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Virtual Bolt Workshop - April 28, 2020

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Learn how to use Bolt in an interactive workshop with hands-on labs.
Join us for an interactive, virtual Bolt workshop on 28 April 2020. You’ll learn how to install and configure common Bolt activities and leave with your laptops Puppet-ready, with Bolt + PDK + Puppet Agent + VS Code. Plus, you’ll get to speak with experts from Puppet and the community.

What's Bolt? Bolt is an open source, agentless multi-platform automation tool that reduces your time to automation and makes it easier to get started with DevOps. Bolt makes automation much more accessible without requiring any Puppet knowledge, agents, or master. It uses SSH or WinRM to communicate and execute tasks on remote systems.

Your teams can perform various tasks like starting and stopping services, rebooting remote systems, and gathering packages and systems facts from your workstation or laptop on any platform (Linux and Windows).

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Virtual Bolt Workshop - April 28, 2020

  1. 1. Bolt Workshop Virtual 28 April 2020
  2. 2. Meet our Presenter BOLT WORKSHOP2 Matt Stone Sr. Solutions Engineer / Windows Advocate Puppet, Inc. twitter @matthewrstone github matthewrstone puppet slack @souldo
  3. 3. BOLT WORKSHOP3
  4. 4. All About Bolt • Bolt provides a simple way to execute agentless automation against remote hosts • Zero requirements to the remote host. No agents, no python, no nothing • Authenticate via SSH, WinRM, PCP • Execute arbitrary commands, scripts, Bolt Tasks and Bolt Plans • Use scripts in any language the remote host can execute • Mature at your own pace from scripts → tasks → plans → puppet code • If you have Puppet Enterprise, leverage PE from Bolt BOLT WORKSHOP4
  5. 5. Bolt Use Cases Some ideas to get you started ○ OS and Application Patching ○ User password resets ○ Locking user accounts ○ Security Baselines and Immediate fixes - ○ https://forge.puppet.com/tomkrieger/security_baseline ○ Spectre Meltdown - https://forge.puppet.com/timidri/meltdown ○ CESA-2019:2091 -https://forge.puppet.com/hpcprofessional/cesa_2019_2091 5
  6. 6. Environment Setup • Create a Bolt playground directory (i.e. ~/boltworkshop or c:usersyouboltworkshop) • Create a Boltdir within your playground directory (i.e. ~/boltworkshop/Boltdir) • Grab the Linux cert: • Web Browser Method • Visit https://bit.ly/BoltPem • Store the contents in your Bolt playground directory as student.pem. • i.e. ~/boltworkshop/Boltdir/student.pem • c:usersyouboltworkshopBoltdirstudent.pem BOLT WORKSHOP8
  7. 7. Using Bolt • Bolt command line syntax: bolt [command|script|task|plan] run <name> --targets <targets> [options] • To run a simple Bash command on a remote SSH host: bolt command run 'echo Hello World!' --targets 10.0.0.1,10.0.0.2 --user root --private-key /path/to/key --transport ssh --no-host-key-check • To run a simple PowerShell command on a remote WinRM host: bolt command run 'write-host Hello World!' --targets 10.0.0.1,10.0.0.2 --user Administrator --password 'Puppetlabs!' --transport winrm --no-ssl BOLT WORKSHOP9
  8. 8. BOLT WORKSHOP10 Lab One: Bolt Command
  9. 9. Lab One: Instructions (A Long Command For A Ping!) • Student Bolt Instances Linux: bolt#nix.classroom.puppet.com Windows: bolt#win.classroom.puppet.com • Credentials Linux: centos / student.pem Windows: Administrator / Puppetlabs! • Run these from the command line bolt command run 'ping 8.8.8.8 -c2' --targets <linux_node> --user centos --private-key ./Boltdir/student.pem --no-host-key- check bolt command run 'ping 8.8.8.8' --targets <win_node> --user Administrator --password Puppetlabs! --transport winrm --no-ssl BOLT WORKSHOP11
  10. 10. Easing Bolt Configuration http://www.puppet.com/docs/bolt • Bolt provides ways to make common activities more efficient • Use a bolt.yaml file to store generic settings like modulepath or PE integration • Use an inventory.yaml file to prevent typing in connection info every time • Use a Boltdir to bundle all the files you need and have Bolt automatically use it BOLT WORKSHOP12
  11. 11. Bolt Configuration File • Bolt supports a configuration file to manage default configuration settings • The configuration file is YAML and can have any name you want • If unspecified, Bolt will look in these locations for an configuration file • ./Boltdir/bolt.yaml • ~/.puppetlabs/bolt/bolt.yaml (~ = %HOMEPATH%) • A custom configuration file can be specified at runtime with --configfile [full path] BOLT WORKSHOP13
  12. 12. Bolt Configuration File Syntax http://www.puppet.com/docs/bolt/latest/bolt_configuration_options.html modulepath: "/path/one:/path/two:/path/three" inventoryfile: "~/.puppetlabs/bolt/inventory.yaml" ssh: host-key-check: false winrm: ssl: false pcp: [options] log: console: # or /path/to.log level: info BOLT WORKSHOP14
  13. 13. BOLT WORKSHOP15 Lab Two: Use Bolt with bolt.yaml
  14. 14. Lab Two: Instructions (Making some Defaults) 1. Create a Boltdir directory in your playground folder 2. Create Boltdir/bolt.yaml in your bolt playground folder. 3. Add host-key-check: false to SSH section of bolt.yaml and ssl: false to WinRM section of bolt.yaml (copy and paste into the bolt.yaml file) ssh: host-key-check: false winrm: ssl: false 3. Run commands to targets without specifying these 2 options bolt command run 'ping 8.8.8.8 -c2' --targets <linux_node> --user centos --private-key ./Boltdir/student.pem bolt command run 'ping 8.8.8.8 –n 2' --targets <win_node> --user Administrator --password Puppetlabs! --transport winrm BOLT WORKSHOP16
  15. 15. Bolt Inventory • Bolt supports an inventory file to maintain a list of known targets • The inventory file is YAML and can have any name you want • If unspecified, Bolt will look in these locations for an inventory file: • ./Boltdir/inventory.yaml • ~/.puppetlabs/bolt/inventory.yaml (~ = %HOMEPATH%) • A custom inventory file can be specified on the command line with --inventoryfile [full path] • A custom inventory file can be specified in bolt.yaml with the inventoryfile keyword. BOLT WORKSHOP17
  16. 16. Bolt Inventory groups: - name: group_name targets: - IP_address_or_name_of_node1 - IP_address_or_name_of_node2 config: transport: [ ssh | winrm ] ssh: user: user_name run-as: root_name private-key: /path/to/key host-key-check: [ true | false ] winrm: user: user_name password: password ssl: [ true | false ] BOLT WORKSHOP18 Nesting of groups is allowed: groups: - name: top_group groups: - name: sub_group targets: - …
  17. 17. BOLT WORKSHOP19 Lab Three: Build an Inventory File
  18. 18. Lab Three: Reference 1. Create an inventory.yaml in your workshop folder 2. One group for your Linux node, connecting over SSH 3. One group for your Windows node, connecting over WinRM Reference: http://bit.ly/BoltINV Note: ● You’ll need to use your student number in the provided file. Replace # ● Add to bolt.yaml - inventoryfile: "./inventory.yaml" BOLT WORKSHOP20
  19. 19. BOLT WORKSHOP21 Lab Four: Use Bolt with Inventory
  20. 20. Lab Four: Reference (Using our Inventory) 1. Run bolt command run 'ping 8.8.8.8 -c2' --targets linux 1. Run bolt command run 'ping 8.8.8.8' --targets windows 1. Run bolt command run 'hostname' --targets linux,windows BOLT WORKSHOP22
  21. 21. The Boltdir To assist in packaging Bolt with source code, Bolt supports a Boltdir When Bolt sees a directory called ./Boltdir it overrides all other configuration The Boltdir has the following structure: ./Boltdir/bolt.yaml # Configuration settings ./Boltdir/inventory.yaml # Target inventory ./Boltdir/Puppetfile # Additional Forge modules ./Boltdir/modules # Path where modules are installed via Puppetfile ./Boltdir/site # Another modulepath, safe from Puppetfile ./Boltdir/modules/mymod/tasks # Bolt Tasks in module 'mymod' ./Boltdir/modules/mymod/plans # Bolt Task Plans in module 'mymod' BOLT WORKSHOP23
  22. 22. Running Scripts • Bolt will copy the script file to the remote host and run it in the native shell • Linux = Bash • Powershell = Windows • Bolt expects the shell to execute the correct parser (based on file extension) • You can pass arguments, but Bolt doesn’t do input validation for scripts bolt script run <script> [[arg1] ... [argN]] [options] BOLT WORKSHOP24
  23. 23. BOLT WORKSHOP25 Lab Five: Run Scripts with Bolt
  24. 24. Lab Five: Instructions (Running a Script) 1. On your laptop, recreate the timesync.ps1 script at http://bit.ly/vbolttimesync • Place this file above your Boltdir, in our ~/boltworkshop directory 2. From our boltworkshop directory: Use Bolt to run the script on your Windows node bolt script run timesync.ps1 --targets windows BOLT WORKSHOP26
  25. 25. Scripts into Tasks! • Make your scripts more useful in Bolt by turning them into Puppet Tasks • Any script file in a tasks directory of a module becomes a Task • Tasks are name spaced automatically, using familiar Puppet syntax: site/mymod/tasks/script1.ps1 # mymod::script1 site/aws/tasks/show_vpc.sh # aws::show_vpc site/mysql/tasks/sql.rb # mysql::sql site/yum/tasks/init.rb # yum BOLT WORKSHOP27
  26. 26. BOLT WORKSHOP28 Lab Six: Convert a Script to a Task
  27. 27. Lab Six: Instructions (Turning Scripts into Tasks) 1. Create Boltdir/site/tools/tasks 2. Move the timesync.ps1 script into the tasks directory 3. Run bolt task show to verify the new task is available 4. Run bolt task run tools::timesync --targets windows to execute the task. BOLT WORKSHOP29
  28. 28. Bolt Task Metadata • Make your Tasks more useful and robust by writing metadata files for them • A metadata file has the same name as the script file, but with a .json extension • Metadata files using the following (JSON) syntax: { "description": "Description of your Puppet Task", "input_method": "environment | stdin | powershell", "parameters": { "param1": { "description": "Description of the parameter usage", "type": "String | Enum | Pattern | Integer | Array | Hash | Boolean“ } } } BOLT WORKSHOP30
  29. 29. Bolt Task Input Methods • The chosen input method determines how variables are accessible in the script "input_method": "environment | stdin | powershell“ • environment: creates environment variable for each parameter as $PT_<variable> • stdin: creates a JSON hash of all parameters and passes it via stdin • powershell: creates a PowerShell named argument for each parameter • The default for Linux is environment and stdin • The default for Windows is powershell BOLT WORKSHOP31
  30. 30. BOLT WORKSHOP32 Lab Seven: Create and Run Bolt Task with Metadata
  31. 31. Lab Seven: Instructions (Parameterizing Tasks) 1. Retrieve timesync.json from http://bit.ly/vbolttimesyncjson 2. Retrieve upgraded timesync.ps1 from http://bit.ly/vbolttimesyncrestart • Adds a “Restart” Parameter • Adds an if statement restarting W32Time if Restart is passed 3. Copy timesync.json and timesync.ps1 to ./Boltdir/site/tools/tasks 4. Run bolt task show (Look, we have a description now!) 5. Run bolt task show tools::timesync 6. Run bolt task run tools::timesync -t windows restart=true BOLT WORKSHOP33
  32. 32. Writing Bolt Plans Bolt Plans can use all the previously covered capabilities, and more, in a single plan. It’s ideally suited to: • Orchestrate multiple tasks • Perform more complex logic & error handling, or interact with Puppet Enterprise • Combine command/scripts/Tasks with applying desired-state Puppet code • Plans are stored in a plans directory of a module and have a .pp extension • Plans must be name spaced according to their module & plan name BOLT WORKSHOP34
  33. 33. Writing Bolt Plans located in modules/my_mod/plans/my_plan.pp plan my_mod::my_plan( String[1] $load_balancer, TargetSpec $frontends, TargetSpec $backends ) { # process frontends run_task('my_mod::lb_remove', $load_balancer, frontends => $frontends) run_task('my_mod::update_frontend_app', $frontends, version => '1.2.3') run_task('my_mod::lb_add', $load_balancer, frontends => $frontends) } BOLT WORKSHOP35
  34. 34. Bolt Functions Puppet Task Plans are written in Puppet DSL, with extra plan-specific functions: BOLT WORKSHOP36 ● add_facts: Add Facts ● add_to_group: Grouping ● apply_prep: Install Agent ● facts: Gather Facts ● fail_plan: Fail Condition ● get_targets: Target Node ● puppetdb_fact: Facts ● puppetdb_query: PQL Query ● run_command: Run Shell ● run_plan: Run a Plan ● run_script: Run a Script ● run_task: Run a Task ● set_feature: Shell/PS/Agent ● set_var: Set a Variable ● upload_file: Upload a File ● vars: Returns Variables ● wait_until_available: Wait ● without_default_logging: Slim Logs And More: https://puppet.com/docs/bolt/latest/plan_functions.html
  35. 35. Bolt Plan with Functions plan loop( TargetSpec $targets ) { $targets = get_targets($targets) $certnames = $targets.map |$target| { $target.host } $targets.each |$target| { run_task('my_task', $target, certificate => $certnames[$target.host] ) } } BOLT WORKSHOP37
  36. 36. BOLT WORKSHOP38 Lab Eight: Create and Run a Bolt Plan
  37. 37. Lab 8: Instructions (Building a Plan) 1. Retrieve http://bit.ly/vbolttimesyncplan 1. Place timesync.pp in Boltdir/site/tools/plans (New Directory) 2. Run bolt plan show 3. Run bolt plan show tools::timesync 4. Run bolt plan run tools::timesync --targets windows BOLT WORKSHOP39
  38. 38. Desired State What Now? • So far, we’ve been using scripting approaches to fix time synchronization issues • But the script only works on Windows • If we also built a script for Linux, it wouldn’t look anything like the Windows one • We don’t *want* to keep running scripts on systems over and over • How would we know if we needed to run the script again? Would that even work? • Surely *someone* has solved this issue already, right?! BOLT WORKSHOP40
  39. 39. Desired State What Now? • To ensure Puppet modules are easy to use, the attributes a module supports for configuration often align closely to the technology the module manages. • Time synchronization on Linux and Windows are different enough that the attributes for one platform are difficult to understand on the other • It does not often happen that someone builds a fully cross platform module • A fully cross platform time synchronization module could still emerge at some point, it will just have to use more generic attributes for configuration and translate those to each platform as appropriate. • ^^^ Which is exactly what desired state configuration is all about! BOLT WORKSHOP43
  40. 40. BOLT WORKSHOP44 Lab Nine: Apply a Puppet Manifest
  41. 41. Lab Nine: Instructions (Applying Puppet Code) • Retrieve Plan manifest from http://bit.ly/timesyncmanifest and save it as timesync_windows.pp in your working directory (above Boltdir) • bolt apply timesync_windows.pp --targets windows NOTE: This lab will fail to complete: Could not find declared class windowstime is the proper error! BOLT WORKSHOP45
  42. 42. BOLT WORKSHOP47 Lab Ten: Apply a Puppet Manifest with a Puppetfile
  43. 43. Lab Ten: Instructions (Dependencies, the Puppetfile and You!) 1. Create boltworkshop/Boltdir/Puppetfile 1. Enter in dependencies: Stdlib, Registry, Windowstime and NTP # Modules from the Puppet Forge. mod 'puppetlabs-stdlib', '5.1.0' mod 'puppetlabs-registry', '2.1.0' mod 'ncorrare-windowstime', '0.4.3' mod 'puppetlabs-ntp', '7.3.0' 1. bolt puppetfile install 2. With the modules now installed, let’s try this again: bolt apply timesync_windows.pp --targets windows BOLT WORKSHOP48
  44. 44. BOLT WORKSHOP50 Lab Eleven: Cross Platform Plans
  45. 45. Lab Eleven: Instructions (Let’s get Multi-Platform!) 1. Retrieve http://bit.ly/vboltmultiplatform and place it in boltworkshop/Boltdir/site/tools/plans/timesync_code.pp 2. Run bolt plan run tools::timesync_code --targets windows,linux BOLT WORKSHOP51
  46. 46. Recap Time! We’ve now learned how with Puppet Bolt: • Commands, scripts, tasks, plans and manifests can be run with Puppet Bolt • What the natural progression of automation looks like • Turning interactive commands into scripts • Turning scripts into tasks • Turning tasks into plans • Leveraging existing desired state modules and manifests • Incorporating desired state code into plans BOLT WORKSHOP52
  47. 47. Connecting to Puppet Enterprise • To complete the automation journey, all that’s left to do is maturing into PE • Leverage PE to continuously & automatically enforce desired state code • Gain auditability in PE on Bolt Tasks, Task Plans and manifests • Use RBAC in PE to delegate permissions to other teams/coworkers • Connect Bolt to PE to gain direct control over PE-managed targets BOLT WORKSHOP53
  48. 48. BOLT WORKSHOP54 Bolt in the Wild
  49. 49. PUPPET OVERVIEW55

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