systems that enable more productive and resilient responsive trade systems, establishing early warning livelihoods and ecosystems, with emphasis on closing systems and allowing tax-free export and import for yield gaps and improving nutrition. humanitarian assistance. This includes embedding Introduce strategies for minimizing ecosystem safeguards related to import surges and trade distortions degradation and rehabilitating degraded environments, in trade agreements. with emphasis on community-designed programmes.  Create and support safety nets and other programmes to Empower marginalized food producers (particularly help vulnerable populations in all countries become food women) to increase productivity of a range of appropriate secure (for example, cash and in-kind transfers,10
  11. 11. CO M M I SS I O N O N S U S TA I N A B L E A G R I C U LT U R E A N D C L I M AT E C H A N G E environmental impacts, and food system costs and benefits. This should include providing consumers with clear labelling. 6. Reduce loss and waste in food systems, targeting infrastructure, farming practices, processing, distribution and household habits  In all sustainable agriculture development programmes, include research and investment components focusing on reducing waste, from production to consumption, by improving harvest and postharvest management and food storage and transport.  Develop integrated policies and programmes that reduceRushing to buy bread as wheat runs short and food prices rise in Mozambique. waste in food supply chains, such as economicPhoto: Mann (ILRI) innovation to enable low-income producers to store food during periods of excess supply and obligations for distributors to separate and reduce food waste. employment guarantee schemes, programmes to build  Promote dialogue and convene working partnerships resilience, health and nutrition, delivery of education and across food supply chains to ensure that interventions to seeds of quick growing foods in times of famine). reduce waste are effective and efficient (for example, Establish robust emergency food reserves and financing redirecting food waste to other purposes), and do not capacity that can deliver rapid humanitarian responses to create perverse incentives. vulnerable populations threatened by food crises. Create and support platforms for harmonizing and coordinating global donor programmes, policies and activities, paying particular attention to systematically integrating climate change risk management, adaptation and mitigation co-benefits, and improved local nutritional outcomes.5. Reshape food access and consumption patterns toensure basic nutritional needs are met and to fosterhealthy and sustainable eating patterns worldwide Address chronic undernutrition and hunger by harmonizing development policy and coordinating regional programmes to improve livelihoods and access Addressing nutrition and diet in development policies and education can help reduce to services among food-insecure rural and urban food insecurity. communities. Photo: International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) Promote positive changes in the variety and quantity of diets through innovative education campaigns, which target young consumers especially, and through 7. Create comprehensive, shared, integrated economic incentives that align the marketing practices of information systems that encompass human and retailers and processors with public health and ecological dimensions environmental goals. Promote and support a coherent set of evidence-based  Sustain and increase investment in regular monitoring, sustainability metrics and standards to monitor and on the ground and by public domain remote sensing evaluate food security, nutrition and health, practices networks, to track changes in land use, food production, and technologies across supply chains, agricultural climate, the environment, human health and well-being productivity and efficiency, resource use and worldwide. 11
  12. 12. A C H I E V I N G F O O D S EC U R I TY I N T H E F A C E O F C L I M AT E C H A N G E Support improved transparency and access to Only by implementing real changes across the global food information in global food markets and invest in system will we be able to achieve food security and a stable interlinked information systems with common protocols climate for the long term. This will require a break from that build on existing institutions. business as usual and a significant shared commitment by Develop, validate and implement spatially explicit data policy makers, investors, agricultural producers, consumers, and decision-support systems that integrate biophysical food companies and researchers. and socioeconomic information and that enable policy makers to navigate trade-offs among agricultural intensification, nutritional security and environmental consequences.Policy makers need better tools and data for analysing options and trade-offs.Photo: N Palmer (CIAT)12
  13. 13. CO M M I SS I O N O N S U S TA I N A B L E A G R I C U LT U R E A N D C L I M AT E C H A N G EReal-world investment, initiatives are supported by Australias Farming Future programme which provides information, funding, training and support to helpinnovation and action farmers adapt to climate change, including grants targeted at women farmers and next generation farmers48.Public and private sector leaders around the world are alreadytaking action. This section highlights a diverse set of policies andprogrammes that are tackling food security in the context of climatechange.Australia: National initiatives and information services supportadaptive agricultureReal-time information and forecasting for rainfall, temperature,humidity and drought are critical to successful climate changeadaptation and mitigation in agriculture. In Australia, thesechallenges need to be undertaken in the most variable climate ofany inhabited continent. For example, the El Niño SouthernOscillation drives cycles of drought and flood that significantlyaffect the rural sector. Australian agriculture, including landclearing, accounts for at least 25% of the countrys greenhouse gasemissions (similar to the global average), creating the combinedimperative of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 50-80% by Irrigation channel, Bangladesh. Photo: International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)2050, while increasing food production by 30-80%. AustraliasCarbon Farming Initiative is the worlds first national legislation forland-based mitigation and rural income enhancement. To support Bangladesh: Investing in smallholders and food securityadaptive agriculture and carbon farming by Australian producers, Despite tripling rice production over the past 40 years, foodthe Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) provides Seasonal Climate security in Bangladesh is challenged by population growth, climateOutlooks with detailed forecasts and risk assessments, including a change, scarce natural resources, vulnerability to price shocks,3-month prediction based on the Troup Southern Oscillation Index persistent poverty and malnutrition. Based on broad consultation,and a 6-month El Niño Southern Oscillation prediction47. In the 5-year Bangladesh Country Investment Plan (BCIP) sets out 12addition, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research priority investment programmes that, when implemented together,Organisation (CSIRO) and the BoM provide longer-term climate will improve food security and nutrition. The total cost will be USDprojections to help farmers prepare for future changes. In some 7.8 billion49. Key elements include: (1) improving access to andareas, such as southwest Australia, climate projections are already tenure of land and water resources, (2) improving access to creditan important tool for farmers forced to change their farming and other financial resources, (3) enabling private sectorpractices in response to changing climatic conditions. The involvement, and (4) recognizing the key role of women in household food production. To measure progress against baselines, a set of target indicators were agreed, which included reducing the prevalence of Chronic Energy Deficiency among women from 32% in 2005 to 20% by 2015. With its focus on replication and scaling up successful innovations, the BCIP addresses the need for extension services, such as farmer field schools, to enable agricultural adaptation to climate change, as well as to build awareness of tools like the land and soil guide, Upazila Nirdeshika. The BCIP aims to more effectively target social safety net programmes that currently absorb 15% of the Bangladesh Governments annual budget (2.4% of gross domestic product), and particularly to ensure benefits reach women. The BCIP recognizes the need to improve farmers access to markets, reduce pre- and postharvest losses, and to add value across whole food chains, including by working with the private sector in public- private partnerships.Carbon-rich agricultural landscape, Tasmania, Australia.Photo: M Castley, Private Forests Tasmania 48 49 Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. 2011. 13
  14. 14. A C H I E V I N G F O O D S EC U R I TY I N T H E F A C E O F C L I M AT E C H A N G EBrazil: Integrated approach to land use policy production of fuel, products and power. Subsidies for water-savingNational governments can stimulate sustainable food production irrigation technologies, machinery and equipment, as well as forby coordinating policies. In addition to successes in inclusive improving crop varieties and industrial systems, have beengrowth – a reduction in poverty from 20% of the population in established. Under the Special Climate Change Fund, pilot projects2004 to 7% in 2010 – Brazil has a set of complementary policies to develop alternative water sources, adopt water-savingand programmes to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture. technology and adaptively manage irrigation and drainage haveAs the fifth highest greenhouse gas-emitting country in the world, been launched in the Yellow, Huaihe and Haihe river basins, as well80% of Brazils pledge under the Copenhagen Accord will be as in the Ningxia Hui Region. Successful strategies will befulfilled by the agriculture and forestry sectors. These two sectors integrated into future national plans. National climate changegenerate more than 70% of domestic emissions. To meet its target targets for 2010, such as 15% non-fossil fuel sources for Chineseof reducing the rate of deforestation in the Amazon by 80% by energy consumption and forest coverage of 40 million hectares,2015, Brazil has established ecological and economic zoning have been encouraged by subsidies, labelling and tax incentives.plans, as well as a satellite monitoring system to enable promptaction against illegal logging50. Introduced in 2008, BrazilsNational Climate Change Plan is credited with successfully reducingdeforestation and making the shift to low-emission agriculture.Agroecological zoning laws for sugar cane and palm oil balancecompeting land uses and address multiple objectives in theagriculture, forest, water and energy sectors51. Key policydocuments, such as the National Plan, Sustainable Amazon Planand National Water Resources Plan, prohibit cultivation of sugarcane in protected areas, the Amazon and Pantanal for example52.The Forest Code provides for maintaining forest cover on privateproperty in rural areas. The Brazil Development Bank has alsorestructured its guidelines to make lending conditional onenvironmental protection measures which avoid deforestation, andland and water pollution.China: Research, policies and pilot programmes promoteagricultural adaptation and mitigationIn China, recent advances in agricultural productivity and poverty A community in Ethiopia helps restore a watershed by planting trees.reduction have been built on a significant domestic agricultural Photo: Trees for the Futureresearch and development base. With roughly 10% annualincreases since 2001, agricultural R&D spending equalled USD 1.8 Ethiopia: Complementary, predictable long-term response to foodbillion in 2007 and shifted an estimated seven people out of insecuritypoverty for every USD 1500 of investment53. National policies and Support to chronically food insecure populations can be designedpilot programmes also catalyse agricultural adaptation and to protect and create assets at the household and community level,mitigation54. The Plan for the Construction of Protective Cultivation as an alternative to annual emergency food appeals. In Ethiopia,Projects will cover 2.7 million hectares in 2009-2015. In addition to the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) takes a development-enhancing soil resilience to drought, 1.7-2.5 billion cubic meters of oriented approach to food aid that creates an assuredirrigation water have been saved. By the end of 2009, 25.6% of governmental safety net and greater predictability forChinese grasslands had been closed to grazing, or had been smallholders56. By combining international donor funding (over USDfallowed or zoned for rotational grazing, while 1.6 million severely 1.27 billion over the last six years) with government supplieddegraded hectares of grassland were reseeded55. Strategies to infrastructure, labour and inputs (USD 500,000 annually), the PSNPimprove rice yields while reducing greenhouse gas emissions have ensures food access, stimulates markets and rehabilitates naturalbeen promoted. These include encouraging farmers to grow low- resources57. Chronically food insecure households with able-bodiedemission and high-yield rice breeds, use intermittent irrigation adults receive transfers of cash and food for their participation inmethods and convert straw to a biomass feedstock for the labour-intensive public works, while other households receive unconditional transfers. The public works initiatives improve soil quality, water supply, ecological condition, infrastructure and social World Bank. 2011a. services, as prioritised through a participatory watershed planning5051 Meridian. 2011.52 World Bank. 2011a.53 Chen and Zhang. 2011.54 National Development and Reform Commission. 2009. 56 World Bank. 2010c.55 Ibid. 57 IFPRI. 2008.14
  15. 15. CO M M I SS I O N O N S U S TA I N A B L E A G R I C U LT U R E A N D C L I M AT E C H A N G Eapproach . Now in its third phase and operational in 317 woredas(administrative districts), PSNP is reaching 7.7 millionbeneficiaries. The PSNP program is associated with a range ofsuccesses including graduation of approximately 1.3 millionindividuals from food insecurity, rehabilitation of 9 million hectaresof land, growth in livestock holdings, better access to clean water,and increase in school attendance as well as enhancing the impactof other food security programs58. Complementary programsaddress household asset building, community infrastructuredevelopment and resettlement. The World Food Program (WFP) andother partners have developed a unified stream of technical adviceand a stakeholder platform provides oversight.France: Public health messages promote healthy eating habitsPublic policy can be used to change unhealthy eating habits. In Rural women in India benefit from guaranteed national employment.France, concern about rising levels of childhood obesity and the Photo: UNDPinfluence of the fast food industry on consumption habits led theGovernment to target food advertising. In 2004, France passedpublic health legislation requiring advertisements for processed India: National guaranteed employment bestows multiple benefitsfood and drink containing added sugar, salt or artificial sweeteners Poverty alleviation programmes can also address environmentalto include health information59. Companies that did not include a sustainability objectives, particularly when they involve locallypublic health message in advertisements were required to pay a appropriate, bottom-up planning. The Mahatma Gandhi Nationallevy of 1.5% of their advertising budget. The levies were channelled Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), launched in 2006,to the national institute for health prevention and education. A now operates in every district in India. In 2010-2011, MGNREGA2007 study confirmed the link between advertisements and provided jobs for over 50 million rural households at a cost of USDchildrens eating habits, noting that 89% of all commercials during 9.1 billion. MGNREGA entitles every adult to 100 days a year ofchildrens programmes were for products rich in sugar, fat or salt60. minimum wage, unskilled manual employment on public works,The study also found that 57% of children did not notice the health such as water management, drought proofing, tree planting, landmessages – usually flashed as a thin band on the screen or as a development and rural connectivity. Village-level government, thenotice displayed after the advertisement – in advertisements on Gram Panchayat, proposes projects based on felt needs of localtelevision and in the cinema. In 2007, the legislation was amended communities and MGNREGA priorities. Over 80% of the projectsto require health messages to emphasize eating fruits and have contributed to rejuvenating the natural resource base in somevegetables, and avoid snacking and eating too many foods high in way. MGNREGA jobs deliver local environmental services, such asfat, sugar or salt. recharging groundwater, enhancing soil fertility and increasing biomass which, in turn, contribute to climate change resilience and mitigation, as well as conserving biodiversity. The right to employment and flexible access to the scheme help small-scale farmers and landless rural households to manage risk. MGNREGA specifies that at least one-third of workers should be women. Flexible working hours that accommodate womens unpaid work and the mandatory presence of women in Gram Panchayat committees mean that women provide more than 50% of the MGNREGA workforce61. Kenya: Improving smallholders market access and production efficiency Poverty among smallholder dairy producers results, in part, from poor access to markets and degradation of grasslands. More efficient production and more opportunities to market their produce can boost smallholders resilience and create sustainableBetter food labels can promote positive changes in diets.Photo: IJ Clark livelihoods while helping to meet growing demand for food. The East Africa Dairy Development Project (EADD) is a regional industry58 Ibid.59 Jolly. 2011.60 Que Choisir. 2007. 61 Mahapatra. 2010. 15
  16. 16. A C H I E V I N G F O O D S EC U R I TY I N T H E F A C E O F C L I M AT E C H A N G E smaller-scale farmers. In 2010, the public insurance agency, Aseguradora Nacional de la Agricultura y Ganadería (ANAGSA), provided traditional and index-based insurance covering more than 8 million hectares – half of the area sown with annual crops and mostly rainfed maize64. Farmers who borrow land from the Government, known as ejidatarios, pay much lower premiums than other farmers. Only non-irrigated major crops are eligible65. Index- based insurance to safeguard the livelihoods and assets of poor producers, such as that provided by ANAGSA, usually needs to be subsidised and requires special delivery channels. Schemes to help viable farm businesses manage risk are usually provided by the private sector66. Southern Africa: Land tenure reform to empower women farmers Although women in low-income countries play a significant role in food production, they often do not have clear rights to land. This can inhibit their ability to access credit, improve their yields and economic status, or take up sustainable agricultural methods. Since 2009, the Women and Land Rights Project has beenBetter systems for collecting and storing milk can help smallholder dairy farmers implemented by Action Aid in the five southern African countries ofaccess markets and boost income. Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe67. InPhoto: Gates Foundation South Africa, post-apartheid land reform policies and land-related programmes, such as the Settlement/Land Acquisition Grant anddevelopment programme implemented in Kenya, Uganda and the Land Acquisition and Redistribution Programme, present anRwanda by Heifer International and a consortium of partners that opportunity for women farmers to establish their rights to own,includes the International Livestock Research Institute, the World reside on and cultivate land. However, women encounter obstacles.Agroforestry Centre, Heifer International, TechnoServe and Nestle62. For example, they may be barred from participating in localFunded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the project decision-making systems affecting land or there may be genderenhances services and training to boost farm yields and the inequities concerning the rights of survivors to land. Several non-incomes of millions of smallholders in East Africa. The project, government organizations (NGOs), such as the Legal Resourcesmodelled on the hub concept, increases access to markets and Centre and the Association for Rural Advancement, provide legalreduces postharvest losses. Twenty-seven collection hubs to store assistance to advance womens land rights and challenge laws thatand chill milk are being developed. These will be managed by new disadvantage women. In Eastern Cape and KwaZulu Natal, NGOsbusiness associations. Smallholders will receive training in have been specifically addressing land issues affecting womenbusiness and production, such as improved breeding technologies through education and leadership development.and animal nutrition practices to improve the quality of milk. United Kingdom: Reducing emissions and waste in food chainsMexico: Index-based insurance spurs investment in sustainable Efforts to improve the environmental footprint of food systems canagriculture mobilize public-private partnerships. The Climate Change Act ofExtreme weather (for example, droughts, floods and heat waves) 2008 commits the United Kingdom to an 80% economy-widecan not only trigger crises and cause hardship in farming families, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2050.but can also inhibit investment in agriculture. Farmers are reluctant The agriculture industrys ambitious Greenhouse Gas Action Planto invest in their enterprises in the face of uncertainty and risk. (GHGAP) aims to reduce annual emissions by 3 million tonnes CO2-Index-based insurance automatically pays out to farmers when the equivalent by 2018-2022 through strategic delivery of messages,weather exceeds an established level. There is no need for insurers technical advice and information to agricultural producers in allto make site visits63. Making sure farmers receive insurance farming systems68. GHGAP builds on existing initiatives (forpayments quickly can minimize distress sales of assets. Index- example, the Dairy Roadmap) and brings together whole supplybased insurance also boosts risk tolerance among farmers, banks, chains, to encourage adoption of farm practices that are moremicrofinance lenders and agricultural industries. In Mexico, risk efficient and reduce greenhouse gas emissions while enabling costinsurance products are well-developed, especially those targeting 64 Hazell et al. 1986. 65 Fuchs and Wolff. 2011. 66 Hess and Hazell. 2009.62 67 Kachika. 2009.63 Barrett et al. 2007. 68 GHG emissions - agricultures action plan.
  17. 17. CO M M I SS I O N O N S U S TA I N A B L E A G R I C U LT U R E A N D C L I M AT E C H A N G Esavings per unit of production and enhancing landscapes and without antibiotics, pesticides, hormones or bioengineering, andbiodiversity. Another UK initiative, the Waste Resources and Action that they adhere to criteria for soil and water conservation as wellProgramme (WRAP) works with businesses, individuals and as animal welfare. Products must be certified as 95% or morecommunities to reduce food waste. Household food and drink organic to display the voluntary USDA organic sticker, or 70% orwaste represents £12 billion in lost value and 20 million tonnes of more organic to be labelled made with organic ingredients72.CO2-equivalent in emissions each year69. Research by WRAP Individuals or companies that sell products with organic labels butfocuses on ways to cut down the amount of food thrown away by do not meet USDA standards can be fined up to USD 10 000 forconsumers and covers consumer habits, attitudes and behaviours, each violation. Cumbersome certification processes can excludeappropriate ways of communicating to priority audiences and retail small-scale organic farmers so USDA certification exemptsinnovation. In partnership with WRAP, the grocery sector has made producers with less than USD 5000 in organic sales (for example,changes to make it easier for consumers to buy the right amount of farmers selling limited quantities at farmers markets).food, and to optimize freshness and value, as well as to implementlarge-scale consumer-facing campaigns (for example, Love Food Viet Nam: Upscaling techniques to deliver higher yields andHate Waste). As a result, 670 000 tonnes of food waste have been climate benefitsdiverted from landfills, saving £600 million a year70. Agricultural sustainability hinges on development and uptake of farming techniques that simultaneously deliver robust yields andUnited States: Standard certification informs consumer choices incomes, climate resilience and greenhouse gas mitigation. With aNational governments play a key role in certifying and enforcing projected 12-14% decline in global rice production by 2050 due tofood standards and labelling to ensure that consumers receive climate change73, Integrated Crop Management (ICM) helps farmersaccurate information about the way agricultural products are grown to boost production while adapting to climatic changes andand processed, their nutritional value and their environmental resource scarcity . Developed to benefit smallholder farmers, ICMimpact. From 1990 to 2010, sales of organic products in the United reduces requirements for inputs and labour. In the ICM method,States grew from USD 1 billion to nearly USD 27 billion71. This made Alternative Wetting and Drying (AWD) and balanced fertilization oncertification to verify the claims of organic producers essential. paddy fields lowers methane and nitrous dioxide compared toOrganic labelling rules introduced by the United States Department continuous flooding74. There is less need for fertilizers and otherof Agriculture (USDA) require that organic products, whether inputs and so indirect greenhouse gas emissions are minimized.produced in the US or abroad, meet established standards. These Yield increases are attributed, in part, to more vigorous rootstandards include assurance that organic products are produced systems, and better resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. In Viet Nam, the ICM programme began in 2002 and, by 2004, already engaged 103,000 farmers in 13 provinces (i.e. 15% of the Mekong Delta area with two rice crops per year). Compared to control sites, these farms saw higher grain yields and significantly reduced use of nitrogen fertilizer, seeds, water and pesticides, leading to considerably lower production costs and higher profits. A recent survey shows that Vietnamese farmers are implementing ICM on more than 1 million hectares. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has shown positive results in Viet Nam as an ICM alternative method. Oxfam-funded field trials, demonstrations and dissemination, have mobilized farmers to act as local extension agents, and helped to bring SRI to 21 provinces. A 2008 review found 11% higher average SRI yields, 16% lower urea fertiliser use, 45% less frequent pesticide application, 35% reduction in average irrigation expenses, and 50% increases in income75.A small scale farmer harvests organic greens, Virginia, USA.Photo: L Cheung (USDA) 72 USDA. 2011.69 WRAP. 2011. 73 Nelson et al. 2009.70 Ibid. 74 Nguyen et al. 2007.71 Organic Trade Association. 75 Africare, Oxfam America, WWF-ICRISAT Project. 17