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11/17/09
<ul><li>Behaviorism : Language is a set of habits </li></ul><ul><li>Innatism  theory: It’s all in your mind </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Interactive approach: Form a learning community </li></ul><ul><li>Input, intake, and output theory </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Social Language Skills include: making requests, retelling events, describing activities, expressing personal opin...
<ul><li>Content vocabulary is the set of “big” content words and terms: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., product, sum, carry,  exch...
ACADEMIC VS. COMMON WORDS   <ul><li>encounter meet </li></ul><ul><li>  observe watch </li></ul><ul><li>  maintain keep </l...
TYPES OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE   #2-THINKING SKILL TERMS   <ul><li>Terms that describe and facilitate higher level thinking, e...
<ul><li>These are sets of words or phrases that glue ideas together, support transitions, logical conjunctives, propositio...
<ul><li>Language used to cultivate and facilitate academic discussions in and outside of class, e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>My...
<ul><li>paraphrase (define) </li></ul><ul><li>highlight (noticing) </li></ul><ul><li>model (mini-lesson) </li></ul><ul><li...
SAMPLE SENTENCE FROM  A TEXTBOOK   <ul><li>“ Despite many warnings by other resistance members, he was apprehended and tak...
<ul><li>He committed an  egregious   error   – a very bad mistake . </li></ul><ul><li>The liquid becomes  effervescent —  ...
mind body emotions spirit
THE  HUMAN  “HOUSE” mind body emotions spirit
 
<ul><li>Students will learn best what they want and need to know.  </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing how to learn is more importan...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Direct strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory strategies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><...
 
Self-Awareness  Self-Control  Self-Motivation  Empathy   Social Skills Peter Salovery, Yale John Meyer  New Haven Reuv...
<ul><li>Gru  -  group work and cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Vi   -   visuals, such as pictures, graphs, diagrams, acronym...
<ul><li>Pullout ESL program  </li></ul><ul><li>Push-in ESL program </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional bilingual program </li><...
<ul><li>QTEL  -   Q uality  T eaching for  E nglish  L earners (West Ed) </li></ul><ul><li>SIOP  -  S heltered  I nstructi...
<ul><li>Series of Professional Development Institutes in Math, Science, Social Studies, and ELA  created by WestEd. </li><...
<ul><li>Language and content objectives are systematically woven into lesson plans.  </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers adjust the...
<ul><li>Language development - focus on academic language </li></ul><ul><li>Content area instruction - discovery and hands...
<ul><li>What do I differentiate? </li></ul><ul><li>Sources (what to teach), process (how to teach) and product (what to ex...
<ul><li>Creating a supportive and facilitative learning environment  </li></ul><ul><li>Effective use of scaffolding techni...
<ul><li>Does everyone understand? </li></ul><ul><li>Vary inquiry techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Make students active listen...
<ul><li>Be cognizant of the existence of ELLs in your class. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sensitive to their diverse needs. </li><...
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Nyu Pte Methods For All Content Teachers May 21, 2009

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NYU's Partnership for Teacher Excellence Curriculum Development Project created this module to offer strategies and methods for content area teachers to better serve ELL students within their classrooms.

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Nyu Pte Methods For All Content Teachers May 21, 2009

  1. 1. 11/17/09
  2. 2. <ul><li>Behaviorism : Language is a set of habits </li></ul><ul><li>Innatism theory: It’s all in your mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Krashen’s comprehensible input hypothesis </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Interactive approach: Form a learning community </li></ul><ul><li>Input, intake, and output theory </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on forms vs. Focus on meaning vs. Focus on form </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Social Language Skills include: making requests, retelling events, describing activities, expressing personal opinions, sustaining conversation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Academic language: Conceptually demanding and cognitively complex </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Content vocabulary is the set of “big” content words and terms: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., product, sum, carry, exchange, equal, percentage, denominator, quotient, coefficient, quadratic, etc . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., add – combine, sum, plus, … </li></ul>
  6. 6. ACADEMIC VS. COMMON WORDS <ul><li>encounter meet </li></ul><ul><li> observe watch </li></ul><ul><li> maintain keep </li></ul><ul><li> ultimate last </li></ul><ul><li> equal same </li></ul><ul><li> entire whole </li></ul><ul><li> quantity amount </li></ul><ul><li> subtract minus </li></ul>
  7. 7. TYPES OF ACADEMIC LANGUAGE #2-THINKING SKILL TERMS <ul><li>Terms that describe and facilitate higher level thinking, e.g., </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the difference between </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the probability of it is higher than </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it boils down to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it is similar to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it falls under the category of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in this way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if….were </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from the point of view of … </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>These are sets of words or phrases that glue ideas together, support transitions, logical conjunctives, propositions, etc. They include: </li></ul><ul><li>such as but and </li></ul><ul><li>or while despite </li></ul><ul><li>although yet for instance </li></ul><ul><li>but and while despite although yet </li></ul><ul><li>given that if </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Language used to cultivate and facilitate academic discussions in and outside of class, e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>My idea is related to John’s in that… </li></ul><ul><li>I concur with what she said. </li></ul><ul><li>You made a great point about…. </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t thought in those terms… </li></ul><ul><li>My idea supports Susan’s premise… </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like to piggyback onto your idea </li></ul><ul><li>Along those same lines, I think… </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>paraphrase (define) </li></ul><ul><li>highlight (noticing) </li></ul><ul><li>model (mini-lesson) </li></ul><ul><li>encourage (output) </li></ul><ul><li>praise (support) </li></ul><ul><li>validate (positive reinforcement) the use of academic language. </li></ul>
  11. 11. SAMPLE SENTENCE FROM A TEXTBOOK <ul><li>“ Despite many warnings by other resistance members, he was apprehended and taken to a maximum security prison, where he was interrogated and tortured for his role in the fighting.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>He committed an egregious error – a very bad mistake . </li></ul><ul><li>The liquid becomes effervescent — bubbly, full of bubbles —when we stir it. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pilgrims embarked on a long journey. They began/started out on a long trip. </li></ul><ul><li>She was motivated by vengeance —she wanted get back at or get even with him . </li></ul>
  13. 13. mind body emotions spirit
  14. 14. THE HUMAN “HOUSE” mind body emotions spirit
  15. 16. <ul><li>Students will learn best what they want and need to know. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing how to learn is more important than acquiring many facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings are as important as facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn best in a non-threatening environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Gage and Berliner (1991) </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><ul><ul><li>Direct strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory strategies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive strategies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation strategies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognitive strategies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affective strategies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social strategies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rebecca Oxford </li></ul>
  17. 19. Self-Awareness  Self-Control  Self-Motivation  Empathy  Social Skills Peter Salovery, Yale John Meyer New Haven Reuven Bar-On, Israeli Daniel Goleman Writer
  18. 20. <ul><li>Gru - group work and cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Vi - visuals, such as pictures, graphs, diagrams, acronyms, charts, graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Mo - movement, such as hand motions, gestures, moving around the room, whole body simulations, role-plays, dramas, experiential learning </li></ul><ul><li>Ma - manipulatives, or use of tactile or hands-on learning </li></ul><ul><li>Mu - music, songs, chants, rhythms </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Pullout ESL program </li></ul><ul><li>Push-in ESL program </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional bilingual program </li></ul><ul><li>Dual language program </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>QTEL - Q uality T eaching for E nglish L earners (West Ed) </li></ul><ul><li>SIOP - S heltered I nstruction O bservation P rotocol </li></ul><ul><li>CALLA - C ognitive A cademic L anguage L earning A pproach </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated Instruction – Individualized Instruction </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Series of Professional Development Institutes in Math, Science, Social Studies, and ELA created by WestEd. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis: scaffolding academic language and content </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Elements of QTEL Scaffolding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bridging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schema building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contextualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>metacognitive development </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Language and content objectives are systematically woven into lesson plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers adjust their English to make content comprehensible. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a high level of student engagement and interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Affective factors are taken into consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pathways are offered. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementary materials are used to support academic text . </li></ul><ul><li>Echevarria, Vogt and Short (2004) </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Language development - focus on academic language </li></ul><ul><li>Content area instruction - discovery and hands-on approach </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit instruction of learning strategies - metacognitive awareness, modeling, practice, and transfer </li></ul><ul><li> Chamot and O’Malley (1994) </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>What do I differentiate? </li></ul><ul><li>Sources (what to teach), process (how to teach) and product (what to expect). </li></ul><ul><li>What criteria do I use to select all three? </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness, interest, and learning styles. </li></ul><ul><li>What principles guide my planning? Meaningful tasks, flexible grouping, ongoing assessment and adjustment. </li></ul><ul><li>Rothenberg & Fisher, 2007. </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Creating a supportive and facilitative learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Effective use of scaffolding techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Providing comprehensible input </li></ul><ul><li>Checking comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Using cooperative learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Developing literacy and second language skills </li></ul><ul><li>Developing individual learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Using more GruViMoMaMu in lessons </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Does everyone understand? </li></ul><ul><li>Vary inquiry techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Make students active listeners. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pre-Pair” to respond. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow extra time. </li></ul><ul><li>Give credit for trying. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer face savers. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for readiness. </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Be cognizant of the existence of ELLs in your class. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sensitive to their diverse needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Attain to their emotional needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Attain to their linguistic needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Attain to their academic needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Open your minds to new ideas, strategies, and techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Work collaboratively. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt, do not adopt. </li></ul>

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