Can based collision aviodance system for automobiles


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Can based collision aviodance system for automobiles

  2. 2. BRIEF OVERVIEW :  Objective  LCD  Embedded system  DC Motor and L293D  What is CAS?  Software Requirements  Existing system  Operation  Block Diagram  Advantages, Disadvantages  Power supply  Future Scope  ATmega16 Controller  Conclusion  Obstacle sensor  CAN, MCP2515 and MCP2551
  3. 3. Objective of the Project : • This project CAN BASED COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM is intended for secure and smooth journey. • If the driver himself is not concentrating on driving or any other parameters, which may cause damage to vehicle as well a life, this intelligent car/ vehicle warn the driver regarding the danger ahead.
  4. 4. Embedded system :  An Embedded System is one that has computer hardware with software embedded in it as one of its important components.  Its software embeds in ROM (Read Only Memory). It does not need secondary memories as in a computer. SOFTWARE PROGRAM
  5. 5. What is CAS ?  A collision avoidance system is that which is placed within a car to warn its driver of any dangers that may lie ahead on the road. • how close the car is to other cars surrounding it • how much its speed needs to be reduced while going around the curve • how close the car is to going off the road • uses visual and audio warnings to prompt the driver • initiates braking if the driver fails to respond to the warnings
  6. 6. Existing system : • Power train management system • Antilock braking system (ABS) • Acceleration skid control (ASC) system, etc, • The functionality and wiring of these electric control units (ECU) are getting more complicated. • A high-level protocol CAN is adopted to interconnect those CAN nodes with reliable communications among sensors.
  7. 7. Block Diagram : NODE 1 LCD GP2D1 2 ATMEG A 32 MCP 2515 MCP 2551 NODE 2 L293D LCD ATMEG A 32 DC MOTOR MCP 2515 MCP 2551
  8. 8. Power Supply : Regulated 5V DC 230V AC Mains Transformer Rectifier Filter Regulator
  9. 9. ATMEGA 32 CONTROLLER : • High-performance, Low-power AVR 8 - bit Microcontroller • Advanced RISC Architecture • High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments • JTAG Interface • Peripheral Features • Special Microcontroller Features • I/O and Packages - 40-pin • Operating Voltages - 4.5-5.5V • Speed Grades - 0-16 MHz • Power Consumption - 1.1mA
  10. 10. Pin Diagram :
  11. 11. GP2D12 : • It is an Analog distance sensor that uses infrared to detect an object between 10 cm and 80 cm away. • Consists of PSD and infrared emitting diode and signal processing circuit. • High immunity to ambient light and colour of object • No external control circuitry required
  12. 12. GP2D12 :
  13. 13. CONTROL AREA NETWORK : • CAN is a multi-master broadcast serial bus standard for connecting electronic control units (ECUs) • CAN is one of the best choices for embedded networking applications. • Each node is able to send and receive messages, but not simultaneously. • A message consists primarily of an ID (identifier), which represents the priority of the message, and up to eight data bytes.
  14. 14. • The devices that are connected by a CAN network are typically sensors, actuators and other control devices. • These devices are not connected directly to the bus, but through a host processor and a CAN controller. • Bit rates up to 1 Mbit/s are possible at network lengths below 40 m. • Each node requires a  Host processor  CAN controller  Transceiver
  15. 15. MCP2515 : • It is a stand-alone Controller Area Network (CAN) controller that implements the CAN specification, version 2.0B • MCP2515 has two acceptance masks and six acceptance filters that are used filter out unwanted messages, thereby reducing the host MCUs overhead. • It is capable of transmitting and receiving both standard and extended data an remote frames. • Operates from 2.7V – 5.5V • It interfaces with microcontrollers (MCUs) via an industry standard Serial Peripheral Interface ( 10MHz) • The device consists of three main blocks:  CAN Module ---- Control logic --- SPI Protocol block
  16. 16. MCP2551 : is a high-speed CAN, fault-tolerant device that serves as • The MCP2551 the interface between a CAN protocol controller and the physical bus. • It will operate at speeds of up to 1 Mb/s. • It converts the digital signals generated by a CAN controller to signals suitable for transmission over the bus cabling. • It also provides a buffer between the CAN controller and the high-voltage spikes that can be generated on the CAN bus by outside sources.
  17. 17. Features : • Protection against damage due to short-circuit conditions (positive or negative battery voltage) • Protection against high-voltage transients • Automatic thermal shutdown protection • Up to 112 nodes can be connected • High noise immunity due to differential bus Implementation
  18. 18. Liquid crystal display :  Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have materials which combine the properties of both liquids and crystals.  They have a temperature range within which the molecules are almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid, but are grouped together in an ordered form similar to a crystal.  Since the LCD’s consume less power, they are compatible with low power electronic circuits and can be powered for long durations.
  19. 19. DC Motor : • A DC motor is electromechanical device that coverts electrical energy into mechanical energy • Motor gives power to the MCU • Power to do physical works - to move robot • It can be controlled easily with microcontrollers • But the MCUs port are not powerful enough to drive DC motors directly , we need some kind of drivers. • Very easy and safe is to use L293D chips
  20. 20. L293D :  L293D is a motor driver integrated circuit (IC).  Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a lowcurrent control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors.  This chip is designed to control 2 DC motors  L293D has output current of 600mA  The output supply has a wide range from 4.5V to 36V
  21. 21.  Input logic 00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor.  Logic 01 and 10 will rotate it in clockwise and anticlockwise directions.  Enable pins 1 and 9 must be high for motors to start operating.
  23. 23. Embedded C :  Embedded C is a set of language extensions for the C Programming language by the C Standards committee to address commonality issues that exist between C extensions for different embedded systems.  Historically, embedded C programming requires nonstandard extensions to the C language in order to support exotic features such as fixed-point arithmetic, multiple distinct memory banks, and basic I/O operations.  In 2008, the C Standards Committee extended the C language to includes a number of features not available in normal C, such as, fixed-point arithmetic, named address spaces, and basic I/O hardware addressing.  Embedded C use most of the syntax and semantics of standard C, e.g., main() function, variable definition, data type declaration, conditional statements (if, switch. case), loops (while, for), functions, arrays and strings, structures and union, bit operations, macros, etc.
  24. 24. Codevision AVR : • CodeVisionAVR is a complete set of tools designed for rapid and efficient software development for the Atmel AVR microcontrollers. Keil C cross compiler : • Keil Software provides software development tools for the family of microcontrollers, they are • IDE (Integrated Development environment) • Project Manager • Simulator • Debugger • C Cross Compiler , Cross Assembler, Locator/Linker
  25. 25.  Compilers are programs used to convert a High Level Language to object code i.e source code into object code.  A cross compiler is similar to the compilers but we write a program for the target processor (like 8051 and its derivatives) on the host processors (like computer)  It means being in one environment you are writing a code for another environment is called cross development.
  26. 26. • OPERATION having Here we are : two nodes each node Contain ATMEGA 16 (AVR CONTROLLER), MCP2515 (CAN CONTROLLER), MCP2551 (CAN TRANSRECEVER). • In first node we are interfacing GP2D12 to find the object, second node contains DC motor. • Initially motor is rotating with maximum speed. If any object is found in front of GP2D12 in node1 motor will stop in node2 by using CAN protocol. • For this we have to develop two different application programs
  27. 27. Advantages  Collision Mitigation by Braking  Crash avoidance  Road Safety  Injury and Accident Prevention  Commercially marketable technical systems  Low cost  Product Excellence due to Minimum Requirements  High Alert system
  28. 28. DISADVANTAGES  The technical challenges for current collision avoidance systems lie in achieving high detection rates given an acceptable false alarm rate, under real-life driving situations.  The problem with curved roads is that sensors might mistake a car running in the opposite direction for a hazard on the lane where the CAS equipped vehicle is driving. Cars Equipped with sensors running in the opposite direction.
  29. 29. Applications : • Used as a Warning System to avoid Collision in National Highways. • Used by Police to Track the speed of the approaching vehicles. • Used to detect an object in Extreme conditions like Fog and misty areas. • Can be implemented in Robotic Applications. • Can be used in large vehicles like Trucks and buses. • Can be implemented in Aircraft and aerospace electronics. • Can be used in Passenger and cargo trains. • Can be implemented in Maritime electronics.
  30. 30. Real Time View :
  31. 31. FUTURE SCOPE : • Future car collision-avoidance systems may be smart phonebased • You could stick your cell phone on the dashboard, and it would use [its onboard sensors] to provide the feedback needed by the system
  32. 32. CONCLUSION  This briefly reviewed the automobile collision avoidance problem in order to achieve safer transportation on highways.  Once achieved, this will not only save lives, but result in a considerable amount of financial gains as well.  In order to develop the so-called smart highways and smart cars, it is stated that the most importance difference from the old practice is the fact that new design approach attempts to completely avoid collision instead of minimizing the damage by over-designing cars.
  33. 33. BIBLIOGRAPHY : Text Books : [1] Steven F Barrett, ‘‘Embedded Systems Design With The Atmel AVR Microcontroller’’, Morgan and Claypool Publishers,2008 . [2] Jesse Russell, Ronald Cohn, Publishing,2012 . Web Portal : [1] [2] [3] www.µ [4] [5] [6] ‘‘Controller Area Network’’, Bookvika