Making the ConnectionHow to increase your discoverability
Agenda• Identifiers for Digital Works• Full Content Indexing
Metadata is King!
Bowker is a registration agency for:ISNI 1422 4586 3573 0476   ISTC 03A 2009 000C299F D   ISBN 13 : 978-0-7653-2990-5   do...
Multimedia Content Linkage  Singer                                     Broadway Performer                  Soap Opera Acto...
Identifier Services – Identifiers    ISNI        ISNI          ISTC                       DOI    ISTC                     ...
ISBNISTCISNIDOISANWidgetsBar CodesBook as an App
ONIX:the international standard forrepresenting & communicating bookindustry product informationin electronic form
<relevant-word>    <relevant-word-score>2.6</relevant-word-score>    <relevant-word-frequency>26</relevant-word-frequency>...
<entity>   <entity-organization>New York Times</entity-organization>   <entity-count>51</entity-count>   </entity><entity>...
Further InformationIdentification of eBooks      Full Content Indexing•   www.MyIdentifiers.com     • www.bowkernews.com/i...
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability
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Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability

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Patricia Payton of Bowker amplifies on a portion of the metadata conversation: search engine optimization. She will help new epublishers understand the tricks of anticipating how your content will be discovered and making sure that it is carrying the tagging that will make searches in Google and other search engines return your book as an option when they should.

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  • Hello. My name is Patricia Payton. I am Senior Director of Publishers Relations at Bowker.Today I will be talking about maximizing the Discoverability of your eBooks
  • . I will try to cover two specific areas, Identifiers and Keywords, to examine how these impact discoverability.
  • Let’s start with Identifiers. A topic that can be confusing.
  • The number of eBooks has grown tremendously over the past years and the expectation is that this trend will continue and in fact expand globally. “Metadata is king!” is the mantra repeated in publishing conferences and workshops around the globe. Why? Because in the absence of physical browsing options, discovery cannot take place without it. Identifiers are a key element of metadata as they provide an anchor for the item, individual, or organization the metadata is about.
  • Bowker provides bibliographic asset identification, title management and marketing solutions to maximize the discoverability and sale of book contentWe are or are in the process of becoming a registration agency for all these standards-The ISNI identifies, natural, legal or fictional parties involved in the media content industries-The ISTC identifies works but not their manifestations-The ISBN identifies the manifestations of works but not individual products-The DOI provides persistent links that resolves to specific locations and identifies content objects in the digital environment
  • The most common and broadly used identifier in our industry is of course the International Standard Book Number (ISBN)Given that the ISBN has been in use for some 40 years, most of us here probably don’t need to be told what an ISBN is or does. Where there has been some confusion recently, is in the proper application of the standard vis a vis digital publications. Some of the typical questions we’ve heard from publishers are: “Do I need a separate ISBN for digital books than for print books?” “Can I use the same ISBN for different digital products?” “What constitutes a product in the digital world?” “Is there an E-ISBN” There isn’t… and so forth.Bowker has been an active participant in the committee for eBook Identification set up by BISG in the US. This committee is expected to publish a policy statement before the end of the year which should help clarify most questions around the subject. In the meantime, as the US ISBN Agency, we at Bowker are of course available to provide information and guidance.
  • It would be beyond the scope of this presentation to go into much detail regarding eBook identification. But I do want to say this:In order to maximize discovery of your title, it’s very important to assign a different ISBN to different products/formats and to submit separate metadata for each. Don’t assume that submitting one set of metadata for print and digital at the same time or assigning one ISBN across multiple formats will be sufficient. Both practices create confusion and extra work for other parties throughout the supply chain all the way to the end user.
  • The ISTC, the International Standard Text Code ,is a relatively new standard, which used for the unique identification of textual works.For example, the ISTC can be used to identify related works with the same content so that websites can display print, ebook &amp; audio manifestations together for customers.
  • By including the ISTC of a textual work in the list of attributes of each actual book that it is published in, it is then possible to search for, and find, that specific textual work among many products. This is the case even though some products with different content might have very similar or even identical names (e.g. The Double by Dostoyevskyvs the book by the same title by Saramango), or even though some products containing the desired content have entirely different names (e.g. Q&amp;A and Slumdog Millionaire).
  • A single database is used to hold all ISTC records, regardless of which country they were registered in. Anybody wishing to register a textual work, submits a request to an ISTC registration agency with the necessary metadata needed to distinguish that work from all others. Again, as with other identifiers, the key reason for using ISTCs, is to enhance discoverability, i.e. making it easier for people to connect with your content.
  • The International Standard Name Identifier or ISNI identifies “Public Identitiesused by parties involved throughout the media content industries.”IT is a “Bridge Identifier” that links data across multiple sources
  • The  ISNI allows us to uniquely identify the one public figure from other with similar names/characteristicsParties may be natural, legal or fictional
  • The ISNI will make it easier to locate multiple works or activities associated with a party. This in turn facilitates licensing of online services and legal access by the public to the content they want.
  • For example, Jack Wagner is a public figure active in multiple arenas. One ISNI, linked to metadata for all the content he is associated with, can provide us with information from various sources
  • What we have found is that, even though there have been many changes in the publishing industry in recent years, and customers can now access content in any number of ways, our need for the correct application of identifiers and metadata has actually increased. This makes perfect sense. More content, and more access points, means more potential for confusion, and more difficulty in finding the one specific piece of content or contributor we are trying to locate. 
  • What we are also finding is that identifiers work best when used in combination. For example, being able to link contributors with their contributions by linking ISBNs with ISNIs, gives us a more powerful approach to discovery and disambiguation. In the world of digital books, identifiers are essential to help navigate through the publishing maze and find the correct content to sell, buy, read, track.
  • Bowker provides guidance to navigate through the identifier maze both directly and by taking an active role in organizations that help establish best practices on the application of standards.  We have created products and services to make it easier for both individuals and organizations in the publishing market to get the information they need.
  • In addition to working with identifiers, Bowker has been testing full content indexing, which is basically a machine reading through a PDF or EPUB file for a book and noting all of the words and phrases used within the book. Our goal with this project is to improve the discoverability of books within our products that are sold to libraries, retailers, and schools. It has turned out to be a very interesting project and has benefits for publishers as well as lessons on the capabilities of machine indexing.
  • As was discussed in earlier presentations, search and discovery is driven off of metadata. In particular items, such as author name, subject codes, and key terms that a publisher lists within their book descriptions, lead readers to your products.
  • When readers use a search engine, retailer website, or publisher website to search for books, they typically either key in 1or 2 words to indicate what they are looking for, or use the browse options available on the site. From that they navigate to titles of interest. If the users’ 1-2 search words appear in your metadata, then your book will be retrieved as a search result. Or if your metadata matches the subject codes chosen in the browse function on the website, your book will be retrieved.
  • So where do all of these terms come from?First, publishers can create keywords for use on their own website in order to drive users to the site and to allow them to navigate to related titles once they are on the site in a search.
  • Also, publishers can use ONIX or Excel files to share keywords or other metadata they create. This information can be easily sent to retailers, wholesalers, and distributors.
  • But all of this keyword creation takes time and resources. Who does the work get allocated to? How many keywords do you create for each title? What is the ROI for all of this work?
  • On a small scale, for your own website, it is easy to create the keywords by hand, monitor use of search terms through an SEO analytics service and adjust as necessary. But when you have 10s, 100s, or 1000s of titles, manual creation may not be an option or it may be an option for only selected titles.
  • Also, if you are trying to reach readers through other parties’ websites such as an online retailer, or a library catalog, you will not be able to view or understand how users are using that website or the search terms they are using to locate your books or books related to yours.
  • All of this makes ROI hard to measure. This is why machine indexing can aid a publisher. Indexing provides exponentially more keywords than a publisher can create by hand. It creates them in seconds. And it creates them from the content of the book. Exponentially more keywords can be created and ingest engines can use as many terms as are available in order to make search smarter.
  • This XML string is an example of what Bowker’s indexing system creates when it reads a PDF or EPUB file. Our system also assigns relevancy and frequency scores for each keyword.
  • It also stores the contextual use of a keyword. For example, China as a location rather than a person’s name or a piece of dinnerware.So what is the impact of this type of system?
  • We recently conducted a study of ONIX content supplied by publishers versus indexed content for the same ISBN. In our review the machine created 300% to 1500% of the keywords that the publisher supplied. Indexing worked for print as well as eBooks and it worked for older and newer titles. Our conclusion from this review is to move forward with indexing more content and building out products to meet the needs of our customers.My goal in sharing these concepts with you today is to 1) reinforce the need for good descriptive metadata in the supply chain and 2) to make you aware of technology that is currently available to aid in the creation of metadata whether you create your metadata yourself or through a third party.
  • I hope this has provided useful information on keywords and identifiers that will aid you in making future decisions about your business.Here are Bowker’s contact details and websites where you can learn more. Bowker’s MyIdentifiers.com provides access to obtain ISBNs, ISTCs, load metadata to Bowker’s system, and to learn more about identifiers.
  • Making the Connection: How to increase your discoverability

    1. 1. Making the ConnectionHow to increase your discoverability
    2. 2. Agenda• Identifiers for Digital Works• Full Content Indexing
    3. 3. Metadata is King!
    4. 4. Bowker is a registration agency for:ISNI 1422 4586 3573 0476 ISTC 03A 2009 000C299F D ISBN 13 : 978-0-7653-2990-5 doi:10.1038/nphys1170 5
    5. 5. Multimedia Content Linkage Singer Broadway Performer Soap Opera ActorMovie Actor
    6. 6. Identifier Services – Identifiers ISNI ISNI ISTC DOI ISTC ISNI ISTC ISBN ISBN ISBN ISBN DOI Content 16
    7. 7. ISBNISTCISNIDOISANWidgetsBar CodesBook as an App
    8. 8. ONIX:the international standard forrepresenting & communicating bookindustry product informationin electronic form
    9. 9. <relevant-word> <relevant-word-score>2.6</relevant-word-score> <relevant-word-frequency>26</relevant-word-frequency> <relevant-word-value>siva vaidhyanathan</relevant-word-value> </relevant-word> <relevant-word> <relevant-word-score>2</relevant-word-score> <relevant-word-frequency>8</relevant-word-frequency> <relevant-word-value>anarchist in the library</relevant-word-value> </relevant-word> <relevant-word> <relevant-word-score>1.66666666666667</relevant-word-score> <relevant-word-frequency>5</relevant-word-frequency> <relevant-word-value>chris soghoian</relevant-word-value> </relevant-word> <relevant-word> <relevant-word-score>1</relevant-word-score> <relevant-word-frequency>9</relevant-word-frequency> <relevant-word-value>wolfram alpha</relevant-word-value> </relevant-word> <relevant-word> <relevant-word-score>0.98</relevant-word-score> <relevant-word-frequency>49</relevant-word-frequency> <relevant-word-value>googlization</relevant-word-value> </relevant-word>
    10. 10. <entity> <entity-organization>New York Times</entity-organization> <entity-count>51</entity-count> </entity><entity> <entity-location>China</entity-location> <entity-count>145</entity-count> </entity><entity> <entity-person>Siva Vaidhyanathan</entity-person> <entity-count>21</entity-count> </entity><entity> <entity-title>scientists</entity-title> <entity-count>8</entity-count> </entity><entity> <entity-time>twentieth century</entity-time> <entity-count>8</entity-count> </entity><entity> <entity-nationality>American</entity-nationality> <entity-count>65</entity-count> </entity>
    11. 11. Further InformationIdentification of eBooks Full Content Indexing• www.MyIdentifiers.com • www.bowkernews.com/itnews/• Beat.Barblan@Bowker.com • Patricia.Payton@Bowker.com• isbn.org• isbn-international.org• istc-international.org• doi.org• isni.org• bisg.org

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