Quantitative analysis ofphytochemicals in antidiabeticplant extractsNatalie Rivera OrtizMentor: Dr. Jannette Gavillán Suárez, Ph.DDepartment of ChemistryCHEM -4999
AcknowledgementsThanks to: Dr. Jannette Gavillán Suárez, Ph.D.
What are phytochemicals? They are secondary metabolites that occurnaturally in plants. Molecules responsible for the color and organolepticproperties. They are considered beneficial in treating and/orpreventing chronic diseases.http://www.tjclark.com/phytochemicals//
Classification of PhytochemicalsAlkaloidsNicotineCardiac glycosidesOleandrin
Classification of PhytochemicalsSaponinsSolanineTerpenoidsUrsolic AcidIsoprene
Classification of PhytochemicalsPhenolsFlavonoidsQuercetin
Previous Studies Qualitative experiments have demonstrated thepresence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tanninsand cardiac glycosides in our plant extracts.1 Phenolic compounds protect against oxidativestress and degenerative diseases.2 Oleanolic acid (saponin) has been reported to havehypoglycemic activity.3 In vivo antidiabetic activity of several plant extractshas been correlated with their total phenol andflavonoid content.4, 5
Previous Studies Alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, and steroidshave demonstrated activity consistent with theirpossible use in treatment of type-2 diabetes.6Terpenoids have been shown to decrease bloodglucose levels in animal studies.6 Aqueous extract of Acacia arabica (100 μg/mL)stimulated an increase of 228% in insulin release fromrat pancreatic β-cells compared to the control (5.6 mMglucose).7
Goal and ObjectivesObjectives:Quantify flavonoids, total phenolic compoundsand saponins in plant extracts from Tapeinochuilusannanassae, Syzygium jambos, Costus speciosus, andTradescantia spathacea.Goal:Quantify possible biomarkers of antidiabeticactivity of plant extracts from several genera.
Relevance of this Research Quantification of phytochemicals will be keyin identifying biomarkers of antidiabetic activityof these plants. For the first time, biological activities will becorrelated with phytochemicals’ concentrations.
Current WorkConcentratedsaponins areextracted twicewith equalvolumes ofn-butanolDNS MethodQuantitativedeterminationof glucose.Glucose (0.4%)and 500 μL ofDNS solution.Calibrationcurve of D-glucose(540 nm)3,5-dinitrosalicylicacidD-glucose 3-amino-5-nitrosalicylic acidD-gluconicacidReaction:
Current Worky = 7.390x - 0.003R² = 1.0000.00000.20000.40000.60000.80001.00001.20001.40000.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160 0.180AbsorbanceConcentration (mg/mL)D-glucose calibration curve for determination of saponins
Current WorkSugar content inQuijalla saponinis determinedfrom differencebetweenhydrolyzed andnon-hydrolyzedsaponinsQuillaja saponinSugar content in Quillajasaponin solutions[Quillaja saponin] (mg/mL)[Glucose](mg/mL)
Future Work Determination of saponin content in plantextracts from Tapeinochuilus annanassae, Syzygiumjambos, Costus speciosus, and Tradescantia spathacea.Determination of alkaloid content in plantextracts.
References1. Rodríguez-Tirado, K.; Gavillán-Suárez. University of Puerto Ricoat Cayey, Cayey, P.R. Phytochemical studies of medicinalplants from several genera with antidiabetic properties.Unpublished work, 2011.2. Han, X.; Shen, T.; Lou, H. Dietary polyphenols and Their Biolo-gical Significance. Int.J.Mol.Sci. [Online] 2008, 8, 950-988.http://www.mdpi.org// (accessed March 8, 2011).3. Güçlü-Ünstündağ, Ö.; Mazza, G. Saponins: properties, applica-tions and processing. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. [Online] 2007,47, 231-258. http://www.redorbit.com// (accessed July 14,2011).
References4. Rauter, A.P.; Martins, A.; Lopes, R.; Ferreira, J.; Serralheiro, L.M.;Araújo, M.E.; Borges, C.; Justino, J.; Silva, F.V.; Goulart, M.;Thomas-Oates, J.; Rodrigues, J.A.; Edwards, E.; Noronha, J.P.;Pinto, R.; Mota-Filipe, H. Bioactivity studies and chemicalprofile of the antidiabetic plant Genista tenera. J.Ethnopharmacol. [Online] 2009, 122, 384-393. Science Direct.http://www. sciencedirect.com(accessed March 8, 2011).5. Aslan, M.; Deliorman Orhan, D.; Orhan, N.; Sezik, E.; Yesilada, E. Invivo antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of H elichrysumplicatumssp. plicatum capitulums in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. [Online] 2007, 109, 54-59.Science Direct. http://www. sciencedirect.com(accessedNovember 20, 2011).
References6. Kumar, A.; Ilavarasan, R.; Jayachandran, T.; Decaraman, N.;Aravindhan, P.; Padmanabhan, N.; Krishnan, M.R.V.Phytochemicals Investigation on a Tropical Plant, Syzygiumcumini fromKattuppalayam, Erode District, Tamil Nadu, SouthIndia. Pak. J. Nutr. [Online] 2009, 8, 1, 83-85.http://www.pjbs.org/pjnonline// (accessed March 8, 2011).7. Kaur, L.; Han, K.S.; Bains, K.; Singh, H. Indian culinary plantsenhance glucose-induced insulin secretion and glucoseconsumption in INS-1 b-cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. FoodChem. [Online] 2011, 29, 1120-1125. Science Direct.http://www. sciencedirect.com(accessed November 20,2011).