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Renzulli Giftedness


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Renzulli Giftedness

  1. 1. What Makes Giftedness? Reexamining a Definition by Joseph S. Renzulli T hroughout recorded history and undoubtedly even before records were kept, people have always been in- terested in men and women who display superior ability. As early as 2200 B.C . the Chinese had developed an elaborate sys- tem of competitive examinations to select outstanding persons for government posi- tions, t and down through the ages almostevery culture has been fascinated by itsmost able citizens . Although the areas ofperformance in which one _ might berecognized as a gifted person are deter-mined by the needs and values of theprevailing culture, scholars and layper-sons alike have debated (and continue todebate) the age-old question : What makesgiftedness? The purpose of this article is thereforethreefold. First, I shall analyze some pastand current definitions of giftedness . Sec-ond, I shall review studies that deal withcharacteristics of gifted individuals . Final- - "Sue," 1970,ly, I shall present a new definition of by Ramon B. Price. Bronze.giftedness that is operational, i.e., usefulto school personnel, and defensible interms of research findings .The Definition Continuum ways . . First, a definition can - limit the number of performance areas that are Numerous conceptions and countless considered in determining eligibility fordefinitions of giftedness have been put special programs . A conservative defini-forth over the years. One way of analyzing tion, for example, might limit eligibility toexisting definitions is to view them along a academic performance only and excludecontinuum ranging from "conservative" other areas such as music, art, drama,to "liberal," i.e ., according to the degree leadership, public speaking, social service,of restrictiveness used in determining who and creative writing. Second, a definitionis eligible for special programs and ser- may specify the degree or level of ex-vices. cellence one must attain to be considered Restrictiveness can be expressed in two gifted . At the conservative end of the con- tinuum is Lewis Termans definition of JOSEPH S. RENZULL! (University of Virginia Chapters is associate director of the giftedness, "the top 1 076 level in generalBureau of Educational Research, University of intellectual ability, .as measured by theConnecticut, Storrs. © 1978 by Joseph S. Ren- Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale or azulli. comparable instrument ." 2 PHI DELTA KAPPAN
  2. 2. .1lr. Ren=ulli offers a nFU, research-hosed definition of the gifted and talented . !t i% an operational definition intended to help the practitioner . In this definition restrictiveness is pres- ,o put less emphasis on precise estimates very useful purpose of calling attention toent in terms of both the type of perfor- of performance and potential and more a wider variety of abilities that should bemance specified (i .e ., how well one scores emphasis on the opinions of qualified included in a definition of giftedness, buton an intelligence test) and the level of human judges in making decisions about at the same time it has presented some ma-performance one must attain to be con- admission to special programs . The issue jor problems . The first lies in its failure tosidered gifted (top 1 17o) . At the other end boils down to a simple and yet very impor- includenonintellective(motivational) fac- areof the continuum may be found more lib- tant question : How much of a trade-off tors . That these factors `importani iseral definitions, such as the following one are we willing to make on the objec- borne out by an overwhelming body of re-by Paul Witty: tive/subjective continuum in order to search, which I shall consider later. allow recognition of a broader spectrum A second and equally important prob- There are children whose outstand . of human abilities? If some degree of sub- lem relates to the nonparallel nature of the - ing potentialities in art, in writing, or in jectivity cannot be tolerated, then our six categories included in the definition . social leadership can be recognized definition of giftedness and the resulting Two of the six categories (specific aca- largely by their performance . Hence, we programs will logically be limited to demic_aptitude and visual and performing have recommended that the definition abilities that can only be measured by ob- arts aptitude) call attention to fields of of giftedness be expanded and that we human, endeavor or general performance consider any child gifted whosc perfor- jective tests. mance, in a potentially valuable line of areas in which talents and abilities are human activity, is consistently re- The USOE Definition manifested . The remaining four categories ., markablc . 3 are more nearly processes that may be In recent years the following definition brought to bear on performance -areas . Although_ liberal definitions have the set forth by the U .S . Office of Education For example, a person may bring the pro-obvious advantage of expanding the con-ception (USOE) has grown in popularity, and cess of creativity to bear on a specific ap- . of ,giftedness, they alsoopen up- numerous states and school districts titude (e .g ., chemistry) or a visual arttwo cansof worms. by introducing the throughout the nation have adopted it for (e .g ., photography). Or the processes ofvalues issue, (What, are the potentially their programs : leadership and general intelligence mightvaluablelines of human activity?) and, the be applied to a performance area such asage-old problem of subjectivity in Gifted and talented children are choreography or the management of ameasurement . those . . . who by virtue of outstanding high school yearbook . In fact, it can be In recent years the values issue has abilities are capable of high perform- said that processes such as creativity andbeen largely resolved . There are very few ance . These . . . children . . . require leadership do not exist apart from a ;per-educators who cling to a straight IQ or differentiated educational programs formance area to which they can be ap- and/or services beyond those normally plied .purely academic definition of giftedness . provided by the regular school programMultiple talent and multiple criteria A third problem with the definition is in order to realize their (potential) con-are almost the bywords of the present-day tribution to self and society. that it tends to be misinterpreted_ and .gifted student movement, and most edu- misused by practitioners. It is not uncom-cators would have little difficulty in ac- Children capable of high perform- mon to find educators developing entirecepting a definition that includes almost ance include those who have demon- identification systems based on the sixevery area of human activity that mani- strated any of the following abilities or USOE categories and in the process treat-fests itself in a socially useful form . aptitudes, singly or in combination : I) ing them as if they were mutually exclu- The problem of subjectivity in meas- general intellectual ability, 2) specific sive . What is equally distressing is thaturement is not as easily resolved . As the academic aptitude, )) creative or pro- many peoplr - `talk a good game about ductive thinking, 4) leadership ability,definition of giftedness is extended 5) visual and performing arts aptitude, the six categories but continue to use abeyond those abilities clearly reflected in 6) psychomotor ability. relatively high intelligence or aptitudetests of intelligence, achievement, and score as a minimum requirement for en-academic aptitude, it becomes necessary The USOE definition has served the trance into a special program. Although
  3. 3. both of these problems result from misap- plication rather than from the definition itself . the definition is not entirely without States Define Giftedness fault, because it fails to give the kind of guidance necessary for practitioners to Twenty-six states now define children who are exceptional. by virtue of avoid such pitfalls . giftedness either in statutes or in state department of education regulations. Pennsylvania, Idaho, Florida, and North Carolina require the same formal IEP The Three-Ring Conception (individualized education program) for the gifted as is mandated for the handi- Research on creative/productive peo- capped in the federal Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P .L. 94-142) . ple has consistently shown that although This information comes from Christine Lewis, the Montgomery County In- no single criterion should be used to iden- termediate Unit IEP facilitator for the gifted in Norristown . Pennsylvania . tify giftedness persons who have achieved recognition because ofYtheir unique 1c=¢t:omphstiMents a id ereauve contnbuttohs F . A. Karnes and E. C. Collins. State Definitions of Gifted and Talented :A Report and Analysis Journal of the Education of the Gifted, February, 1979 . pp . 44-62 . possess a relative ly,-well defined set of ;` sa rcc interlocking cIus tcrs of tracts These b dusters consist of above-average though ~to`f ncccs~arOy~3uperaotA getietal ability; - show so little criterion validity as to be a The pervasiveness of this general find- task -commitment, and creativity ::-(see° + questionable basis on which to make ing is demonstrated by D. P. Hoyt, who Figure I-).)t ts iniportant .topoint .outthat consequential decisions about students reviewed 46 studies dealing with the rela- no . single cluster makes giftedness : futures. What the academic tests do tionship between traditional indications Rather, it is the interaction among the predict are the results a person will ob- of academic success and post-college per- three clusters that research has shown to tain on other tests of the same kinds formance in the fields of business, teach- be the necessary ingredient for crea- Wallach goes on to point out that ing, engineering, medicine, scientific re- tive/productive accomplishment . This in- academic test scores at the upper search, and other areas such as the teraction is represented by the shaded por- ranges - precisely the score levels that ministry, journalism, government, and tion of Figure l . It is also important to are most often used for selecting persons miscellaneous professions .9 From this ex- point out that each cluster is an equal for entrance into special programs - do tensive review, Hoyt concluded that tradi- partner in contributing to giftedness . not necessarily reflect the potential for tional indications of academic success This point is important. One of the major creative/productive accomplishment . He have no more than a very modest correla- errors that continues to be made in iden- suggests that test scores be used to screen tion with various indicators of success in tification procedures is overemphasis on out persons who score in the lower ranges the adult world. He observes, There is superior abilities at the expense of the and that beyond this point decisions be good reason to believe that academic other two clusters of traits . based on other indicators of potential for achievement (knowledge) and other types superior performance. of educational growth and development Figure 1 . The Ingredients Numerous research studies support are relatively independent of each other. Of Giftedness Wallachs finding that there is little;rela- These studies raise some basic ques- tionship :between test scores and school tions about the use of tests in making grades on the one hand and real world ac- selection decisions. The studies clearly in- complishments on the other. 6 -3n fact, a dicate that vast .numbersandproportions . study dealing with the prediction of of our most productive persons are not various dimensions of achievement among those who scored at the ninety-fifth or Above- college students, made by J. L. Holland above percentile on standardized tests, Average Task Commitment and A. W. Astin, found that nor, were they necessarily straight-A, W Abillt students who discoveredearly how to play . . . getting good grades in college has theesson-learning game! In other words, little connection with more remote and more creative/productive persons come IN qi more socially relevant kinds of achieve- from below the ninety-fifth percentile ment ; indeed, in some colleges, the than above it, and if such cut-off scores Creativity higher the students grades, the less like- are needed to determine entrance into ly it is that he is a person with creative potential. So it seems desirable to ex- special programs, we may be guilty of ac- tend our criteria of talented perform- tually discriminating against persons who ance. - have the greatest potential_ for high levels of accomplishment. A study by the American College Above-Average General Ability Testing Program titled Varieties of Ac- Task Commitment complishment After College: Perspectives Although the influence of intelligence, on the Meaning of Academic Talent A second cluster of traits that are con- as traditionally measured, quite obviously concluded : sistently found in creative/productive per- varies with areas of achievement, many sons constitutes a refined or focused form researchers have found that creative ac- The adult accomplishments were of motivation known as task commit- complishment is not necessarily a function found to be uncorrelated with academic ment . Whereas motivation is usually de- of measured intelligence . In a review of talent, including test scores, high school fined in terms of a general energizing several research studies dealing with the grades, and college grades . However, process that triggers responses in organ- relationship between academic aptitude the adult accomplishments were related isms, task commitment represents energy tests and professional achievement, M. A . to comparable high school nonacademic brought to bear on a particular problem (extracurricular) accomplishments. This Wallach has concluded that : suggests that there are many kinds of (task) or specific performance area . talents related to later success which The argument for including this non- Above intermediate score levels, might be identified and nurtured by intellective cluster of traits in a definition academic skills assessments are found to educational institutions .a of giftedness is nothing short of over-
  4. 4. whelming . From popular maxims and autobiographical accounts to hard-core Kohlbergs Level Six research findings, one of the key ingre- by Jessica Maxwell dients that has characterized the work of gifted persons is the ability to involveoneself totally in a problem or area for an Oh cursed be it that bade me seeextended period of time . oh inefficient clarity The legacy of both Sir Francis Gallon oh clarion clarinets reedy wheezeand Lewis Terman clearly indicates that which, while on pitch,task commitment is an important part of is still unclearthe making of a gifted person . Although is still some distant others tuneGalton was a strong proponent of the rising stillhereditary basis for what he called so faint I cant quite catch the beatnatural ability, he nevertheless sub- cant march in time my tapping feet feel but the rhythms of the moonscribed strongly to the belief that hard which rises even in the midstwork was part and parcel of giftedness : oh sweet oblivion thou kissed but fools and left me crutches clutched and falling By natural ability I mean those to this half-heard song qualities of intellect and disposition this ill-reared imp which urge and .qualify a man to per- who pecks from ferns form acts that lead to r:putation. 1 do now here, now where not mean capacity without zeal, nor zeal what frolicking fiendish flutist thou without capacity, nor even a combina- wont let me hear tion of both of them . without an ade- wont let me be quate power of doing a great deal of who keeps me but a helpless mute very laborious work . But I mean a nature which, when left to itself, will, who hears yet cant return a phrase urged by an inherent stimulus, climb the what cryptic crippling arias raise path that leads to eminence and has this ambered ant strength to reach the summit - on this muscle frozen in mid-reach which, if hindered o. thwarted, it will each to each fret and strive until the hindrance is it calls, it calls overcome, and it is again free to follow that tortuous truth that wont be good its laboring instinct . 10 or understood it falls. Termans monumental studies un- Would that I could rest,doubtedly represent the most widely nay fall asleeprecognized and frequently quoted re- that it would fall on canceled earssearch on the characteristics of gifted per- or veiled eyes, inert to weepsons . Termans studies, however, have the silent cold .and running wineunintentionally left a mixed legacy, an opiatebecause most persons have dwelt (and a tonic weedcontinue to dwell) on early Terman in anesthetic healing artrather than on the conclusions he reached pretends, complete, the paupers peace.after several decades of intensive research .Therefore it is important to consider thefollowing conclusion, reached after 30 JESSICA MAXWELL is one of 69 gifted children whose careers are beingyears of follow-up studies on his initial followed by Mary Meeker, president of the SOI Institute in El Segundo, Calif.population : A former Mademoiselle editor, Ms. Maxwell is now a Los Angeles Times columnist . . . . (Al detailed analysis was made of the 150 most successful and 150 least successful men among the gifted sub- Although Terman never suggested that their enthusiasm, determination, and in- jects in an attempt to identify come of task commitment should replace intelli- dustry 13 (emphasis added) . the nonintellectual factors that affect gence in our conception of giftedness, he Extensive reviews of research carried life success . . . . Since the less suc- did state that intellect and achievement out by J. C. Nicholls 14 and H . G. McCur- cessful subjects do not differ to any ex- are far from perfectly correlated . dy found patterns of characteristics that tent in intelligence as measured by tests, Several more recent studies support the were consistently similar to the findings it u clear that notable achievement calls reported by Roe and MacKinnon . Al- for more than a high order of intelli- findings of Galton and Terman and have gence . shown that creative/productive persons though the researchers cited thus far used The results lof the follow-upl in- are far more task oriented and involved in different procedures and dealt with a dicated [hat =personality factors are ax-- their work than are. people in the general variety of populations, there is a striking Irerhely,-`important . determ tters . of population, Perhaps the best known of similarity in their major conclusions . achievement . . : . The . four, Irarts, on - these studies is the work of A.. Roe and D. First, academic ability (as traditionally which Ithe.,.most and least :successful .: . W. MacKinnon. Roe conducted an inten- measured by tests or grade-point averages) groups) differed most widely were_ per--= sive study of the characteristics of 64 emi- showed limited relationships to crea- srstence rn the accomplishment of ends. nent scientists and found that all of her tive/productive accomplishment . Second, integration . toward kbafi. self-con . subjects had a high level of commitment nonintellectual factors, and especially idence and jreerium Born_ rnfrnor rely feeltnx~. In the totalpiefuii the greatest to their work . 12 MacKinnon pointed out those that relate to task commitment, con- contrast between the two groups was in traits that were important in creative ac- sistently played an important part in the all-round ,emotional and,iocial -adjust- complishments: It is clear that creative cluster of . traits that characterize highly meet -and .in to -achieve . 1 (Em- architects more often stress their inven- productive people . Although this second phisis `Added) tiveness, independence, and individuality . cluster of traits ~s not as easily and objcc-
  5. 5. Figure 2. A Graphic Definition of Giftedness GENERAL PERFORMANCE AREAS Mathematics Visual Arts Physical Sciences . Philosophy Social Sciences Law Religion . Language Arts Music Life Sciences Movement Arts SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE AREAS Above- Task Average Cartooning Astronomy Public Opinion Polling. A Commitment Jewelry Design Map Making Choreography Biography Film Making Statistics Local History Electronics Musical Composition Landscape Architecture Chemistry W-AN 1 q7 Demography Microphotography City Planning Pollution Control Poetry Fashion Design Weaving Play Writing Advertising Costume Creativity Design Meteorology Puppetry Marketing Game Design_ Journalism Electronic Musk Child Care Consumer Protection Cooking Ornithology Furniture Design Navigation Genealogy Sculpture Wildlife Management Set Design Agricultural Research Animal Learning Film Criticism Etc. Etc. Etc.tively identifiable as are general cognitive divergent thinking and creative perform- general abilities, task commitment, andabilities, they are nevertheless a major ance criteria, l the research evidence for creativity . Any definition or set of iden-component of giftedness and should the predictive validity of such tests has tification procedures that does not givetherefore be reflected in our definition . been limited. Unfortunately, very few equal attention to all three clusters is tests have been validated against real-life simply ignoring the results of the bestCreativity criteria of creative accomplishment, and available research dealing with this topic. in cases where such studies have been con- Related to this generalization is the The third cluster of traits that char- ducted the creativity test :. ;ve done poor- need to make a distinction between tradi- acterize gifted persons consists of factors ly. le Thus, although divergent; thinking is tional indicators of academic proficiency that have usually been lumped together indeed a characteristic of highly creative and creative productivity . A sad but true under the general heading of creativity . persons, caution should be exercised in fact is that_ special programs have favoredAs one reviews the literature in this area, it the use and interpretation of tests de-,; proficient lesson learners and test takers at becomes readily apparent that the words signed to measure this capacity . the expense of persons who may score gifted, genius, and eminent cre- Given the inherent limitations of somewhat lower on tests but who moreators or highly creative persons are creativity tests, a number of writers have than compensate for such scores by hav-used synonymously . In many of the re- focused attention on alternative methods ing high levels of task commitment andsearch projects discussed above, the per- for assessing creativity. Among others, creativity . Research has shown that mem-sons ultimately selected for intensive study Nicholls suggests that an analysis of bers of this group ultimately make thewere in fact recognized because of their creative products is preferable to the trait- most creative/productive contributions tocreative accomplishments. In MacKin- based approach in making predictions their respective fields of endeavor.nons study, for example, panels of quali- about creative potential, 19 and Wallach A second generalization is that anfied judges (professors of architecture and proposes that student self-reports about operational definition should be appli-editors of major American architectural creative accomplishment are sufficiently cable to all socially useful performancejournals) were asked first to nominate and accurate to provide a usable source of areas. The one thing that the three clusterslater to rate an initial pool of nominees, data .2° discussed above have in common is thatusing the following dimensions of creativi- Although few persons would argue each can be brought to bear on a multi-ty : 1) originality of thinking and freshness against the importance of including tude of specific performance areas. Asof approaches to architectural problems, creativity in a definition of giftedness, the was indicated earlier, the interaction or2) constructive ingenuity, 3) ability to set conclusions and recommendations dis- overlap among the clusters makes gifted-aside established conventions and pro- cussed above raise the haunting issue of ness, but giftedness does not exist in acedures when appropriate, and 4) a flair subjectivity in measurement . In view of vacuum . Our definition must, therefore,for devising effective and original ful- what the research suggests about the ques- reflect yet another interaction ; but in thisfillments of the major demands of archi- tionable value of more objective measures case it is the interaction between thetecture: namely, technology (firmness), of divergent thinking, perhaps the time overlap of the clusters and any perform-visual form (delight), planning (commodi- has come for persons in all areas of ance area to which the overlap might bety), and human awareness and social pur- endeavor to develop more careful pro- applied. This interaction is represented bypose . to cedures for evaluating the products of the large arrow in Figure 2. When discussing creativity, it is impor- candidates for special programs . A third and final generalization is con-tant to consider the problems researchers cerned with the types of information thathave encountered in establishing relation- Discussion and Generalizations should be used to identify superior per-ships between scores on creativity tests formance in specific areas . Although it isand other more substantial accomplish- The studies reviewed above lend sup- a relatively easy task to include specificments. A major issue that has been raised port to a small number of basic general- performance areas in a definition,by several investigators deals with whether izations that can be used to develop an developing identification procedures thator not tests of divergent thinking actually operational definition of giftedness. The will enable us to recognize specific areasmeasure true creativity . Although first is that giftedness consists of an in- of superior performance is more difficult .some validation studies have reported teraction among three clusters of traits - Test developers have thus far devotedlimited relationships between measures of above-average but not necessarily superior most of their energy to producing
  6. 6. measures of general ability, and this em- can be used to design defensible iden- 8. L. A. Munday and J . C. Davis. fariehes of .4, complishment After College: Peripectis -nn thphasis is undoubtedly why these tests are tification systems. And finally, the defini- Meaning of Academic Talent, Research Report No, 6rested upon so heavily in identification . tion provides direction for programming (Iowa City, la . : Amcriean College Testing ProgramHowever, an operational definition practices that will capitalize upon the 1974). p. 2.should give direction to needed research characteristics that bring gifted youngsters 9. D. P. Hoyt . The Relationship Between Colley to our attention as learners with ,pecial Grades and Adult Achievement : A Review of thand development, especially as these ac- Literature . Research Report NO . 7 (Iowa City, totivities relate to instruments and pro- needs. American College Testing Program, I%5).cedures for student selection. -A defensible 10 . Francis Galion . as quoted in R, S . .Albcrdefinition can thus become a model that Toward a Behavioral Definition of Genius . American Psychologist, vol. 30, 1975, p. tat,will generate vast amount: of appropriate I . P. H. DuBois . .4 History of Psychological Testing 11 . L. M. Terman, Genetic Studies of Genius: Tlresearch in the years ahead. (Boston : Allyn Bacon. 1970)- Gifted Group at .Mid-Life (Stanford . Calif, : Sianfur 2. L. `( . Terman et al ., Genetic Studies of Genius: University Press. 1959). p. 148 .A Definition of Giftedness Mental and Physical Traits of a Thousand Gifted 12 . A. Roe, The Making of a Scientist (New Yori Children tStanfurd, Calif. : Stanford University Press, Dodd, Mead . 1952) . - 19261, p. 43 . 13 . D. W. MacKinnon . Personality and the Re.ilit . Although no single sta(ement can ef- 3 . P .A . Writ,, Wliu Are the CiiIlrd? in N. B. lion of Creative Potential, American P,Ychahigofectively integrate the many ramifications Hew% . ed ., pJu,vnri of the Gifted, fifty-seventh VOL 20 . 1965, p. 365.of the research studies described above, Ycarbuok of the National Society fur the Study of 14 . 7 . C. Nicholls, Creativity m the Per,on Whthe following definition of giftedness at- Education, Part 11 (Chicago : University of (Chicago Will Never Produce Anything Original and Uvctu Press. 195x). p. 62 . The Concept of Creativity as a Normally Dwnbui,tempts to summarize the major conclu- 3 . S. P. Marland, Education of the Gifted and Trait, American Psychologist, vol. 27, 1972, ptstuns and generalizations resulting from Talented. Report to the Congress of the United States 717-27 .this review of research : by the U.S . Cuntmissioner of Education and 15 . H. G. McCurdy. The Childhood Pattern , Background Paper, Submitted to the U .S . Office of Genius . Horizon, vol. 2, 1960, pp 33-38. Giftedness corsis :s of an interaction Education (Washington. D.C . : U.S . Government 16 . D. W. MacKinnon. The Creativity vi .A among three basic clusters of human Printing Office, 1972). (Definition edited for clarity.) chitects . in C. W. Taylor, ed ., Widening Horizons traits - these clusters being above- 5 . hl . A. Wallach, Tests Tell Us Little About Creativity (New York : John Wiley and Sun,, 1964), ; Talent, American Scientist . vol . 64, 1976, p. 57 . 360. average general abilities, high levels of 6- M. B. Parloff et al ., Personality Characteristics 17 . E. P. Torrance . Prediction of Adult Crcaw task commitment, and high levels of Which Differentiate Creative Male Adolescents and Achievement Among High School Seniors, Gift, crcativi(y . (lifted and talented children Adults. Journal of Personality, vol. 36, 1%8, pp . Child Quarterly, vol. 13 . 1969, pp . 223-29: F are those possessing or capable of 528-52 ; M . T. Mednick, Research Creativity in J. Shapiro. Creative Research Scientist,. Pi developing this composite set of traits Psychology Graduate Students. Journal of Con- chuloRw AJticana . 1968, Supplement No . 4; fit . Dell . and applying them to any potentially iultinq Psychology, sot. 27, 1963 . pp . 265, 266; M. A. and E. L. Gaier, Identification of Creativity : The 1 : valuable area of human performance. Wallach and C. W. Wing, Jr . . The Talented Students: dividua1, Psychological Bulletin, vol. 73 . 1970, p; Children who manifest or arc capable of .4 Validation of the Creativity Intelligence Distinction 55-73; and J. P. Guilford, Some New Looks at it developing an interaction among the (New York : Holi, Rinehart and Winston. 1969); J. M. Nature of Creative Processes . in M. Frederick.ic Richards . Jr . et al ., Prediction of Student Ac- and H. Gilliksen, eds., Contributions to Matheniauc three clusters require a wide variety of complishmeni in College, Journal of Educational Psychology (New York : Halt, Rinehartand Winsio: educational opportunities and services P,s-chology, vol. 58, 1967, pp . 343-55 ; L. R . Harmon . 1964). that are not ordinarily provided through The Development of a Criterion of Scientific Com- . I8 . S. B. Crockenburg . Creativity Te,ts: A Boon regular instructional programs . fie(cncc . in C. W raylur and F. Barron . eds ., Scion. Boondoggle for Education? Rrvuw of Education . Wit Creutnvtv : Ir, RIIwcnition and Development Research, vol. 42, 1972 . pp . 2 .-s5 . A graphic representation of this defini- (New York : John W %ley and lions, (96)1, pp . 44-52; B. 19 . Nicholls, op . cit ., p. 721 .tion is presented in Figure 2. The dclint- S. Bloom, Report tin Creativity Research by the Ex- 20 . Wallach, up . cit. aminers Office of the University of Chicago, intion is an operational one because it meets Taylor and Barron . op . cit. ; and L. Hudson, Degreethree important criteria . First, it is derived Class and Attainment in Scientific Research, Britishfrom the best available research studies Journal of Psychology, vol . 51, 1960, pp . 67-73 .dealing with characteristics of gifted and J . L. Holland and A. W. Astin, The Prediction of the Academic, Artistic, Scientific . and Socialtalented individuals . Second, it provides Achievement of Undergraduates of Superiorguidance for !he selection and/or develop- Scholastic Aptitude, Journal of Educationalment of instruments and procedures that Psychology, vol . 53 . 1962, pp . 132, 133. Morovia, NY 17118 Printed November 1979, CHRONICLE GUIDANCE Publications, Inc. . United States of America