MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEMS
The development of material handling system to move materials from one stage of production to another is very
important. Materials handling includes moving, packaging, and storing all the materials used by the production unit.
Materials handling is one of the important activities in materials management and also in production. In fact, the story
of production is essentially the story of materials in motion.
Materials are received by rail or truck. It is moved into the plant and thereafter to the storeroom. When material is
needed, it is moved along the path of assembly. Plant layout and materials handling are closely inter-related. This
statement is true as materials handling activity needs to be adjusted as per the layout of the plant.
The different kinds of equipments which are used in a storeroom can be broadly classified into two categories, viz,
storing equipments and material handling equipments. A judicious selection of different store equipments is a key to the
successful operation of a storeroom.
The commonly used equipments in a storeroom are as follows:
Pallets and skids
Special storage racks
Gravity feed racks
Outdoor platforms and racks
Open and closed shelves
The selections of the equipments shall be governed by the size, shape, other physical characteristics and the extent of
preservation required. Open type 01 shelving should be preferred for easy accessibility unless the nature of the item
needs closed storage equipment. The selection of materials for racks etc., i.e wood or steel should be carefully done. The
steel equipment of ‘knock down’ variety that can be assembled and reassembled in different forms in numerous
standardized shapes and sizes offer more flexibility. Steel equipment has advantages of strength, cleanliness and fire
Material Handling Equipments:
The common type of material handling equipment used in stores is as follows:
A well designed materials handling system attempts to achieve the following:
(i) Improve efficiency of a production system by ensuring the right quantity of materials delivered at the right place at
the right time most economically.
(ii) Cut down indirect labour cost.
(iii) Reduce damage of materials during storage and movement.
(iv) Maximise space utilization by proper storage of materials and thereby reduce storage and handling cost.
(v) Minimise accident during materials handling.
(vi) Reduce overall cost by improving materials handling.
(vii) Improve customer services by supplying materials in a manner convenient for handlings.
(viii) Increase efficiency and saleability of plant and equipment with integral materials handling features. The selection of
the material handling equipment depends upon the size, shape and weight of the items, the location of the item in the
HYDRAULIC SCISSOR-LIFT TABLES
These are used for loading and unloading heavy materials like tools, die, etc. These are also used as goods lift for
transporting of goods and raw materials from ground level to finish first floor level. They are driven by electric-operated
1. Heavy materials like compressors can be easily transported.
2. Human labour can be reduced as the machine handles heavy materials and tools such as internal parts of air
3. A single machine can do the work which otherwise would need many workers to handle the materials manually.
4. Lifts are designed for uniform distributed loads from 500 kg to 12000 kg (0.5T TO 12 T).
5. As per customer specification with / with out roller table & hand rails.
6. Lift travel/stroke: up to 2000 mm.
7. Single/double acting cylinders, with built in hose burst safety valve at rear end port of each cylinder. The internal
bore is honed & Piston rod is ground, hard chrome plated with good quality seals
8. Electro hydraulic power pack is specially designed meet the required speed of lift and load. Hand operated
pump can be supplied for smaller capacity & trolley mounted scissor lifts.
9. Complete electrical control panel with multiple options to your requirements.
10. Hose burst valve is integral part of the lift cylinders, followed by electrical limit switches & mechanical stopper.
Flaws in operations:
It is an costly material handling equipment.
It requires more electricity.
It can deliver the goods only at a particular point of the floor thus restricting the mobility.
Batteries do wear out and they are costly to replace.
Hydraulic hoses can deteriorate or have loose fittings resulting in fluid leakage problems.
Electronic controls can be at the end of their useful life and need replacing.
MANUALLY OPERATED STACKER
These are used for loading and unloading heavy material from trucks. Also loading heavy dies on the press machines.
These are operated hydraulically. These are fabricated from steel channels for strength. Without bending they can lift
It can easily lift bulky materials.
Safe ergonomic alternative to fork lift trucks at a fraction of cost.
They can be shifted anywhere in the shop.
By hydraulic pump they lift or lower the material.
It is relatively mobile.
It is engineered for smooth operation and outstanding durability.
Hard chromed, polished pistons that are resistant to rust, scratches and wear.
Double sealed high pressure polyurethane oil seals to ensure long life of the hydraulic.
Flaws in Operations:
1. It is operated manually.
2. The ability to lift materials depends upon manual strength.
3. Hydraulic needs proper and timely maintenance.
HYDRAULIC PALLET TRUCKS
1. Quick lift pumps design.
2. Ultra-urethane wheels and sealed dual-precision ball bearings require less than 75 lbs pulling force at full
3. Hydraulic pump includes overload and upper limit relief valve.
4. Include two steering wheels and two front load rollers.
5. Steering wheels include bearing dust covers, providing longer life.
6. Spring-loading loop handle automatically returns to vertical position when not in use.
7. Low Maintenance.
8. Maximum Maneuverability.
9. Silent in operation.
10. No Oil Leakage.
11. Durability, efficiency and long life service.
12. Various shapes and sizes based on the customer requirement.
13. Developed using advanced technology and superior quality raw material.
Flaws in operations:
1. It cannot be used to lift heavy materials.
2. The capacity to lift materials is also less.
Choosing the right industrial casters or heavy duty casters is extremely important in the shipping or storage fields as well
as other work environments where manual labor and hauling are a part of daily life. If you select a caster that accounts
for productivity, capacity, safety, ergonomics, surface protection and rollability, you are doing yourself and your
employees a service. Casters can greatly increase the efficiency of workers by minimizing the potential for work related
injuries. In reducing work strain and physical pressure, wheel casters increase productivity of employees.
While physical advantages in the office setting are less dramatic, light duty casters or office chair casters do increase
employee productivity by allowing for greater motility. In addition, caster wheels, particularly rubber wheel casters, are
ideal for heavy office equipment, work tables, cabinets, service carts and copiers as well as office chairs.
These are made with the pressed thick steel base. These make the equipments easy to maneuvering the equipment.
They have thrust bearing for easy movements. Rubber or polyurethane material is used for low load capacity
They can be used in office chairs for easy rotation
They can be used in tables to easily move them from one place to another.
They cost less than other equipments.
They are versatile to be used for all moving material carrying equipments.
Caster wheels are also essential on many dollies and handcarts.
Increase employee productivity by allowing for greater motility.
Good resistant to water
Flaws in operations:
1. They are limited to movements of material.
2. They can be only used in chairs, tables, etc.
3. No other special utility can be found rather than the above mentioned.
Different types of ladders are required in stores are for the purpose of replacing the material or removing the material
at high level points. They are of different types as per the requirements they are used.
Wall supporting extendable ladder
Self supporting extendable ladder
Trolley based strong ladder, with solid steel base. The safety locks are provided.
1. Normally the ladders are made up of thick aluminium sections.
2. This makes then light in weight, non-rusting, and rust proof.
3. Safety locks, rubber shoes, ropes, pulleys and castor locks are provided for ease of movements.
Flaws in operations:
1. One must be careful while climbing an heighted ladder
2. It cannot be used for handling equipments.
3. It can be only used for installing fans and integral wiring.
STANDALONE JIB CRANES
Jib Cranes are part of a comprehensive Workstation Lifting Systems product line that provide productivity and safety
enhancements through the use of ergonomic workstation solutions that include enclosed steel and aluminum track
profiles, jib cranes, vertical column lifters, electric chain hoists, Air Balancers and end effectors. They are used for
loading and controlling in the areas that are generally inaccessible to other material handling equipments. They are
designed to provide reliable, long-life performance with minimum maintenance.
1. It provides 360o rotation.
2. The arm length or size can be decided on the basis of load capacity.
3. Maximum hook height available at full load is 3000mm and inner boom can be adjusted for a higher lift up to
3950mm at a lesser load.
4. It can be designed according to its application.
5. It is quite easy to install.
6. Perform a multitude of functions within a work area.
7. Cantilever type boom allows maximum hoist lift.
8. Available with motor operated boom.
Flaws in operation:
1. Mobility is restricted as it is fixed at a particular point.
2. It needs more room space.
3. It requires skilled workmen unlike other material handling equipments.
A Forklift truck is a powered industrial truck used to lift and transport materials. A forklift hydraulics are controlled with
either levers directly manipulating the hydraulic valves or by electrically controlled actuators, using small “finger” levers
for control. It is available in many variations and load capacities.
1. It is useful for lifting heavy materials like heavy component of a machine or a finished product which is heavily
2. It has mobility or movement
3. It reduced human labour as it helps to transport materials from storage racks to trucks.
4. The fork can be adjusted and has an up-down movement feature that enables to lift the materials
Flaws in operations:
Forklifts require a daily inspection for proper operation.
Daily checks should include wheels, brakes, forks, chains, hydraulics, steering, horn, and fuel.
Forklifts with engines should be checked for coolant and engine oil levels.
When checking and servicing batteries, proper personal protective equipment should be worn.