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It investment region presentation

  1. 1. IT Investment Region (ITIR) inPunjabConceptual Framework & AssessmentDecember 2010 e IQ I
  2. 2. Agenda Section 1 Our Understanding & Progress So Far 2 IT/ITeS Industry Overview 3 ITIR Policy 4 Benchmarking 5 ITIR Demand Assessment in Punjab 6 Site Delineation 7 Concept Plan 8 Management Structure 9 Way Forward 2Our Global Capabilities in Nuclear Energy
  3. 3. AgendaSection 1 SectionOur Understanding 1 Our Understanding & Progress So Far 3
  4. 4. ITIR in PunjabProgress So Far…1 Inception Report2 Conceptual Framework & Assessment3 Masterplan4 Viability Analysis5 Draft Final reportPage 4 Progress so far I
  5. 5. Agenda SectionSection 2 2 IT/ITeS Industry OverviewIT/ITeS Industry Overview Industry Structure Hardware Industry IT Services and Software Industry Competitive Advantages of Punjab
  6. 6. Industry StructureGlobal IT/ITeS IndustryHardware: 26 %MarketSize: 365 USD bilGrowth Rate: 9% (FY 08-09) IT Services & BPO: 57 % MarketSize: 786 USD bil Growth Rate: 3% (FY 08-09)Software: 17 %MarketSize: 229 USD bilGrowth Rate: 3% (FY 08-09) - IT Services occupies largest market share in the global IT/ITeS market - Hardware has the highest CAGR in this decade (about 30%) and has also witnessed fastest resurgence post the global economic meltdownPage 6 Source: NASSCOM report on Indian IT Industry, 2009 I
  7. 7. Hardware IndustryGlobal Overview and India’s Position CAGR (‘03-08): 1% CAGR (‘03-07): 12% India’s Position in Global Market Despite a marginal increase in global hardware 2003 2008 production (2003-08; CAGR 1%); India has witnessed an unprecedented boom in the sector -Share in global production increased from 0.4% 1.0% 0.4% to 1% (‘03-08) -CAGR: 20% (‘03-08)Page 7 Source: Electronics Corporation of India Global India I
  8. 8. Hardware IndustryIndia Overview and Punjab’s Position Structure of Indian Hardware Industry (Market Size in INR cr, (CAGR 2003-08) Consumer Electronics: 22.5 INR cr (10%) Industrial Electronics: 11.9 INR cr (17%) Strategic Electronics: 6.1 INR cr (20%) Computers: 16.4 INR cr (31%) Components: 9.5 INR cr (8%) Communication Equip: 14.3 INR cr (24%) Punjab’s Position in Indian Market Despite an overall growth in the sector, Punjab’s 2003 2008 contribution to national hardware production has dropped significantly (1.7% to 0.7%) 1.7% 0.7% This decline in share of national market is primarily owing to higher growth in other states including Maharashtra & KarnatakaPage 8 Source: Electronics Corporation of India India Punjab I
  9. 9. Hardware IndustryFuture Outlook 11% 22% - Post the very high growth period in the hardware/electronics sector (2004-10), growth is expected to be stabilized at a CAGR of 11% (2009-15).Page 9 Source: Electronics Corporation of India I
  10. 10. Software & ITeS IndustryGlobal Overview and India’s Position -4 % -0.1 % India’s Position in Global Market - Despite the slowdown in this sector due to 2006 2009 global economic meltdown in 2008, the industry is now back on a path of resurgence. 4% 6% India’s contribution to global industry has grown marginally from 4% to 6%Page 10 Source: NASSCOM report on Indian IT industry, 2009 Global India I
  11. 11. Software & ITeS IndustryIndia Overview and Punjab’s Position CAGR (’04-08) 22% Punjab’s Position in National Market - Despite an impressive growth in the industry 2004 2008 at a national level (CAGR: 22%), Punjab has not been able to leverage upon this growth. Its share in national market has declined from 1% 0.5% 1% to 0.5%Page 11 Source: NASSCOM report on Indian IT industry, 2009 India Punjab I
  12. 12. Software & ITeS IndustryFuture Outlook CAGR (’10-30) 17% - Punjab is expected to gather pace in the IT/ITeS segment over the next two decades. Government estimates an employment of 0.24 mil and 0.57 mil by 2020 & 2030 respectively.Page 12 Source: Punjab Infotech; IT/ITeS Strategy for the State I
  13. 13. Competitive Advantages of PunjabAvailability of Skilled Human Resources IT graduates in India ‘09 IT graduates in Punjab ‘09 - Punjab has a marginal share in the national IT workforce (about 2%) compared to leading States like Karnataka (10%) and Andhra Pradesh (9%) - Though Punjab has a sizeable IT resource pool in the form of 21,500 IT professionals every year; only 50% of these graduates are from accredited degree courses. - Punjab needs to focus on quality higher/technical education to be able to attract global IT giantsPage 13 I
  14. 14. Competitive Advantages of PunjabIT/ITeS Policy Attractiveness AP Kar Pun Guj Har Power Exemption from Exemption from Duty exemption Duty exemption Exemption from statutory cuts statutory cuts for 5 yrs for 5 yrs statutory cuts Stamp Duty / 100% N.A 100% exemption 100% exemption N.A Registration reimbursement Entry Tax N.A Exempted N.A N.A N.A FSI No restriction 50% relaxation FSI of 3.0 May allow 100% relaxation Policy Focus Attracting Attracting large IT Use IT as engine Integrated To transform investments to related for economic facilities Haryana into an Tier-II cities developments growth Focus of higher IT driven value-added economy by activities maximum facilitation Attractiveness High Medium Medium High MediumPage 14 Source: Data compiled from IT Policies of respective State Governments I
  15. 15. Competitive Advantages of PunjabPunjab vis-à-vis Other Key IT States Mohali ranks 5th Mohali ranks 3rd Mohali ranks 2nd Mohali ranks 2nd - Mohali fairs better than other emerging and established locations in terms of general cost of living and real estate costsPage 15 Source: Based on data compiled from CII Institute of Competitiveness I
  16. 16. Agenda SectionSection 3 3 ITIR PolicyITIR Policy Salient features of the policy Developments so far Page 16 I
  17. 17. ITIR PolicySalient Features of the Policy Feature Provision Area  Minimum 40  Minimum 40% Processing Area which may or may not be contiguous  May be a Greenfield or Brownfield development Types of Activity  IT/ITeS Permissible within  Electronic hardware manufacturing units Processing Area  Related logistics facilities Phasing Norms  Phase I to not exceed 20% of the total area  Suggested timeline for development: 15-20 yrs Proposed Management StructurePage 17 I
  18. 18. ITIR PolicyDevelopment So Far Bangalore (Approved) •42.5 – Devanhalli •2.5 lakh direct employment •55 companies have proposed to invest over Rs.12,353 cr Bhubaneshwar (Applied) •40 – Jatni- Khurda •2.3 lakh direct employment Chennai (planning stage) •40 – Tiruvallur Hyderabad (Applied) •202 – Shamshabad & Gachhibowli •15 lakh direct employmentPage 18 I
  19. 19. Agenda SectionSection 4 4 BenchmarkingBenchmarking Case Studies Key Development Parameters for ITIR Page 19 I
  20. 20. Benchmarking Development Scale and Concept Cyberjaya ITIR in Bangalore Sepang (Malaysia) Karnataka (India) AREA: 42.5 AREA: 28.32 CLOSEST CITY CENTER: Bangalore , 30 kms CLOSEST CITY CENTER: Kuala Lumpur, 50kmsPage 20 Site Scale of Punjab ITIR Primate City I
  21. 21. Benchmarking Land Use Distribution Cyberjaya ITIR in Bangalore Sepang (Malaysia) Karnataka (India)Page 21 I
  22. 22. Agenda SectionSection 5 5 ITIR Demand in PunjabITIR Demand in Punjab Broad Projections – Hardware Industry Broad Projections – ITeS & Software Industry Existing/Upcoming IT Developments in the State and Future Demand Page 22 I
  23. 23. IT/ITes Industry in Punjab Key Developments within Punjab Existing Proposed Tech Know ParkIT Park , Kapurthala IT Park Ropar IT Park – Sec 67 ELTOP Quark CITY SAS IT Park Saneta Nagar Sukhmanai Towers IT SEZ A Tech IT City Sukhram Infrastructure IT SEZ Lark Project IT SEZ GIKC Knowledge City Rajpura Shipra Estate Ltd. Yellow Stone Landmark Infocity IT Baran Sundran IT Park - About 85% of existing & proposed IT developments in Punjab are concentrated in & around GMADA Page 23 - Focus of ITIR would be consolidate the existing and upcoming IT developments in Punjab I
  24. 24. Demand Estimation for ITIR in PunjabKey AssumptionsKey Assumptions Sector Employment densityITes & Software 15 sq.m. per employeeHardware 150 employees per hectareSupport Logistics 120 employees per hectareOther Key FactorsAnnual output per employee (USD) - (Hardware and electronic) 73,000Projected Market Size of Indian Hardware Industry (2015) INR 790,000 croresProjected ITeS employment in Punjab as a% of India’s IT 1.1%employment (2020)Page 24 I
  25. 25. Demand Estimation for ITIR in PunjabITeS and Software 15 sq.m. per employeePage 25 * Punjab Infotech; IT/ITeS Strategy for the State I
  26. 26. Demand Estimation for ITIR in PunjabHardware 150 workers per hectarePage 26 * Electronics Corporation of India I
  27. 27. Demand Estimation for ITIR in PunjabIT/ITeS Space Demand in Punjab Component Total Demand (ac)ITeS and Software Industry 705Hardware Industry 2,318Support Logistics * 232TOTAL IT/ITeS + Logistics 3,256Support social amenities and utilities 2,664TOTAL IT/ITeS based area required in the State 5,920 - Additional Demand Total Demand 5,920 ac = 4,038 ac - Total additional IT space demand in the State by 2030 is 4,038 acPage 27 *As per industry standards Logistics = 10% of manufacturing space I
  28. 28. Demand Estimation for ITIR in Punjab Requirements of an ITIRTotal area for ITIR = 40 (9,885 ac) PA requirement = 40% of total area = 3954 ac - As per the ITIR policy, min. 40% of an ITIR area should be the Processing Area (~4,000 ac) - In line with other similar developments, IT/ITeS/Logistics space typically constitutes 55% of the total P.A Page 28 * Includes logistics = 10% of manufacturing space I
  29. 29. IT/ITes Industry in PunjabKey Developments within Mohali Cluster Total Area  PA  # Project Absorption (ac) (ac) Existing 2 1 IT Park  15 12 46% 3 5 1 2 ELTOP & Phase VIII 365 328 98% 8 6 3 Quark City 51 25 20% 1 Proposed 3 1 IT Park Saneta 44 26 Land acquisition under process 7 4 9 2 IT SEZ‐ Sukhmanai Towers  36 18 Formal approval 2 3 A Tech IT City 147 73.5 Formal approval IT SEZ ‐ Sukhram  4 43 21.5 Formal approval Infrastructure  Existing Proposed 5 IT SEZ  ‐ Lark Project 31 15.5 Formal approval - Based on the future demand 6 Knowledge City  1500 600 381 acre land acquired.  and existing concentration of IT 7 Shipra Estate Ltd. 50 25 In‐principle approval developments, it is Yellow Stone Landmark  8 220 110 Land acquired, infra dev started Infocity  recommended that proposedPage 29 ITIR be located within GMADA 9 Sundran IT Park 462 277 start I Land acquired , internal dev to 
  30. 30. IT/ITes Industry in PunjabFeasibility of Proposed ITIR Punjab Existing IT space Proposed IT space Additional demand Total 366 ac 1,516 ac 4,038 ac 5,920 ac ITIR Existing IT space Proposed IT space Additional demand Total (65% of the total additional demand in the State) 366 ac 710 ac 2,925 ac 4,000 ac - ITIR in Punjab, is proposed as: - Brownfield development within GMADA region - Including 1075 ac of ex/pr IT developments in the regionPage 30 I
  31. 31. Agenda SectionSection 6 6 Site DelineationSite Delineation Page 31 I
  32. 32. IT/ITeSSAS Nagar… An emerging IT/ITeS nerve centre SAS Nagar has emerged as an IT/ITeS nerve centre It is promoting the growth of IT industry and compatible infrastructure This IT hub in the State is becoming an increasingly preferred IT destination with greater investments in physical, research & innovation infrastructure. SAS Nagar is identified as the Study Area for the proposed ITIRPage 32 I
  33. 33. Potential Study Area Location Morinda To SirhindSAS Nagar district includes Lu dh i anMohali which is also part of a PR 9 la atiaTricity along with Panchkula (Haryana) To Pand Chandigarh (UT) BanurDue to increasing IT Activity in Tricityregion, area along it is chosen as abroad study area for ITIR RajpuraThe study area includes Mohali, (GIKC 1400 acres)Mullanpur, Zirakpur Derabassi andBanur To De lh I iPage 33
  34. 34. ITIR SAS Nagar… The Study Area PR 9 la atia To PPage 34 I
  35. 35. Page 35 I
  36. 36. Existing and proposed Road NetworkPage 36 I
  37. 37. Existing and proposed Metro and railway network MMTHPage 37 I
  38. 38. Air port influence zonePage 38 I
  39. 39. Water supply Network 40Page 39 Page 39 I
  40. 40. Water supply Network SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY Existing sources • Bore well – Pre-monsoon bgl 4.1m- 13.2m • Canal water – Bhakra main Possible Sources • Sutluj Yamuna Link Canal • Janta devi ki Rao and Patiala rao (seasonal rivulets) • Trunk infrastructure extension from MohaliPage 40 Page 40 I
  41. 41. Power Supply NetworkPage 41 I
  42. 42. Power Supply Network SOURCES OF POWER SUPPLY Existing sources • Guru Gobind SSTP of 1260 MW at Ropar • 400kV transmission line along Kharar Banur Road • 220kV transmission line connecting Mohali and Rajpura. Possible Sources • 1320 MW Thermal power plant at Rajpura • 1000 MW cycle gas basedPage 42 I thermal power plant at Ropar.
  43. 43. Agenda SectionSection 7 7 Concept PlanConcept Plan Page 43 I
  44. 44. ITIR Potential Zone in the Study Area Why?  Strategically located adjoining Kharar, Mullanpur, Mohali and Chandigarh Extension  Served by existing NHs, proposed GMADA expressway ring road and urban arterials extending from Mohali and Chandigarh  Kharar-Banur Road to emerge as IT and real estate development zone  Connectivity to key nodes of Ambala, Mohali, Chandigarh and other surrounding areas  Potential to act as a major economic hub for the future development goals of these cities Page 44 I
  45. 45. Potential ITIR Site Delineation Connectivity attribute for the Preferred site SITE SELECTION CRITERIA • Proximity to urban centers • Access to infrastructure • Proximity to international Airport • Proximity to logistic hubs • Availability of skilled manpower • Land availability and costPage 45 I
  46. 46. Potential ITIR Site Delineation Reconfiguration of preferred site with inclusion of existing and proposed IT activity SITE SELECTION CRITERIA • Emerging IT / ITeS capacity and potentialPage 46 I
  47. 47. Potential ITIR Site Delineation Social Infrastructure attribute of Preferred ITIR SitePage 47 I
  48. 48. Physical ITIR Site Delineation Land-use break-up of proposed GMADA Master Plan 2031 within proposed ITIR Site Existing land use area break up of GMADA Master plan within proposed ITIR site Land use in proposed ITIR % of Land Area allocated Mixed use 1+2 0.1% Commercial 4.7% Wholesale centre 1.1% Industry Technology and R&D 2.8% Industry and Warehouse 22.6% Institution and public buildings 11.8% Residential 38.5% Green 6.8% Roads 7.5% Villages 4.1% Total Area 100.00%Page 48 I
  49. 49. Physical ITIR Site Delineation Existing physical features and the existing and proposed infrastructure linkages Land Use Area in % Area available for development 66.4 Area under village settlements 9.5 Area under other land uses 18.9 Grasslands and orchards 3.9Page 49 Page 49 Area under Water bodies I 1.4
  50. 50. Proposed DevelopmentSWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses Proximity to Mohali as a well known destination Limited international standard globally giving a sense of comfort to the technical institutes and knowledge investors. centers in the area, however there are proposals of the upcoming Proximity to existing IT/ITeS industrial clusters in knowledge cities and research Mohali facilitated by existing residential and institutes that are envisioned to commercial clusters enhance the skilled labor quality in the region. Proximity to the proposed International Airport at Chandigarh. Good regional connectivity via existing National and State Highway infrastructure Potential for availability of power and water infrastructure around the proposed developmentPage 50 I
  51. 51. Proposed DevelopmentSWOT Analysis Opportunities Threats Numerous villages pose a challenge A global IT hub, and a model of sustainable to a successful retention and development with world class infrastructure. integration with the model industrial city development. The Investment Region development to reinforce the exisiting and growing IT/ITeS industrial base in The region falls in the earthquake high the Greater Mohali Region damage risk zone IV and a limited area is prone to flooding.. The proposed physical and social infrastructure comprising of Knowledge City Competition from other IT/ITeS, and an International Airport at Chandigarh, Knowledge city developments outside Multi Modal Transport Hub at Mohali together ITIR. with a Metro rail and BRT project improving connectivity in Chandigarh Tricity region is likely to attract IT/ITeS investors and boost growth of the IT/ITeS sector.Page 51 I
  52. 52. Processing and non-processing areas within proposed ITIR Site ITIR Area distribution Area (ac) Area ( % of total Processing Area 4050 16.4 40% Non-processing Area 6040 24.4 60% Total Area 10090 40.8 100%Page 52 I
  53. 53. Existing and proposed IT activity in the processing zone of the ITIR ITIR Area distribution Area (ac) Area ( % of total Processing Area 4050 16.4 40% Non-processing Area 6040 24.4 60% Total Area 10090 40.8 100%Page 53 I
  54. 54. Existing and proposed IT activity in the processing zone of ITIRExisting IT/ITeS projects within proposed ITIR site # Project Location Total Area (ac) Processing Area (ac) Absorption 1 IT Park Sector 67 Mohali 15 12 46% 2 ELTOP & Phase VIII Phase VIII, Mohali 365 328.5 98% 3 Quark City Sector 75 & 74, Mohali 51 25.5 20% TOTAL 431 366Proposed IT/ITeS projects within proposed ITIR site Processing # Project Location Total Area (ac) Status Area (ac) Land acquisition under 1 IT Park Saneta, Mohali 44 26.4 process Lark Project Pvt. Ltd. 2 (Formally Approved SEZ) Landran Mohali 31 15.5 Formal approval 3 Knowledge City Mohali 1500 600 381 acre land aquired. Yellow Stone Landmark Land aquired, infra dev 4 Infocity Sector 66A, Mohali 220 110 started TOTAL 1795 751.9Page 54 I
  55. 55. Residential and social infrastructure activity in the non-processing zone of the ITIR # Projects Location No of units. 1 Mohali Hills Sector 105, 108, 109, Mohali 1120 2 Pearl Residency Sector 107, Mohali 175 3 Ireo Rise Sector 99, Mohali 450Page 55 Page 55 I
  56. 56. Existing and proposed development in the processing and non-processing zone of the ITIRPage 56 I Page 56
  57. 57. Influence zones within processing / non-processing areaPage 57 I
  58. 58. Activity Mix in the Proposed ITIR Land use distribution within ITIR site as per GMADA Master Plan2031 in Acres Land use % of Proposed ITIR Industrial 2225 22% Residential 3732 37% Commercial 416 4% Social Infrastructure 808 8% 405 4% Utilities Roads 1816 18% Greens 688 7% TOTAL 10090 100%As per GMADA Master Plan 2031 residential land use may also include social infrastructure, utilities, green openspaces and small commercial pocketsPage 58 I
  59. 59. ITIR in Punjab is expected to generate an employment of about 585,000 and a captivepopulation of about 2.3 million % of Area GFA Captive Segment total FSI Workers/ha Employment (ac) (sq.m.) Pop area Total Industrial 2200 11,018,179 585,025 2,340,099 2400 ITeS & Software 22% 477 3 5,787,821 482,318 1,929,274 Hardware 71% 1567 1 150 4,754,871 95,098 380,394 Support Logistics 7% 157 1 120 475,487 7,608 30,432 With % of captive population Gross res den (pph) 100% 50% 25% 15% Recommended (UDPFI) 300 Residential area required (ha) 7800 3900 1950 1170 Residential area required ( 78 39 20 12 % of total ITIR area 195% 98% 49% 29%Page 59 I
  60. 60. Development parameters: covered area, height restrictions, FAR Recommende Land use FAR as per GMADA MP 2031 d FAR Industry/ Business Park Industry & Warehouse use 1.0 0.75 Business parks & IT Parks 2.0 3.0 Institutions 1.0 1.5 Residential Detached dwellings 1.65 1.65 Group Housing 1.75 2.0 Mega Residential Townships AS PER PUDA 2.0 Mixed Use Mixed use 1 2.5 2.5 Mixed use 2 2.5 3.0Page 60 I
  61. 61. Development parameters: covered area, height restrictions, FAR‘Airport Funnel’ height restrictions• Chandigarh Airport is abutting ITIR site and hence some part of the site will have building height restrictions due to aviation norms.Page 61 I
  62. 62. Development parameters: covered area, height restrictions, FAR Development along Urban Arterials • Majority of IT/ITes activity and commercial as well as mixed use will be aligned to urban arterials. • With FAR ranging from 2.5 to 3 urban arterials will have high-rise high density developmentPage 62 I
  63. 63. Development parameters: covered area, height restrictions, FAR Town Centres • Sector 87 is identified as a Town centre / CBD in GMADA Master plan. • This area is expected to have mix of activities related to social infrastructure such as recreational, leisure and retail areas along with commercial and residential buildings • FAR 2.5 to 3Page 63 I
  64. 64. Development parameters: covered area, height restrictions, FAR Knowledge and research Clusters • Key central component of the project • Conceptually acts a gateway Provides a brand identity to the development • Medium density – medium rise – 5 floors • Signature buildings – 7/8 floors • FAR 1.5 – 2.5Page 64 I
  65. 65. Development parameters: covered area, height restrictions, FARIT/ITeS Clusters• Corporate business park / commercial office environment provides a brand identity to the development• Higher employment density and higher development density• Mid rise 5-10 stories or higher depending on demand• A high quality outdoor environment that constitutes mixed use development, areas for passive and active recreation, multi-modal transportation system opportunities and international street design standards• FAR upto 3Page 65 I
  66. 66. Agenda SectionSection 8 8 Management StructureManagement Structure Page 66 I
  67. 67. ITIR in Punjab Management Structure – Institutional framework Pre approval stage ►State Government - to identify a suitable site (preferably non-agricultural land), prepare the proposal and seek approval as per prescribed procedure ►Department of Information Technology (DIT) - nodal department of the Government of India for the ITIR. ►Nodal department of State Government (herein Punjab Infotech) - responsible to facilitate all clearances required from the State Government. ►The state government / developer would also provide social infrastructure such as residential, education, health, local commercial, recreational, socio-cultural and entertainment facilities Approval process of ITIR Application + Verification of Project Application proposal for for approval of Recommendations of approval of Department of ITIR + Project High Powered HPC & Note on Cabinet ITIR proposal proposed ITIR State Information Committee Committee onGovernment Technology (HPC) Economic (DIT) Affairs (CCEA) Notification of ITIR Approval on ITIR Page 67 I
  68. 68. ITIR in Punjab Management Structure – Institutional frameworkPost approval stage►State Level Empowered Committee (ITIR-SLEC): ► Supervisory board ► Will constitute of political members such as Cabinet ministers, concerned area MLAs, MPs and others.►Apex authority headed by the Chief Minister with state level cabinet ministers ► Responsible for the overall monitoring of the SLEC.►Management board to be set up by the State Government ► Shall prepare a detailed Master plan ► Grant approvals to the proposals for setting up units in the ITIR►Project specific Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) ► Implement individual project components viz. Industrial Areas/SEZs, Roads, Power, Ports, Airports etc►Central Government ► Facilitate setting up of higher educational & research facilities such as IIIT with the assistance of MHRD►Once the ITIR attains the threshold population, a separate Urban local body (ULB) may be constituted, if necessary.Page 68 I
  69. 69. ITIR in Punjab Management Structure – Institutional framework Management structure of ITIR State Government State level Empowered Committee (SLEC) State-level Coordination Entity/ Nodal Management Board Agency Project Specific Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) (For Projects viz. Ports, Airports, Roads, Industrial Areas, Power etc)Page 69 I
  70. 70. Agenda SectionSection 7 9 Way ForwardWay Forward Page 70 I
  71. 71. IT/ITes Industry in PunjabWay Forward1 Inception Report2 Conceptual Framework & Assessment 2 months3 from Masterplan approval of Conceptual Framework4 Viability Analysis5 Draft Final reportPage 71 I