ASSIGNMENT - 07
BUILDING CONST. IV
TOPIC : FLOORING
SUBMITTED BY:SUBMITTED TO:
->B.ARCH 3rd YR , 5th SEM.
-> Ar. SURJEET SINGH
2. TYPES OF FLOORING
3. P.C.C FLOORING
4. CONSTRUCTION OF PCC FLOORING
5. P.V.C. FLOORING
6. INSTALLATION OF P.VC.
9. INSTALLATION OF TILES
10. WOODEN FLOORING
11. STONE FLOORING
12. TERRAZO FLOORING
13. BRICK FLOORING
14. GLASS FLOORING
15. PRE CAST PAVING
Flooring is the general term for a permanent covering
of a floor, or for the work of installing such a floor
covering. Both terms are used interchangeably but floor
covering refers more to loose-laid materials.
Floor covering is a term to generally describe any finish
material applied over a floor structure to provide a
Materials almost always classified as floor covering
include carpet area rugs, and resilient flooring such
as linoleum or vinyl flooring. Materials commonly
called flooring include wood flooring, laminated
wood, ceramic tile, stone, terrazzo, and various
seamless chemical floor coatings.
STEPS OF FLOORING
BASE- Lay Base Coat Of 100 Mm Thick In The Ratio Of Cement Concrete
1:8:16 ( 1 Part Of Cement, 8 Parts Of Fine Sand And16 Parts Of Brick
Blast) Or 1:4:8 On Compacted Earth Under The Floor. The base is same for all types of floors.
FINSHING- Then finishing of the floor is carried on, for different flooring materials . As we
will discuss here the brick and stone finishing of terrazzo, cement concrete floor .
TYPES OF FLOORING
PLAIN CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORING
Used for residential, commercial and industrial building.
The floor consists of two components – The two
components of the floor can be constructed either
monolithically or non-monolithically.
Base course may be 7.5 to 10 cm thick. It may be either in
lean cement concrete (1 : 3 : 6 or 1 : 5 : 10) or lime
concrete containing 40% mortar of 1 : 2 lime-sand and
60% coarse aggregate. The topping is then laid in square or
rectangular panels of size 1X1 or 2X2 or 1X2 m. It consists
of 1 : 2 : 4 cement concrete.
CONSTRUCTION OF CEMENT CONCRETE FLOOR
First properly compact the earth in the plinth. While
compacting, care has to be taken that a proper slope as
required for the floor is provided.
Over this compacted earth filling, uniformly spread a layer of
clean coarse sand about 10 to 15 cm thick.
A base concrete of grade M10 (1 cement : 3 sand : 6 coarse
aggregate) is then laid over the sand layer in the required
slope and tamped properly. The thickness of base concrete is
generally 100 mm.
Level the top of the base concrete and left it to set and
Thoroughly clean the surface upon hardening.
Divide the top of the floor into panels, rectangular or square
in shape, by using glass or other strips. The area of the
panels should preferably less than 2 square meters.
After completion of the paneling, moist the top of the base
concrete and apply cement slurry on it.
Over this cement slurry, provide a layer of cement concrete
of grade M15 (1 cement : 2 sand : 4 coarse aggregate) of
required thickness (say 40 mm).
Tamp the top surface thoroughly to compact it and use
wooden floats to obtain a smooth surface. The surface so
obtained is cured for about 10 days before putting it to use
Vinyl composition tile (VCT) is a finished flooring material
used primarily in commercial and institutional
Vinyl tiles are composed of colored vinyl chips formed
into solid sheets of varying thicknesses (1/8” is most
common) by heat and pressure and cut into 12”
Tiles are applied to a smooth, leveled sub-floor using a
specially formulated vinyl adhesive that remains tacky but
does not completely dry.
Tiles are typically waxed and buffed using special
This flooring product is mostly used in INTERIOR Work
and also photo laborites, airport, drg. Room, bedroom,
offices water proof used in bathrooms.
MATERIALS NEEDED FOR THE JOB
PVC OR VINYL FLOORING
1. Vinyl tiles
4. Tape measure
5. Utility knife
6. Self-leveling compound
9. Chalk line
INSTALLING VINYL FLOOR
Vinyl floor tiles one of the most versatile floors
available . It is quiet and warm underfoot, easy to
clean like other hard surfaces. It is great around
water easy in installing.
Step 1- Measure the Floor
Step 2- Prepare the Room
Step 3- Center the Tile
Step 4- Cut to Fit
Step 5- Finish Up
PVC FLOORING BENEFITS
One of the main benefits of vinyl flooring is that it is easy to install and cost effective and durable as well.
The maintenance cost as well as effort is quite low.
Vinyl flooring is that it is water resistant and provides a great support to the feet.
It is attractive in appearance.
This type of flooring is quick to install and replace, so you can change it as and when you so desire,
without much difficulty.
Because of the wide variety available in the market today, you can choose any products.
You can indulge in regular vacuuming of
your vinyl floor, to keep it free of dirt.
Using a polish, which has been specifically made for such type of
Do not use any abrasive scrubbing tools for cleaning a vinyl floor
Never ever use detergents
Miles are often used to form wall or floor coverings,
and can range from simple square tiles to complex
Tiles are most often made from
ceramic with a hard glaze finish , but other
materials are also commonly used as such glass,
marble , granite , slate and reformed ceramic
Remove any baseboards and shoe molding.
Level the subfloor and install the underlayment.
Spread the adhesive with the smooth side of the trowel. Make sure it covers the area evenly and does not
cover your reference lines.
Lightly press and twist the ceramic when setting to make sure the adhesive sticks. Don't push so hard that
the adhesive is forced out from under the ceramic.
Once a row is in place, level the tile with a rubber
mallet and level.
Grouting and finishing Touches
Types of tiles:
Variety of marble available is tremendous:
Albeta, Dungri, Aranga, Kumari, Chak dungri.
Costliest and best marble is the
Makrana white: Very soft, snow white
and high quality finishing.
Chittor brown, Jaisalmer Yellow, Udaipur
green, Baroda green, Teak Grain marble,
White base marble price ranges from
Rs.30/- to Rs.400/- sq. ft.
Many types and colors of granite.
Durable and natural with visible
Expensive as compares to marble.
ardest type of stone- very difficult
to cut and polish
Once polished gives a mirror finish
Can resist a lot of wear and tear.
Available in 20 mm thick slabs and 9
mm thick tiles.
Places in India – Rajasthan, Jhansi,
Black granite from Bangalore
Resistant to wearing, discoloring or fading.
Rugged and rustic yet cool and charming
Easily washable with water and soap.
Less expensive than good marble.
Kota stones are fine-grained naturally available limestone.
Quarried at Kota district of Rajasthan, India, it is one of the most
preferred building stone for exteriors, driveways, pathways,
corridors, balconies, etc.
It also finds its application in flooring of chemical industries for its
inertness towards a large number of chemicals.
Kota Stones have wide application in exterior works for its non-porous, non-absorbent, tough
and homogenous properties and is an excellent building stones for both humid and freezing
Availability of the stones in slab and tile form makes it convenient to achieve different pattern
Unlike granite or marble Kota stone slabs are not available in bigger sizes. This is because of its
On a longer run Kota stones flakes out. However if well maintained and polished regularly the
flaking of stones can be intercepted to a greater extent.
The finished surface is not as glossy or luminous as that of marble and granite
Ensure that the tiles are of regular shape
Base mortar 1:5 or 1:6 with low water cement ratio.
Min. thickness of base mortar is 25mm
Fix the marble tiles temporarily then press it using wooden handle of the hammer to bring them in a level.
After fixing them in pattern remove the tiles and spread white cement slurry(2:1) and refix the tiles.
Press with wooden handle.
Fill up joints with white cement.
First grinding min. after 5 days of fixing.
Apply white cement slurry over marble floor after first
grinding and cure for a day.
Minimum 3 grindings required.
KOTA AND SANDSTONE
Terrazzo is a composite material, poured in place or
precast, which is used for floor and wall treatments. It
consists of chips of marble, quartz, granite, glass, or other
suitable material, poured with a cementitious binder (for
chemical binding), polymeric (for physical binding), or a
combination of both. Terrazzo is a concrete surface with
special aggregate of marble chips(or other decorative
material) mixed with white or colored cement in proportion
of 3:1(three marble chips : one cement).
Terrazzo is concrete containing marble chipping as an
aggregate. Terrazzo mixture is made up of cement and
marble chips in different proportions.
First of all, a concrete bed is formed as a base course which
is covered by tarred paper. Over this, a layer of rich mortar is
spread. This mortar bedding is struck off about 1 to 1.5 cm
below the finished floor level.
After that metal dividing strips of 20 gauges in thickness are
inserted into the mortar base and the terrazzo covering.
After the mortar base has hardened the terrazzo mixture is
placed at the top level of the dividing strips.
After the terrazzo mixture has hardened the surface is
ground by hand or by a machine.
After cutting we use waxing for glazing floor.
STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION
Terrazzo flooring consists of
(1) Concrete bed,
(2) Mortar bed, 1 cm of cement mortar (cement sand mixture 1:3),
(3) Metal strips,
(4) Marble cheeps 3 to 6mm.
Brick products have been used for many centuries throughout the world for
applications such as roads, flooring, monuments, side walks and building structures.
Bricks are considered to be the oldest manufactured building material that has
been trusted throughout history because of its durability, versatility and
Here in india standard size of brick is used in flooring which is used in wall
SOME PATTERNS FOR BRICK FLOORING
There are various reasons for the benefits that brick flooring products
provide in visual terms, their strength and ability and their practical
purposes. Here are some of the benefits of brick flooring provide when
used as paving.
They provide elegance and
character with the old world look rustic charm
They are fade resistant
They resist wear and tear
They are slip resistant
They are recycled products, so you are helping the environment
They are very durable with long lasting attributes
They are fire resistant
They are maintenance free
They will not crack or chip
Glass floors are made with transparent glass when it is useful to view something from above or below;
whereas is used when there is no need to view through. In either case, transparent glass is usually chosen,
for its durability and resistance to breakage
Glass as a flooring material is used in both
residential and commercial structures. Special hollow
glass block known as '"glass pavers”.
Floor panels are constructed of laminate layers of tempered, annealed, or heat- strengthened
Laminated glass flooring requires a rigid support with a deflection of L/500
Glass flooring is very expensive to replace once installed
To maintain the aesthetic beauty of glass flooring, it is important to keep the panel clean. A
soft, clean, non-abrasive cloth and a mild detergent, or non-abrasive glass cleaning solution is
suitable for cleaning.
After cleaning, rinse immediately with clean water and remove any excess water from the panel
surface. Do not use abrasive cleaners, bleach, scouring powder or pads which can scratch and
damage glass flooring.
Minimum support depth should be 20-30mm. joints should be more than 4mm.wide joints used
PRE CAST PAVING
PCPSs are long-term pavement repair treatments best suited to
heavily trafficked areas that have a high cost for lane closures
All PCPSs include methods for precast production,
transportation and ensuring the panel is properly bedded to the
There are both jointed and unjointed slabs along with
prestressed and non-prestressed systems.
ADVANTAGES OF PRE CAST PAVING
The greatest advantage of PCPSs is their ability to meet
municipalities’ traffic mitigation goals.
The second-biggest advantage to using PCPSs is precast
concrete’s proven durability.
PCPS are designed to last, with the same criteria as new
roller-compacted concrete construction that has an expected
lifespan in excess of 50 years.
The material’s precision and quality are derived from the
plant-controlled conditions of the precast facility.
Internal quality-control inspection and testing assure a high-
Precast concrete pavers have been in the limelight for quite a
These pavers are the popular choice among architects and
landscape designers because of their flexibility and variety.
Sand, gravel, pebbles and cement are the basic raw materials
for making precast concrete pavers.
ADVANTAGES OF PRE CAST PAVERS
First, concrete is a durable material and is said to last for
over 100 years! That’s a really long time.
Second, compared to other materials, the strength of
concrete develops over time making it suitable to bear heavy
loads and structures.
Third, precast concrete requires minimum maintenance.
Precast concrete pavers are versatile, flexible and easy to
They are the perfect materials to add a dash of life to any
dull living space.
CONSTRUCTION PRECAST PAVEENT