The Psychology of Sport & Exercise

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The Psychology of Sport & Exercise

  1. 2. <ul><li>The PsychFutures Research Maps are a series of digests on the most popular Psychology related topics, whereby linking to podcasts, videos, journal publications, websites and blogs; ideal if you’re looking for inspiration to kick-start your dissertations and research projects. </li></ul><ul><li>The topics are varied, including Love, Photography and Music. To view the full list and download the other Research Maps click here or go to: www.psychfutures.ning.com /page/research </li></ul>Providing One-Stop Summaries and Directions For Your Research
  2. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Why do people participate in sport and exercise? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do some people enjoy doing sport, but others hate it? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it good for us? </li></ul><ul><li>How can un-sporty people be encouraged to do more exercise? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the psychological factors affecting someone’s performance in sport? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and how can they be worked on? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What helps athletes push themselves to extend the limits of their speed, strength or endurance? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and what hinders them? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These are just some of the questions that spring to mind. </li></ul>
  3. 4. What’s it About? <ul><li>… understanding the mental processes, behaviour and wellbeing of people involved in sport and exercise ( BASES ) </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Difference Between… <ul><li>Sport Psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are interested in helping athletes perform better, and more consistently; in improving the quality of experience of participation in sport; and in other issues, such as professional career transitions (e.g. retirement), coach behaviour and communication skills. Some sport psychologists are also trained in clinical psychology and are qualified to provide assistance with problems such as drug abuse and eating disorders. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exercise Psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They, on the other hand, are more interested in helping people to become more active, more often; they are driven by the goal of health and well-being, rather than performance, and they may use physical activity and/or exercise as legitimate therapeutic interventions for some psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression ( BASES ). </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Why Study Sport and Exercise Psychology? <ul><li>Because you enjoy participating in sport, and/or watching it, and want to explore people’s motives and experiences? </li></ul><ul><li>Or perhaps because it has some relevance for clinical psychology and occupational psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>Or maybe you want to find out what sports psychologists do, with a view to future employment in the area? </li></ul><ul><li>It's a growing field, of interest and relevance to all sorts of organisations - large and small businesses such as sports clubs, commercial gyms and fitness centres, sports sponsors, sports media, sports academies, schools and colleges, (maybe the NHS too or is that being futuristic?), and consultancies. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Research <ul><li>Exercise and mental health  –  can exercise be a useful therapeutic tool? </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological risks of sport and exercise  –  dependence and perfectionism </li></ul><ul><li>Green exercise  - doing moderately intensive exercise  in attractive natural surroundings  may have more benefits on anxiety and stress reduction than doing the same level of exercise in an unattractive urban environment. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Research <ul><li>Psychological benefits of sport and exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>Neurobiological - exercise causes the release of a number of brain chemicals that are known to enhance one’s mood (as well as helping to reduce pain and increase alertness). The main ones are the  endorphins , but serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine have also been mentioned.  Brain research at UCLA (warning, includes descriptions of animal experiments ) </li></ul><ul><li>Alleviation of anxiety & depression:  theories  used to explain this include the thermogenic hypothesis, the endorphin hypothesis, the monoamine hypothesis, the distraction hypothesis, and the self-efficacy hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved mental alertness, perception and information processing </li></ul>
  8. 9. Research <ul><li>Psychological benefits of sport and exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing  stress  (7.5MB), improving self-esteem, confidence and self-reliance </li></ul><ul><li>Increased opportunities for social interaction, recreation and relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness:  An investigation into the relationship between physical activity and happiness in adults  (MSc Dissertation; Abstract and Table of Contents only) </li></ul><ul><li>Check out the Research Group at Loughborough University </li></ul>
  9. 10. Related Disciplines <ul><li>Sport Physiology – a biological approach to the way the body functions during sport </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Medicine – specialising in medical conditions, and injuries, that are particularly associated with sport </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology of Sport – studying patterns, demographics, theories and social issues around sport and exercise participation, watching sport, fan club membership, football violence </li></ul><ul><li>Politics, Governance and Funding of Sport – including national/international cooperation and competition, governing bodies, professional associations, amateur clubs, and sponsorship </li></ul>
  10. 11. Weblinks <ul><li>Psychwatch – Sport Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Intute - Psychology of Sport and Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>ExRx.net - Exercise by Prescription </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia : Sport Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Education Academy’s Resource Guide for Sport Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in Sport Project </li></ul><ul><li>Brian Mac Sports Coach </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia of Psychology: Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Mind Tools - Sports Psychology </li></ul>
  11. 12. Societies <ul><li>Association for Applied Sport Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>British Olympic Association </li></ul><ul><li>British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>British Psychological Society: Division of Sport and Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>European Federation of Sport Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>International Society of Sport Psychology </li></ul>
  12. 13. Useful Journals <ul><li>Athletic Insight – The Online Journal of Sport Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Many relevant journals from Human Kinetics , including Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education </li></ul><ul><li>British Journal of Sports Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Sports Sciences </li></ul>
  13. 14. Useful Books <ul><li>Sport and exercise psychology: a critical introduction (2004) by A. P. Moran </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Dynamics of Sport and Exercise (2008) by D. Gill & L. Williams </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (2006) by R.S. Weinberg & D. Gould </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Sport Psychology: A Case-Based Approach (2009) by B. Hemmings & T. Holder </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Psychology in Action: Casebook for Working With Athletes, Performing Artists, Business Leaders, and Professionals in High-Risk Occupations (2009) edited by K. F. Hays </li></ul><ul><li>Sport and Exercise Psychology: The Key Concepts (2008) by E. Cashmore </li></ul>
  14. 15. Courses and Qualifications <ul><li>A useful overview if you're thinking of working in the area: Qualification and Training Routes to Becoming a Practising Sport and Exercise Psychologist in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>Postgraduate Degrees (examples): </li></ul><ul><li>MSc in Sport and Exercise Psychology (BPS-accredited): Sheffield Hallam University and at least 9 other UK universities </li></ul><ul><li>MSc in Sport Psychology: University of Wales Institute, Cardiff </li></ul><ul><li>ERASMUS course in Finland: International Master’s Degree Programme in Sport and Exercise Psychology </li></ul>
  15. 16. Courses and Qualifications <ul><li>Undergraduate Degrees (examples): </li></ul><ul><li>BSc in Sport Psychology: Coventry University & at least 2 others </li></ul><ul><li>BSc in Sport and Exercise Psychology: University of East London & at least 7 others </li></ul><ul><li>BSc in Sport and Exercise Science: Loughborough University , Middlesex University </li></ul><ul><li>BSc in Applied Sport & Exercise Psychology: University of Cumbria </li></ul><ul><li>BSc in Applied Sports Psychology: Liverpool John Moores University </li></ul><ul><li>BSc in Sports Science: University of Greenwich </li></ul>

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