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ICT project


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ICT project

  1. 1. Welcome ToMy ICT Project By: Louis Tan 8R September 14 2012
  2. 2. ICT ProjectThe difference of web pageand websites
  3. 3. *Web page*
  4. 4. Web pages usually include information as tothe colours of text and backgrounds and veryoften also contain links to images and sometimesother types of media to be included in the finalview. Layout, typographic and color-schemeinformation is provided by Cascading Style Sheet(CSS) instructions, which can either beembedded in the HTML or can be provided by aseparate file, which is referenced from within theHTML. The latter case is especially relevantwhere one lengthy stylesheet is relevant to awhole website: due to the way HTTP works, thebrowser will only download it once from the webserver and use the cached copy for the wholesite.
  5. 5. Images are stored on the web server asseparate files, but again HTTP allows for thefact that once a web page is downloaded toa browser, it is quite likely that related filessuch as images and stylesheets will berequested as it is processed. An HTTP 1.1web server will maintain a connection withthe browser until all related resources havebeen requested and provided. Webbrowsers usually render images along withthe text and other material on the displayedweb page.
  6. 6. A web page or webpage is a document orinformation resource that is suitable for theWorld Wide Web and can be accessedthrough a web browser and displayed on amonitor or mobile device. This informationis usually in HTML or XHTML format, andmay provide navigation to other web pagesvia hypertext links. Web pages frequentlysubsume other resources such as stylesheets, scripts and images into their finalpresentation.
  7. 7. Web pages may be retrieved from a localcomputer or from a remote web server. The webserver may restrict access only to a privatenetwork, e.g. a corporate intranet, or it maypublish pages on the World Wide Web. Webpages are requested and served from web serversusing Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
  8. 8. Web pages may consist of files of static textand other content stored within the webservers file system (static web pages), ormay be constructed by server-side softwarewhen they are requested (dynamic webpages). Client-side scripting can make webpages more responsive to user input onceon the client browser.
  9. 9. ● For "between pages" interaction:● Hyperlinks: standard "change page" reactivity.● Forms: providing more interaction with the server and server-side databases.● Internal (hidden) information:● Comments● Linked Files through Hyperlink (Like DOC,XLS,PDF,etc).● Metadata with semantic meta-information, Charset information, Document Type Definition (DTD), etc.● Diagramation and style information: information about rendered items (like image size attributes) and visual specifications, as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).● Scripts, usually JavaScript, complement interactivity and functionality.● Note: on server-side the web page may also have "Processing Instruction Information Items".● The web page can also contain dynamically adapted information elements, dependent upon the rendering browser or end-user location (through the use of IP address tracking and/or "cookie" information). From a more general/wide point of view, some information (grouped) elements, like a navigation bar, are uniform for all website pages, like a standard. These kind of "website standard information" are supplied by technologies like web template systems.
  10. 10. ● A web page, as an information set, can contain numerous types of information, which is able to be seen, heard or interact by the end user: Perceived (rendered) information:● Textual information: with diverse render variations.● Non-textual information:● Static images may be raster graphics, typically GIF, JPEG or PNG; or vector formats such as SVG or Flash.● Animated images typically Animated GIF and SVG, but also may be Flash, Shockwave, or Java applet.● Audio, typically MP3, ogg or various proprietary formats.● Video, WMV (Windows), RM (Real Media), FLV (Flash Video), MPG, MOV (QuickTime)● Interactive information: see interactive media.● For "on page" interaction:● Interactive text: see DHTML.● Interactive illustrations: ranging from "click to play" images to games, typically using script orchestration, Flash, Java applets, SVG, or Shockwave.● Buttons: forms providing alternative interface, typically for use with script orchestration and DHTML..
  11. 11. Web pages will often require more screen space than is available for aparticular display resolution. Most modern browsers will place a scrollbar (asliding tool at the side of the screen that allows the user to move the page upor down, or side-to-side) in the window to allow the user to see all content.Scrolling horizontally is less prevalent than vertical scrolling, not only becausesuch pages often do not print properly, but because it inconveniences the usermore so than vertical scrolling would (because lines are horizontal; scrollingback and forth for every line is much more inconvenient than scrolling afterreading a whole screen; also most computer keyboards have page up anddown keys, and many computer mice have vertical scroll wheels, but thehorizontal scrolling equivalents are rare). When web pages are stored in acommon directory of a web server, they become a website.A website will typically contain a group of web pages that are linked together,or have some other coherent method of navigation. The most important webpage to have on a website is the index page. Depending on the web serversettings, this index page can have many different names, but the mostcommon is index.html. When a browser visits the homepage for a website, orany URL pointing to a directory rather than a specific file, the web server willserve the index page to the requesting browser. If no index page is defined inthe configuration, or no such file exists on the server, either an error ordirectory listing will be served to the browser. A web page can either be asingle HTML file, or made up of several HTML files using frames or ServerSide Includes (SSIs).
  12. 12. Frames have been known to cause problems with web accessibility,copyright,Tysver, Dan (1996-2008). "Linking and Liability — Problems withFrames". Minneapolis, USA: Beck & Tysver. Retrieved 2009-05-01. navigation,printing and search engine rankingsFrames Problems - ITC Web Development,and are now less often used than they were in the 1990s."HTML Techniques forWeb Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 - Frames". W3C. 6 November 2000.Retrieved 2009-05-01. "In the following sections, we discuss how to makeframes more accessible. We also provide an alternative to frames that usesHTML 4.01 and CSS and addresses many of the limitations of todays frameimplementations." Steinmetz, Israel (2 November 1999). "Frames Free!".Retrieved 2009-05-01.Both frames and SSIs allow certain content whichappears on many pages, such as page navigation or page headers, to berepeated without duplicating the HTML in many files. Frames and the W3Crecommended alternative of 2000, the [[HTML element#Images and objects|also allow some content to remain in one place while other content can bescrolled using conventional scrollbars. Modern CSS and JavaScript client-sidetechniques can also achieve all of these goals and more.When creating a web page, it is important to ensure it conforms to the WorldWide Web Consortium (W3C) standards for HTML, CSS, XML and otherstandards. The W3C standards are in place to ensure all browsers whichconform to their standards can display identical content without any specialconsideration for proprietary rendering techniques. A properly coded web pageis going to be accessible to many different browsers old and new alike, displayresolutions, as well as those users with audio or visual impairments.
  13. 13. #Website#
  14. 14. A website,is a set of related web pages containing content such astext, images, video, audio, etc. A website is hosted on at least oneweb server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or aprivate local area network through an Internet address known as aUniform Resource Locator. All publicly accessible websitescollectively constitute the World Wide Web. The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a simple Uniform Resource Locator (URL) called the web address. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy, although hyperlinking between them conveys the readers perceived site structure and guides the readers navigation of the site which generally includes a home page with most of the links to the sites web content, and a supplementary about, contact and link page.
  15. 15. Some websites require a subscription to access some or all of their content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, parts of news websites, academic journalwebsites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, socialnetworking websites, websites providing real-timestock market data, and websites providing various other services (e.g., websites offering storing and/or sharing of images, files and so forth).
  16. 16. History of the websites The World Wide Web (WWW) was created in 1990 byCERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.[3] On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to use for anyone.[4] Before the introduction ofHTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File TransferProtocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols offer asimple directory structure which the user navigates andchooses files to download. Documents were most oftenpresented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats.
  17. 17. A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in theformat that is sent to a client web browser. It is primarily coded inHypertext Markup Language (HTML).Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classicwebsite, a five-page website or a brochure website are often staticwebsites, because they present pre-defined, static information to theuser. This may include information about a company and its productsand services through text, photos, animations, audio/video andinteractive menus and navigation.This type of website usually displays the same information to all visitors.Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a staticwebsite will generally provide consistent, standard information for anextended period of time. Although the website owner may make updatesperiodically, it is a manual process to edit the text, photos and othercontent and may require basic website design skills and software.In summary, visitors are not able to control what information they receivevia a static website, and must instead settle for whatever content thewebsite owner has decided to offer at that time.
  18. 18. content and HTML markup are manipulateddirectly within the editor program●●WYSIWYG offline editors, such as MicrosoftFrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver (previouslyMacromedia Dreamweaver), with which the site isedited using a GUI interface and the final HTMLmarkup is generated automatically by the editorsoftware●●WYSIWYG online editors which create mediarich online presentation like web pages, widgets,intro, blogs, and other documents.●●Template-based editors, such as RapidWeaverand iWeb, which allow users to quickly create andupload web pages to a web server without
  19. 19. Types of websites
  20. 20. Type of DescriptionWebsiteAffiliate A site, typically few in pages, whose purpose is to sell a third partys product. The seller receives a commission for facilitating the sale.Affiliate Enabled portal that renders not only its custom CMS but also syndicated content from other content providers for an agreed fee.Agency There are usually three relationship tiers. Affiliate AgenciesArchive site Used to preserve valuable electronic content threatened with extinction. Two examples are: Internet Archive, which since 1996 has preserved billions of old (and new) web pages; and Google Groups, which in early 2005 was archiving over 845,000,000 messages posted to Usenet news/discussion groups.Attack site A site created specifically to attack visitors computers on their first visit to a website by downloading a file (usually a trojan horse). These websites rely on unsuspecting users with poor anti-virus protection in their computersBlog (web Sites generally used to post online diaries which may include discussion forums (e.g., blogger, Xanga). Many bloggers use blogslog) like an editorial section of a newspaper to express their ideas on anything ranging from politics to religion to video games to parenting, along with anything in between. Some bloggers are professional bloggers and they are paid to blog about a certain subject, and they are usually found on news sites.
  21. 21. Brand building A site with the purpose of creating an experience of a brand online. These sites usually do not sell anything, but focus onsite building the brand. Brand building sites are most common for low- value, high-volume fast moving consumer goods (FMCG).Celebrity A website whose information revolves around a celebrity. This sites can be official (endorsed by the celebrity) or fan made (runwebsite by his/her fan, fans, without implicit endorsement).Click-to- A website that allows the visitor to donate to charity simply by clicking on a button or answering a question correctly. Andonate site advertiser usually donates to the charity for each correct answer generated.Community A site where persons with similar interests communicate with each other, usually by chat or message boards.siteContent site Sites whose business is the creation and distribution of original contentCorporate Used to provide background information about a business, organization, or service.websiteDating A site where users can find other single people looking for long range relationships, dating, or just friends.websiteElectronic A site offering goods and services for online sale and enablingcommerce (e- online transactions for such sales.commerce) site
  22. 22. Forum website A site where people discuss various topics.Gallery Website A website designed specifically for use as a Gallery, these may be an art gallery or photo gallery and of commercial or non-commercial nature.Government Site A website made by the local, state, department or national government of a country. Usually these sites also operate websites that are intended to inform tourists or support tourism.Gripe site A site devoted to the criticism of a person, place, corporation, government, or institutionGaming website A site that lets users play online games. Some enable people to gamble online.Gambling websiteHumor site Satirizes, parodies or otherwise exists solely to amuse.Information site Most websites could fit in this type of website to some extent many of them are not necessarily for commercial purposes
  23. 23. The Difference BetweenWebsite and Web Page
  24. 24. This is incorrect as web page is just a subset of website and a website may be anything from a single web page to hundreds of web pages linked together through navigational links. A simple definition of a website is a collection of web pages. When we talk of a website, we refer to a huge amount of information spread over many pages but when we talk of a webpage we are referring to a screen shoot which is a small subset of the website and can be used for a particular purpose. The differences between a web page and a website can be summarized under these criteria.
  25. 25. A webpage is what you see through your browser by scrolling the window up and down. A website is composed of a group ofwebpages linked together. A complete website is usually fairly self-contained, with pages created and maintained by the same authorsand often stored on a single computer. The pages may link to other pages that are not part of that site. Well take a look at how to find out more about websites later in this section. As with libraries, websites vary in size and complexity. For example, the Valley Librarys website is a distinct site, but is also part of the larger OSU website. This tutorial is a separate websitewith links to various pages on the Librarys site (and elsewhere). As youll see, both this tutorial site and the Librarys site link to many other pages on other websites.
  26. 26. A website is a collection of one or more web pagesdesigned to convey information on a particularsubject or theme to a web user. (e.g. a companywill have a web site providing structuredinformation about the company, designed to informparticular groups of its stakeholders - investors,customers, technical support, sales, employment,news items etc.)A web page is one screen full of information (froma web site) that may contain links to other pages inthe web site or links to external information. Theweb page will normally be written as (or renderedas) an HTML document
  27. 27. ExamplesA website is a company, or association, forex: google, yahoo, facebook ... etc..A web page is one page od the web. for ex.this page infront of you is a web page, awebsite could contain millions of web pages.
  28. 28. The End ofMy ICT Project