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Geospatial Data Insfrastructures, Cybercartography and Open Data: The Need for Geomaticians


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Closing Keynote for Geo The Big 5: Open Geospatial
AGI 2014, Belfast

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Geospatial Data Insfrastructures, Cybercartography and Open Data: The Need for Geomaticians

  1. 1. Geo The Big 5 Challenges and Opportunities Rising from Open Geospatial Association for Geographic Information (AGI) Belfast, 13 May 2014 Tracey P. Lauriault National Institute for Regional and Spatial Analysis (NIRSA) National University of Ireland at Maynooth (NUIM) The Programmable City Project Geospatial Data Insfrastructures, Cybercartography and Open Data: The Need for Geomaticians
  2. 2. Table of Contents 1. What is open? 2. Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure • Multisectoral Collaboration • Operational Policies • Geomatics Round Table 3. Cybercartography • Nunaliit Cybercartographic Framework • Atlases and Data Management • Law 4. Open Data & Programmable City • Overview • Portals 5. The Role for Geomaticians
  3. 3. 1. What is open?
  4. 4. Open Policy
  5. 5. Open Licences
  6. 6. Open Source/Formats/Specs
  7. 7. Open Infrastructure
  8. 8. 2. Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure
  9. 9. 1999 Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) 20012005 2013
  10. 10. Discovery Portal
  11. 11. Federal Government Setting
  12. 12. CGDI Principles 1. Open: enables better decision making, the CGDI is based on open, barrier-free data sharing and standards that allow users to exchange data. 2. Accessible: allows users to access data and services seamlessly, despite any complexities of the underlying technology. 3. Evolving: the network of organizations participating in the CGDI will continue to address new requirements and business applications for information and service delivery to their respective users. 4. Timely: the CGDI is based on technologies and services that support timely or real-time access to information. 5. Sustainable: is sustained by the contributions of the participating organizations and broad user community and through the infrastructure’s relevance to these groups. 6. Self-organizing the CGDI enables various organizations to contribute geospatial information, services and applications, and guide the infrastructure’s development. 7. User and community driven emphasizes the nurturing of and service to a broad user community. These users, including Canadians in general, will drive the CGDI’s development based on user requirements. 8. Closest to source maximizes efficiency and quality by encouraging organizations closest to source to provide data and services. Thereby eliminating duplication and overlap. 9. Trustworthy is continually enhanced to protect sensitive and proprietary data. The CGDI offers this protection through policies and mechanisms that enable data to be assessed for quality and trusted by users. Source: : 2012, Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure Vision, Mission and Roadmap - The Way Forward
  13. 13. Canadian Geomatics Accord (2001, 2007, 2014)
  14. 14. Operational Policies & Standards Documents: Protected Information • Confidential information • Sensitive Information • Private information • Intellectual Property Access, Management & Dissemination • Archiving and Preservation • Data Integration • Data Sharing • Licensing • Volunteered Geographic Information • Cloud Computing • Free and Open Source Software • Licensing Semantics • Catalogue Services for the Web (CSW) • North American Profile of ISO19115:2003 - Geographic Information – Metadata Syntax and Encodings • Geography Markup Language (GML) • GeoRSS • Keyhole Markup Language • A Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) • Symbology Encoding (SE) Services • A Web Map Service (WMS) • A Web Feature Service (WFS) • A Web Processing Service (WPS) • Catalogue Services for the Web (CSW) • A Table Joining Service (TJS) • A Web Map Context (WMC) • A Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) • A Web Coverage Service (WCS) • Filter Encoding Standard provides XML and KVP • A Gazetteer data-infrastructure/8902
  15. 15. Federal Geographic Data Platform • Comprehensive collection & sharing of authoritative data • Search, discovery, access, & visualization tools built once & reused many times, search once and find everything • Common web-based environment enabling data integration, analysis, & visualization to support informed decision-making • Shared governance & management of geospatial assets and capabilities, through operational standards & policies 2014-…
  16. 16. Federal Committee on Geomatics and Earth Observations (FCGEO) 1. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada 3. Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency 4. Canadian International Development Agency 5. Canadian Food Inspection Agency 6. CSA 7. Dept. Fisheries and Oceans-Coast Guard 8. Dept. Fisheries and Oceans- -Science 9. Dept. National Defence 10. Elections Canada 11. Environment Canada 12. Health Canada 13. Industry Canada 14. Natural Resources Canada 15. Parks Canada 16. Public Health Canada 17. Public Safety 18. Royal Canadian Mounted Police 19. Shared Services Canada 20. Statistics Canada 21. Treasury Board Secretariat 22. Transport Canada Established 12 January 2012 1. Provide proactive, whole-of- government leadership in geomatics and EO to better support government priorities 2. Enhance the responsiveness, efficiency and sustainability of the federal geomatics and EO infrastructure 3. Improve access, sharing and integration of geospatial data at all levels (Federal/Provinvial/Territo- rial and international)
  17. 17. 3. Cybercartography
  18. 18. Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre • Directed by Dr D. R. Fraser Taylor • Research Themes • Indigenous Knowledge • Northern Research • Law, Society & Cybercartography • Geospatial Information Management • Archiving & Preservation • Cybercartography & the New Economy • Cinema • Sound • Open Source • Nunaliit Atlas Framework 2.0
  19. 19. Definition Cybercartography is a theoretical construct proposed by D.R. Fraser Taylor (1997, 2003). “the organization, presentation, analysis and communication of spatially referenced information on a wide variety of topics of interest and use to society in an interactive, dynamic, multimedia, multisensory and multidisciplinary format”. Cybercartography offers an opportunity to deeply rethink how maps are created, including their design, how they are produced, disseminated and used on the Internet.
  20. 20. GCRC Atlases of Indigenous Perspectives and Knowledge (Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Region) Atlas of Arctic Bay Lake Huron Treaty Atlas Inuit (Siku)Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project Views from the North Kitikmeot Place Name Atlas Atlas of the Risk of Homelessness Frontline Health Atlas Atlas of Canada's Trade with the World Cybercartographic Atlas of Antarctica
  21. 21. Distributed Data Management Network for LTK Requirements: • On & Off-Line access and use • Distributed access and storage • Low Bandwidth • Access permissions • Many Knowledge Contributors • Interoperable • Flexible • Replication • Synchronization
  22. 22. Field Data Collection Tablet Data Collection: • 1st Prototype on Apple’s 2nd generation iPad • Table copy of CouchDB w/simplified Nunaliit Interface • Offline data collection • Advanced Editor • Online replication & synchronization functionality • Android device prototype in progress
  23. 23. Offline Data Collection Tablet Field Test: • Gwich’in Social and Cultural Institute • Ingrid Kritsch used for 3 weeks • Collected over 800 spoken place names, photos and videos w/elders on an iPad • Data replicated back in Ottawa in a matter of hours
  24. 24. Data Collection Photos © 2012 Gwich’in Social and Cultural Institute
  25. 25. Consent and Metadata Consent, Lineage, Metadata, Authorship: • LTK data documentation • LTD data consent • LTK use rights and access
  26. 26. Nunaliit Cybercartographic Atlas Framework
  27. 27. Preservation, Management, Law & Policy
  28. 28. GCRC Research Open Principles • Products produced w/public funds belong to the public • Whenever possible open access comes first • BSD License • Use data from open access sources • Creative Commons • Share as much as possible • Publish in Open Access Journals • Create and use open source software, tools, widgets, etc. • Design for open source browsers • Participate in open access, open data, open source communities • Build in consent and data access protocols into data collection tools • Conduct research on access to data, consent, law and policy • Encourage these principles in public consultations • Education & Capacity building • Adhere to interoperability standards and specifications • Data Preservation
  29. 29. 4. Open Data
  30. 30. Most Popular Open Data Defs. 1. Access 2. Redistribution 3. Reuse 4. Absence of Technological Restriction 5. Attribution 6. Integrity 7. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups 8. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 9. Distribution of License 10. License Must Not Be Specific to a Package 11. License Must Not Restrict the Distribution of Other Works ★ make your stuff available on the Web (whatever format) under an open license ★★ make it available as structured data (e.g., Excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ use non-proprietary formats (e.g., CSV instead of Excel) ★★★★ use URIs to denote things, so that people can point at your stuff ★★★★★ link your data to other data to provide context Tim Berners-Lee, 5 star deployment scheme for Open Data
  31. 31. Open Data Definitions (sample) • 1959 Antarctic Treaty • 1992 - UNCED – Agenda 21 Chapter 40, Information for Decision Making • 1996 Global Map • 2005 - Open Knowledge Foundation (OKNF) - 11 Principles (Licence specific) • 2007 GEOSS - Data Sharing Principles for the Global Earth Observing System of Systems • 2007 - US Open Government Working Group - 8 principles of Open Government Data • 2007 Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data • 2007 Sunlight Foundation - 10 Principles for Opening Up Government Informatio • 2007 OECD, Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding • 2008 OECD, Recommendations on Public Sector Information • 2009 W3C - Publishing Open Government Data • 2010 Tim Berners-Lee 5 Star of Open Data • 2010 Panton Principles for Open Data in Science • 2010 Ontario Information Privacy Commissioner - 7 Principles • 2013 Open Economics Principles • US Association of Computing Machinery (USACM) – Recommendations on Open Government • American Library Association (ALA) – Access to Government Information Principles
  32. 32. Data Sharing ARTICLE III 1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for in Article II of the present Treaty, the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable: (a) information regarding plans for scientific programs in Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum economy and efficiency of operations; (b) scientific personnel shall be exchanged in Antarctica between expeditions and stations; (c) scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available Agenda 21 – Chapter 40 INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING 40.1. In sustainable development, everyone is a user and provider of information considered in the broad sense. That includes data, information, appropriately packaged experience and knowledge. The need for information arises at all levels, from that of senior decision makers at the national and international levels to the grass-roots and individual levels. The following two programme areas need to be implemented to ensure that decisions are based increasingly on sound information: a. Bridging the data gap; b. Improving information availability.
  33. 33. Cities take the lead in Canada
  34. 34. Licences & Collaboration Ottawa, Toronto, Edmonton, Vancouver + Montreal
  35. 35. Open Data Cities 1. Banff Open Data Portal, (AB) Pilot 2. City of Brandon (MB) 3. City of Burlington (ON) 4. City of Calgary (AB) 5. City of Chilliwack (BC) 6. City of Edmonton (AB) 7. City of Fredericton (NB) 8. Portail de données ouvertes de la ville de Gatineau 9. County of Grande Prairie (AB) 10. Open Data Guelph (ON) 11. Halifax Regional Municipality (NS) 12. City of Hamilton Open and Accessible Data (ON) 13. City of Kelowna Open Data Catalog (BC) 14. City of London (ON) 15. Township of Langley (BC) 16. Open Data Medicine Hat (AB) 17. Town of Milton (ON) 18. City of Mississauga (ON) 19. Ville de Montréal Portails données ouvertes (QC) 20. City of Nanaimo (BC) 20. City of Niagara Falls (ON) 21. Region of Niagara (ON) 22. Regional District of Central Okanagan 23. Regional District of North Okanagan (BC) 24. District of North Vancouver (BC) 25. City of Ottawa (ON) 26. Region of Peel (ON) 27. City of Prince George (BC) 28. Ville de Québec Catalogue de données (QC) 29. City of Red Deer, (AB) 30. City of Regina (SK) 31. District of Saanich Open Data (BC) 32. Open Data Saskatoon (SK) 33. Données ouvertes Sherbrookes (QC) 34. Strathcona County Open Data Portal (AB) 35. City of Surrey (BC) 36. City of Toronto (ON) 37. City of Vancouver (BC) 38. District of North Vancouver (BC) 39. City of Victoria (BC) 40. City of Waterloo (ON). 41. Region of Waterloo (ON) 42. City of Whitehorse (YK) 43. City of Windsor (ON) 44. York Region
  36. 36. Open Data Provinces 1. Data BC 2. Alberta Open Data 3. Open Data Saskatchewan, Citizen Led 4. Ontario Open Data 5. Données ouvertes Portail du Gouvernement du Québec, Québec Ouvert – Citizen Led 6. Newfoundland and Labrador
  37. 37. Open Data National • Geogratis & Geobase & Discovery Portal & Atlas of Canada • Office of the Information Commissioners Open Government Resolutions • • Research Data Canada • Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) Open Data
  38. 38. Fed. Open Data Portal
  39. 39. Civil Society - Accessibility Catherine Roy: &
  40. 40. Civil Society - Transparency  Les appels d’offres et certain contrats octroyés de la Ville de Montréal et la province du Québec (version détaillée ici)  Le registre des entreprises du Canada  Les dons au partis politiques du Canada  Les dons aux partis politiques du Québec  Le registre des lobbyistes du gouvernment fédéral(aussi registre et journal)  Licenses restreintes dans l'industrie de la construction  Les contrats octroyés par la Ville de Laval depuis 2007  Les contrats octroyés par la Ville de Montréal depuis 2006
  41. 41. Civil Society - Hackathons 11/23/compte-rendu-du-3e- hackathon-montreal- ouvert/?lang=en /TranspoCampMTL
  42. 42. Standardization - Transportation Planning Au niveau municipal, les données sont accessibles indirectement sur le site de la ville de Montréal. En d'autres termes, ces données n'ont pas été prévues pour être utilisées de manière directe mais sont affichées sur une carte dans la section Info-Travaux. Au niveau provinciale, les données viennent du Ministère des transports du Québec et de son service Québec 511. Là aussi le MTQ se démarque de ses homologues canadiens en étant a priori le premier à proposer des données GPS pour la localisation des chantiers. &
  43. 43. Entrepreneurs  All 10,000 public and private foundations.  Exhaustive list of federal and provincial funding programs specifically for non- profits (over 700).  Corporate funders (500 and growing).
  44. 44. Civil Society - Advocacy /index.html
  45. 45. 6. Role for Geomaticians
  46. 46. Research Data Canada Archiving, Management and Preservation of Geospatial Data National Consultation on Access to Scientific Data Final Report (NCASRD) 20101990 1995 2000 2005 National Data Archive Consultation (SSHRC) Stewardship of Research Data in Canada: A Gap Analysis The dissemination of government geographic data in Canada Research Data Strategy Working Group Toward a National Digital Information Strategy: Mapping the Current Situation (LAC) Canadian Digital Information Strategy (CDIS) IPY 1985 2014 Mapping the Data Landscape: Report of the 2011 Canadian Research Data Summit Digital Economy Consultation Industry Canada Resolution of Canada’s Access to Information and Privacy Commissioners Geomatics Accord Signed Canadian Geospatial Data Policy Liberating the Data Proposal OD Advisory Panel Open Government Partnership G8 Subjectivities & Forms of Knowledge • Policies • Reports • Proposals • Recommendations • Consultation 2008 MiningWatch Canada & Great Lakes United by Ecojustice Digital Infrastructure Leadership Council Standing Committee on Industry, Science & Tech. Community Data Roundtable Privacy (Geo) Sensitive Data (Geo) Open Data Consultations VGI Primer Cloud (Geo) FCGEO
  47. 47. 20101990 1995 2000 20051985 2014 Data Liberation Initiative Maps Data and Government Information Services (MADGIC) Geogratis Data Portal GeoBase Canadian Internet Public Policy Clinic GeoConnections GeoGratis Census Data Consortium Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) Atlas of Canada Online (1st) CeoNet Discovery Portal Research Data Network How'd they Vote Campaign for Open Government (FIPA) Canadian Association of Public Data Users I Believe in Open Campaign Change Camps Start Nanaimo BC City of Toronto 4 Cities Global TV Hansard in XML Let the Data Flow Aid Agency DataBC 7 Cities GovCamp Fed. Expenses Fed.Gov. Travel & Hospitality Expenses Open Data Hackfest Citizen Factory B.C.'s Climate Change Data Catalogue Open Parliament Hacking Health 14 Cities Quebec Ontario OGP 3 Cities Alberta G8 Community Data Program FCM Quality of Life Reporting System Geographic and Numeric Information System Materialities / Infrastructures • Consortia • Portals/Catalogs/Maps • Open Data/Open Gov Events 2009 1979 National Atlas Information System
  48. 48. Epistemic Communities Research Data GovData GeoData Physical Sciences AdminData Public Sector Data Access to Data Open Data Social Sciences 2005 GeoWeb Not examined •Open source •Open access •Freedom of information •Law
  49. 49. Role for Geomaticians Geomaticians need to transfer & translate their • Thematic knowledge • Programming abilities • Scientific practices • Data management skills • Data sharing, interoperability and discovery expertise • Infrastructure knowledge & systems thinking • Multisectoral collaboration and consultation abilities To other sectors & participate in the digital strategies & IT/IMS/ICT communities & perhaps even lead them!
  50. 50. 5. Conclusion
  51. 51. Programmable City Objectives How is the city translated into software and data? How do software and data reshape the city? Translation: City into Data Transduction: Data Reshape City THE CITYDATA Discourses, Practices, Knowledge, Models Mediation, Augmentation, Facilitation, Regulation
  52. 52. Data & Infrastructures do not exist independently of the ideas, techniques, technologies, people and contexts that produce, process, manage, analyze and store them, regardless of them often being presented in this manner... (The Data Revolution, Kitchin in Press 2014). also mediate culture and society by constructing stories which create representations around which subjects are created & actions are taken shaping and shaped by geographic imaginations (Data, Infrastructures and Geographical Imaginations, Lauriault 2012)
  53. 53. Q & A @TraceyLauriault Thank You!