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Emerging IdentifiersEverything You Wanted To Know But        Were Afraid To Ask
International Standard Text IdentifierISTC
What It Is• A 16-digit alphanumeric code  (ex. 0A32009012445C9B)
What It’s For• Identifies “textual works” regardless of how they  are published  –   Prose  –   Lyrics (words only)  –   P...
How Is This Different From an ISBN?• ISBNs identify specific editions  – Paperback  – Hardcover  – ePub  – PDF  – Large pr...
How ISTC Works                  New Moon, by Stephenie Meyer                     ISTC: 0A32009012445C9                    ...
What It’s Not For• Abridged Editions• Annotated Editions• Compilations• Critical Editions• Excerpts• Expurgated/Edited Edi...
Why Not Give Them The Same               Number?• ISTC is not a “work ID”• It only identifies text strings• The manifestat...
Back Down Here On Planet Earth• “New Moon” the movie script contains  different words than “New Moon” the novel.  So diffe...
But What If I Want To Relate Them?• Metadata allows for “Source ISTC”• Allows linkages between the derivation and  the ori...
We Store Both
International Standard Name IdentifierISNI
What It Is• Another 16-digit identifier: A 15-digit numeric  identifier, plus a check digit (which could be an  X)
What It’s For• Names
Names?WHAT DOES THAT EVEN MEAN?
Public Identities• A person’s public identity (Madonna vs  Madonna Louise Ciccone)• A company name (Random House)• A ficti...
Why?• Two authors with the same name  – Thomas Wolfe – “You Can’t Go Home Again”  – Tom Wolfe – “Bonfire of the Vanities”•...
What About Pseudonyms/Aliases?• They get separate ISNIs because they are  separate public identities  – Ruth Rendell vs Ba...
How Will It Help?• Search results  – Distinguishing the books of authors who are truly    different people  – Gathering to...
Digital Object IdentifierDOI
What Is It?• A dumb number (there’s no reliable meaning in  the digits)• A prefix and a suffix separated by a slash  – 10....
What Is It For?• Stuff• No, really…anything you want, so long as it’s in  a networked environment  – Book: doi:10.2345/978...
What Does It Do?• It…RESOLVES.
Ummm…WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?
It Helps You Find Things• Persistence  – URLs change. DOIs don’t. If the author website uses a    DOI, it can get moved…bu...
HOW???• Once again, the identifier identifies. The  metadata describes.  – The identifier tells the DOI system that a thin...
Who’s Using This Thing?•   Journals publishers•   The military•   Libraries•   STM publishers•   Other publishers who are ...
How Would I Use It?• Resolve an ISBN simultaneously to the  purchase page, the author website, and an  excerpt• Resolve an...
The DOI Helps You Upsell• Additional material• Related products   –   Other books   –   T-shirts   –   Games and toys   – ...
Questions?• Laura.Dawson@bowker.com
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Publishing Technology Executive Exchange Dec 2012 L. Dawson Emerging Identifiers

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At Publishing Technology's Fall 2012 Executive Exchange customer event, Bowker Product Manager Laura Dawson introduces the ISTC (International Standard Text Identifier), ISNI (International Standard Name Identifier), and DOI (Digital Object Identifier), how they all work and increase product and content discoverability .

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Publishing Technology Executive Exchange Dec 2012 L. Dawson Emerging Identifiers

  1. 1. Emerging IdentifiersEverything You Wanted To Know But Were Afraid To Ask
  2. 2. International Standard Text IdentifierISTC
  3. 3. What It Is• A 16-digit alphanumeric code (ex. 0A32009012445C9B)
  4. 4. What It’s For• Identifies “textual works” regardless of how they are published – Prose – Lyrics (words only) – Poetry – Screenplays – Audio scripts (radio, podcast) – Stage scripts – Other scripts (sermons, speeches, presentations, lectures)
  5. 5. How Is This Different From an ISBN?• ISBNs identify specific editions – Paperback – Hardcover – ePub – PDF – Large print• ISTCs identify the original expression – One ISTC can be related to many ISBNs
  6. 6. How ISTC Works New Moon, by Stephenie Meyer ISTC: 0A32009012445C9 Trade Paperback ISBN: ePub ISBN:Hardcover ISBN: 9780123456790 97801234567789780123456789
  7. 7. What It’s Not For• Abridged Editions• Annotated Editions• Compilations• Critical Editions• Excerpts• Expurgated/Edited Editions• Non-text material added (enhanced ebooks)• Revised editions• TranslationsThese are called derived works, and each gets its own ISTC.
  8. 8. Why Not Give Them The Same Number?• ISTC is not a “work ID”• It only identifies text strings• The manifestations (editions) must each have the identical text string to get an ISTC• Thus, translations, abridgements, etc. have separate ISTCs than the original work
  9. 9. Back Down Here On Planet Earth• “New Moon” the movie script contains different words than “New Moon” the novel. So different ISTCs.• “Luna Nueva”, the Spanish edition, contains different words than either the movie or the novel. So different ISTCs.
  10. 10. But What If I Want To Relate Them?• Metadata allows for “Source ISTC”• Allows linkages between the derivation and the original• Identifiers identify; metadata describes• All derivations of “New Moon” can be related by using “New Moon” the novel’s ISTC as a Source ISTC in the metadata.
  11. 11. We Store Both
  12. 12. International Standard Name IdentifierISNI
  13. 13. What It Is• Another 16-digit identifier: A 15-digit numeric identifier, plus a check digit (which could be an X)
  14. 14. What It’s For• Names
  15. 15. Names?WHAT DOES THAT EVEN MEAN?
  16. 16. Public Identities• A person’s public identity (Madonna vs Madonna Louise Ciccone)• A company name (Random House)• A fictional character (Sherlock Holmes)The ISNI identifies these names.
  17. 17. Why?• Two authors with the same name – Thomas Wolfe – “You Can’t Go Home Again” – Tom Wolfe – “Bonfire of the Vanities”• One author, variant spellings/transliterations – Fyodor Dostoevsky – Fedor Dostoyevski
  18. 18. What About Pseudonyms/Aliases?• They get separate ISNIs because they are separate public identities – Ruth Rendell vs Barbara Vine – Stephen King vs Richard Bachmann – David Johansen vs Buster Poindexter• The metadata in each record refers to the other ISNI, and describes the relationship between them
  19. 19. How Will It Help?• Search results – Distinguishing the books of authors who are truly different people – Gathering together the books of an author with multiple ways of spelling his name – Keeping the books of pseudonyms distinct and separate• All of which means that customers find the exact right book
  20. 20. Digital Object IdentifierDOI
  21. 21. What Is It?• A dumb number (there’s no reliable meaning in the digits)• A prefix and a suffix separated by a slash – 10.1000/123456 – The number 10 prefixes all DOIs – The number after the 10 refers to the original registration agency (though ownership of the object itself can change) – The suffix is the ID of the object – a book, a journal article, a website
  22. 22. What Is It For?• Stuff• No, really…anything you want, so long as it’s in a networked environment – Book: doi:10.2345/978123456789 (yep, that’s an ISBN in there – you can use other identifiers in DOIs) – Article: doi:10.2233/66r97q – Author website: doi:10.0033/ISNI 1233 4566 7899 1111 2 (Use the ISNI!)
  23. 23. What Does It Do?• It…RESOLVES.
  24. 24. Ummm…WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?
  25. 25. It Helps You Find Things• Persistence – URLs change. DOIs don’t. If the author website uses a DOI, it can get moved…but people will always be able to find it.• Multiple Resolution – Sometimes a thing (a chapter) resides in more than one place on the web. A single DOI can send a person to the multiple places where that thing lives. – Sometimes a thing (a book) has more than one component (a chapter, an author biography, the book itself). A single DOI can direct a person to each of these components.
  26. 26. HOW???• Once again, the identifier identifies. The metadata describes. – The identifier tells the DOI system that a thing exists. – The metadata tells the DOI system what that thing is, where it lives, and how to get to it. – Even if the metadata changes, the DOI remains the same. (Think of the price of an ebook. The price goes up, the ISBN is still the same.)
  27. 27. Who’s Using This Thing?• Journals publishers• The military• Libraries• STM publishers• Other publishers who are selling “chunks”
  28. 28. How Would I Use It?• Resolve an ISBN simultaneously to the purchase page, the author website, and an excerpt• Resolve an ISBN to sub-book components (chapters, charts, sections) which are sold separately• Resolve an ISBN to locations of additional material – enhanced content, supplements, lab manuals, workbooks, card decks, calendars
  29. 29. The DOI Helps You Upsell• Additional material• Related products – Other books – T-shirts – Games and toys – Posters – CDs – DVDs• If you can identify a thing, and you have the rights to that thing, the DOI can help you organize all that data so you can sell that thing
  30. 30. Questions?• Laura.Dawson@bowker.com

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