Early Literacy And Reading Course


Published on

An introduction to critically important elements foreign English language teachers should know in helping students become 'literate' in English. The .pptx presentation here does not include the many sound and video files used to support the concepts, nor does it include the many handouts and other material developed for the course. Intended for teachers of young learners, the program upon which this course is based has also been adapted for young adult English language learners. Contact the author for further information. (Contact email is given at the end of the presentation.)
Feedback is encouraged and welcome!

Published in: Education
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Early Literacy And Reading Course

  1. 1. Early Literacy &Reading Instruction<br />Developed by <br />William M. Tweedie<br />
  2. 2. PRIME TASK<br />Brainstorm!<br />As your colleagues are settling in, write on a separate sheet of paper as many words as you know about the topic of<br />PHONICS<br />Turn your sheets in at the end of the first half of this<br />session. Write clearly and neatly. You need not sign<br />your paper.<br />
  3. 3. Early Literacy and Reading Instruction<br />A 5 Part Course<br />Setting Goals, Objectives and the Stage for Action<br />Using Computer Based Programs<br />Teaching in the Regular Classroom – Text, Print & The Alphabetic Code <br />Teaching in the Regular Classroom Phonological Awareness & The Alphabetic Principle<br />Teaching in the Regular Classroom Vocabulary, Fluency, Comprehension<br />
  4. 4. Session One<br />Setting Goals and the Stage for Action<br />The Most Important Principles of Early Childhood Pedagogy<br />Love, appreciate, praise students to build confidence, curiosity, and independence<br />Set clear rules, expectations, and routines - Be consistent<br />Stimulate a love of learning - Focus on literacy<br />Facilitate and participate in appropriate activities <br />Help make meaningful connections with the world<br />Help develop social and personal skills and abilities<br />Involve students in planning their learning<br />Be a positive role model<br />Laugh – a lot<br />Adapted from A Summary of Early Childhood Education Principles Into Practice:<br />A Kindergarten to Grade 3 Needs Assessment, Saskatchewan Learning, February 2006<br />
  5. 5. Session One continued<br />Literacy in Rompin<br />Setting Goals per School and District<br />What is Early Literacy?<br />What is Reading?<br />Early Literacy Instruction Theory<br />Predominant Methods<br />Whole Language<br />Analytical<br />Synthetic<br />What Are the Elements of Early Reading Instruction?<br />Screening, Assessment, Evaluation<br />
  6. 6. Session One continued<br />Literacy in Rompin<br />Setting Goals <br />School <br />Review your numbers<br />Set a realistic goal and specific objectives to guide you to achieve it.<br />Share your course learning with your colleagues<br />District<br />Review of Numbers<br />Goals and Objectives<br />
  7. 7. Setting Class & School Goals<br />School Example<br />numbers<br />realistic goal <br />list of the objectives<br />Session One continued<br />
  8. 8. District<br />Review of numbers<br />Goals and Objectives<br />Session One continued<br />Insert Graph<br />Insert Text<br />
  9. 9. Session One continued<br />What is Early Literacy?<br />It’s a complex topic involving many issues:<br />The ability to communicate through Reading and Writing<br />Oracy<br />New Literacies: Visual, Computer Literacy<br />Whole Language vs. Phonics Approaches<br />Pace & Elements of Child Development <br />Home, School, Community environment <br />Direct Teaching or Implicit Learning<br />Assessment, Intervention, etc.<br />
  10. 10. Session One continued<br />What is Early Literacy?<br />It is a tool; a way to learn about the world and a means to participate more fully in the technological society of the 21st century. Rafferty (1999) <br />Practical, Relevant, Integrated, Meaningful and Enriching (PRIME ©) use of Communication in context within a print-rich environment. Skills and strategies are taught in these meaningful contexts rather than in isolation.<br />Tweedie (1999)<br />
  11. 11. What is Reading?<br />Four Definitions:<br />Bringing meaning to text to get meaning from it<br />Learning to identify words and get their meaning <br />Learning to pronounce words<br />All of the above definitions and developing learning skills in the context of authentic, balanced reading and writing activities.<br /> adapted from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/li7lk1.htm<br />Session One continued<br />
  12. 12. Early Reading Instruction <br />Theory<br />Predominant Methods<br />Whole Language<br />Analytic Phonics<br />Synthetic Phonics<br />Session One continued<br />
  13. 13. Whole Language<br />Is a meaning-centered method based on the <br />following principles: <br />people learn best when actively involved in learning <br />not all children will learn the same things, much less learn them at the same time, no matter how we teach<br />educational assessment of learning should both focus on and promote continued learning<br />Session One continued<br />
  14. 14. Session One continued<br />Children learn to read and write by being supported in actually reading and writing whole texts.<br />Phonics (Alphabetic Principle) has always been at the heart of whole language, acknowledged and taught as one of the three major language cueing systems (i.e., semantic, syntactic, and graphophonic) that must be orchestrated as one reads <br /> (Mills, O'Keefe, & Stephens, 1992; Powell & Hornsby, 1993; Wagstaff, 1994). <br /> (NCREL)North Central Regional Education Laboratory www.ncrel.org<br />
  15. 15. Session One continued<br />Analytic Phonics (whole to part)<br />Involves development of phonemic awareness (recognising the sounds in speech) and analysis of whole words to detect phonetic (sound) or orthographic (spelling) patterns, then splitting them into smaller parts to help with decoding. <br />For example: onset and rime - onset (vowel sound(s)) at the beginning of a word or syllable and rime (always beginning with a vowel to form the remainder of that word or syllable).<br />Basics normally take 2+ years in L1 & ESL contexts<br />
  16. 16. An awareness of sounds is introduced after sight reading has begun. Letter sounds are taught through alliteration.<br />big, boy, ball, bag<br />Beat, Bit, Bait, Bat, Boot<br />Session One continued<br />
  17. 17. Session One continued<br />Synthetic Phonics (part to whole)<br />Involves the development of phonemic awareness from the outset with action. <br />The reader learns up to 44 phonemes and their related graphemes <br />One phoneme can be represented by various graphemes, e.g. ‘y’, ‘ie’, ‘i’ ‘ye’ ‘igh’ ‘eye’.<br />The reader is expected to recognise each grapheme, sound out each phoneme in a word, blending the sounds together to pronounce the word phonetically. <br />Works well with phonetically regular words.<br />Basics take 1 – 3 years in L1 and ESL contexts<br />
  18. 18. Letters and their sounds are taught before reading commences as preparation for teaching reading through sounding out letters and blending sounds<br />b b b b<br />u u u u<br />s s s s … <br />b u s… bus <br />Session One continued<br />
  19. 19. Session One continued<br />Comparing Methods<br />Which describes what?<br />Students are given words that contain the phoneme and must extract the similar sound in each word (usually in the initial position).<br />Phonemes are taught in isolation using sound associations and illustrations. Students then learn to blend phonemes to form words.<br />Students ‘read’ levelled picture books and decode inferentially. <br />
  20. 20. Session One continued<br />Analytic?<br />Synthetic?<br />
  21. 21. Session One continued<br />__oot, phone _______<br />cat, __ey, du___ <br />horn _______ _______<br />pig _______ _______<br />sun, city _______ <br />top _______ _______<br />chair, match _______<br />shell, wish _______<br />thump _______ _______<br />wheel _______ _______<br />
  22. 22. Session One continued<br />ANALYTIC SYNTHETIC<br />foot, phone hissing cat<br />cat, key, duck clock pendulum<br />horn huffing of a runner<br />pig corn popping<br />sun, city hissing snake<br />top typewriter keys<br />chair, match chugging train<br />shell, wish prompt to be quiet<br />thump pound desk<br />wheel whistling<br />
  23. 23. Session One continued<br />ANALYTIC SYNTHETIC<br />saw, ball, taught something’s too bad<br />moon, chew wailing ghost<br />book, put doing push-ups<br />cow, house when you get hurt<br />boy, oil pogo stick spring<br />car howling dog<br />fork seal<br />spur, her, work, fur growling dog<br />
  24. 24. Session One continued<br />Read this sentence: <br />FINISHED FILES ARE THE RE- <br />SULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC<br />STUDY COMBINED WITH THE <br />EXPERIENCE OF YEARS. <br />Now count aloud the ' F' s in that sentence. <br />Count them ONLY ONCE; do not go back and count them again. <br />
  25. 25. Session One continued<br />Whole Word?<br />I see fit to discuss fate if I let you bat with a boot the book that has notes about a boy whois boring but saw a car full of roses with the door shut and a man inside who shouts: “Ice!” toa crowd of people standing by, waving, who said “Bye!”. No Lie! © 1995 W. M. Tweedie<br />Draw a picture to illustrate this story.<br />
  26. 26. Session One continued<br />Break Time!<br />Please fill in the Muddiest Point form and<br />return it to me after the break. Thanks.<br />
  27. 27. Session One continued<br />Early Literacy Instruction<br />Alphabetic Code<br />Text/Print Awareness<br />Phonology(answer the phone)<br />Phonemic awareness(individual sounds)<br />Phonological awareness(larger chunks)<br />Alphabetic Principle<br />Alphabetic understanding <br />Phonological recoding <br />What is Phonics?<br />Fluency, Vocabulary, Comprehension<br />
  28. 28. Session One continued<br />What is this word?<br />pheighch<br />
  29. 29. William’s Reading Pyramid<br />encoding<br />Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension<br />Standard Two<br />Standard One<br />Standard One<br /> decoding<br />Standard One<br />Pre-School<br />
  30. 30. Session One continued<br />AaBbCc’s<br />Alphabetic Code –<br />Letter knowledge has been identified as a strong predictor of reading success <br /> (Ehri & Sweet, 1991) <br />While teaching children letter names does not in itself result in success in learning to read* it can facilitate memory for the forms or shapes of letters and can serve as a mnemonic for letter-sound associations or phonics.** <br /> *(Jenkins, Bausell, & Jenkins, 1972), **(Adams, 1990)<br />
  31. 31. A different ABC song:<br />A is an apple<br />B is a bear<br />C is a cat – without any hair<br />D is a duck<br />E is an egg<br />F is a fish – stuck on a peg<br />G is a gorilla <br />H is a house<br />I is an iguana – playing with a mouse <br />Session One continued<br />
  32. 32. Session One continued<br />J is a jungle<br />K a kangaroo<br />L is a lion – with only one shoe<br />M is a monkey<br />N is a nurse<br />O is an ostrich – with a big purse<br />P is a penguin<br />Q is a queen<br />R is a rabbit – with a big bean<br />
  33. 33. S is a silly snake<br />T is a tiger<br />U is an umbrella – caught on fire!<br />V is a vampire<br />W is a whale<br />X is a fox – with a bushy tail<br />Y is a yak<br />Z is a zoo<br />And that’s the alphabet – just for you!<br /> © 2007 William M. Tweedie<br />Session One continued<br />
  34. 34. Session One continued<br />*%&$#^$<br />Not knowing letter names is related to children's difficulty in learning letter sounds and in recognizing words. <br />Children cannot understand and apply the alphabetic principle until they can recognize and name a number of letters.<br />Texas Education Agency (2002)<br />
  35. 35. Session One continued<br />Instruction in the Alphabetic Principle does not follow the order of the alphabet. <br />It usually follows the frequency of letter usage and the graduation of ease and ability to decode words in the reading process.<br />Different ‘phonics’ programs follow different orders.<br />
  36. 36. Session One continued<br />One way of introducing the idea of capitals and lower case letters is to describe the capital as the name of the letter and the lower case as the sound of the letter<br />Talking about when we use capitals – names, beginning of sentences etc. – will help students differentiate between the two <br />
  37. 37. Session One continued<br />letter<br />letter + picture <br />letters + pictures + songs + <br />actions + <br />stories<br />Try to give your students as many ‘tabs’ as possible<br />
  38. 38. Text Print Awareness(mechanics of text)<br />Children need to know: <br />Parts of a book <br />Texts are written from left to right <br />Spaces between words matter <br />There is a one-to-one correspondence between writing and speaking<br />Teach parts, directionality & vocabulary using:<br />Big Books<br />Total physical response<br />Use realia and kinaesthetic activities<br />Pantomime<br />Daily review of concepts of print<br />Small group instruction if needed<br />Session One continued<br />
  39. 39. OOOO /K/A/<br />Session One continued<br />Phonology<br />Phonemic Awareness (PA)<br />is the ability to manipulate the smallest<br />units of sound that make up spoken<br />language: phonemes<br />A child who possesses phonemic awareness can segment sounds in words<br />blend strings of isolated sounds together to form recognizable word forms<br />manipulate sounds to create words<br />
  40. 40. Session One continued<br />PA is auditory and does notinvolve words in print <br />Without phonemic awareness, phonics instruction makes little sense<br />Essential to learning to read in an alphabetic writing system<br />A strong predictor of children who experience early reading success <br />Rhyming & Alliteration precedes Isolation, Segmentation, Blending and Manipulating abilities<br />
  41. 41. Session One continued<br />Rhyming/Alliteration<br />The cat sat to pat his rat! (picture)<br />Isolating/Distinguishing<br />What’s the first sound in Cat?<br />Segmenting<br />How many sounds in cat ? /k/ /a/ /t/<br />Deleting<br /> What’s the word if you take out the /k/?<br />Blending<br />What is this word: /p/ /aaaa/ /t/ ?<br />Manipulating <br />What is the word if you put /r/ in front of /at/ ?<br />
  42. 42. Session One continued<br />Phonological Awareness<br />In addition to Phonemic Awareness<br />Phonological Awareness encompasses<br />larger units of sound, such as syllables, <br />body/coda, onsets/rimes, prefixes, and <br />suffixes.<br />Sta te Sta le Sta ll Sta ff (body) / (coda) <br />S ay D ay M ay W ay L ay (onset) / (rime)<br />Rea / d Pai / d Be/ d Li / d Trie / d (body) / (coda)<br />F / at - F / ate (onset) / (rime)<br />Con struc tion (prefix) (root) (suffix) (syllables)<br />
  43. 43. Session One continued<br />The Alphabetic Principle<br />is the understanding that there are systematic<br />and predictable relationships between written<br />letters and spoken sounds. There are 2 aspects:<br />Alphabetic Understanding:<br /> Words are composed of letters that represent sounds.<br />Phonological Recoding<br /> Using systematic relationships between letters and phonemes (letter-sound correspondence) to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell words (Reading & Writing)<br />
  44. 44. Beginning decoding is the ability to: <br />read from left to right, simple, unfamiliar regular words <br />Listen to and generate the sounds for all letters <br />blend sounds into recognizable words<br />Beginning encoding (spelling/writing) is the ability to:<br />translate speech to print using phonemic awareness and knowledge of letter-sounds (Alphabetic Principle)<br />Session One continued<br />
  45. 45. What is Phonics?<br />– a method of teaching children to read(not something they need to learn)<br />Phonics instruction teaches children the relationships between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language.<br />It teaches children to use these relationships to read and write words.<br />It is NOT Phonemic awareness.<br />Session One continued<br />
  46. 46. What Is Fluency?<br />Fluency (automaticity) is reading words with no noticeable cognitive or mental effort. It is having mastered word recognition skills to the point of over-learning. Fundamental skills are so "automatic" that they do not require conscious attention. <br />Fluency is not an end in itself but a critical gateway to comprehension. Fluent reading frees resources to process meaning. <br />Session One continued<br />
  47. 47. Session One continued<br />For students to develop fluency, they must:<br />perform the task or demonstrate the skill accurately<br />perform the preskills of the task quickly and effortlessly.<br />Research says successful readers: <br />rely on the letters not context or pictures <br />process virtually every letter <br />use letter-sound links to identify words<br />have a strategy for decoding words<br />read words repeatedly (Hasbrouck, 1998)<br />
  48. 48. Session One continued<br />What Is Having Vocabulary?<br />The ability to understand (receptive)<br />and use (expressive) words to<br />acquire and convey meaning<br />Vocabulary refers to the words we must understand to communicate effectively<br />Vocabulary plays a fundamental role in the reading process, and contributes greatly to a reader's comprehension<br />It is the CORE(Central Operating Resource for Engagement)in an EFL Early Literacy program<br />
  49. 49. Session One continued<br />Primary focus of instruction in grades K-3 should be on developing criticalreading skills <br />Read storybooks to younger children to develop vocabulary – every day!<br />
  50. 50. Session One continued<br />What Is Reading Comprehension?<br />The complex cognitive process involving<br />the intentional interaction between reader <br />and text to convey meaning<br />the essence of reading <br />active and intentional thinking in which the meaning is constructed through interactions between the text and the reader (Durkin, 1973)<br />The content of meaning is influenced by the text and by the contribution of the reader's prior knowledge<br />(Anderson & Pearson, 1984)<br />
  51. 51. Session One continued<br />Screening, Evaluation and Assessment<br />Screening?<br />Program readiness <br />Evaluation? - ongoing<br />Monitoring of Progress<br />– daily, weekly<br />Assessment? - cumulative<br />Degree of Success at end of a section/Program <br />Final Assessment<br />
  52. 52. Translation, Adaptation,<br />Modification Exercises<br />GRTR Screening <br />Development Phases in Print Awareness<br />Skill Assessment Sheet<br />Examine your handouts<br />Session One continued<br />
  53. 53. Session One continued<br />Teaching the Elements<br />Introduction and Overview<br />Focused, Personal, Intensive, Explicit, Systematic, and Patient (FPI/ESP)<br />Related to Text<br />Computer Based<br />Mainstream Classroom Based<br />Intervention<br />“Up until the age of 8, children are in the Acquisition Stage of <br />literacy learning. During this stage, a child's reading potential is <br />developing and can be affected positively by systematic, <br />intentional instruction.”- NAEYC<br />
  54. 54. Session One continued<br />Summary of Session One<br />Teaching the fundamental elements as the essential components of a balanced approach to the teaching of reading, at any stage, alongside:<br />promoting a positive attitude to reading for pleasure and for information<br />motivating readers to read for themselves, not just for school purposes <br />teaching sight vocabulary <br />teaching of comprehension strategies and how, when and why to apply them <br />actively raising awareness and appreciation of the writer's craft<br />
  55. 55. Session One continued<br />Assignments<br />Complete the Minute paper and hand it in.<br />Read the first part of each section of the Text and use the CD to Review and Clarify this Session<br />Submit a Copy of Your Goals and Objectives by the END of the Course<br />Revise and Translate the ‘Tests’ by the END of THIS WEEK. You will use them after the course to identify your students who need specific intervention strategies.<br />Finish your ABC song flashcards.<br />
  56. 56. Session Two<br />Teaching the Elements Using Computer Based Programs<br />Review of the Elements<br />Look for the Elements and how they are learned as you experiment with each of the following two Programs<br />Think about the differences in Managing Computer Based Learning vs. Regular Classrooms<br />
  57. 57. Computer Based Programs<br />Part 1 – On-disk program<br />CD Program: Hooked on Phonics<br />Complete the Muddiest Point form – return it <br />Part 2 – On-line program<br />On-line Program: Starfall<br />Complete the Minute paper – return it<br />Session Two continued<br />
  58. 58. Session Two continued<br />http://asia.groups.yahoo.com/group/Connecting_the_Dots_in_Rompin<br />Assignments<br />Preview the Activity Resources for teaching the Alphabet, Text Awareness, you’ll find in the files section (Early Literacy) in the Connecting the Dots in Rompin Group site or that I send to you via email:<br />Print the documents and Prepareto present<br />one of the activities during the next session.<br />
  59. 59. Teaching the Elements in the <br />Regular Classroom<br />Pay Attention to Attention Training<br />Strategies and Activities<br />Alphabetic Code<br />Text and Print Awareness<br />Session Three<br />
  60. 60. Attention Training<br />Classroom rules<br />Getting students' attention<br />Focusing students' attention<br />Keeping students on-task during seat work<br />Maintaining students' attention<br /> Review your handouts<br />Session Three continued<br />
  61. 61. Session Three continued<br />Alphabetic Code<br /> Research shows it is important for young children to be able to:<br />Recognize and name letters<br />Recognize beginning letters in familiar words (especially their own name)<br />Recognize both capital and lowercase letters<br />Relate some letters to the specific sounds they represent<br />
  62. 62. Strategies and Activities for<br />Teaching the Alphabet<br />Recognition<br />Remembering<br />Writing & Spelling (beginnings)<br />Refer to your handouts<br />Session Three continued<br />
  63. 63. Session Three continued<br />Flashcards<br />Sight recognition<br />Hearing the sound<br />Practicing vocabulary<br />Connecting sounds and words with objects<br />Visual, Aural/Oral, & Kinaesthetic<br />
  64. 64. Session Three continued<br />Large flashcards can be used for whole class teaching – smaller ones for group work<br />Activities can be teacher led – “b for …?” or students can ask each other to find particular cards, either by their initial sound or by their picture<br />If you have separate pictures and sounds, memory and matching games can be played<br />Flashcards provide good cues for talking about objects, their uses, colours, size and characteristics<br />
  65. 65. Session Three continued<br />Text & Print Awareness<br />Teach Children About Books:<br />Know how to handle the book appropriately<br />Recognize book features such as the front and back covers, and the top and bottom, of the book<br />Understand that a book has a title, an author, words and pictures<br />Recognize that printed letters and words run from left to right and from top to bottom<br />
  66. 66. Teach Children About Text:<br />We see text in a variety of settings and <br />applications.<br />Field Trips:<br />Around school<br />In the community<br />Text Collecting & Display Activities<br />Shopping lists<br />Product wrappings, etc.<br />Session Three continued<br />
  67. 67. Session Three continued<br />Break Time!<br /> Please fill in the Muddiest Point form and return it to me after the break. Thanks.<br />
  68. 68. Session Three continued<br />Strategies & Activities for <br />Teaching Text and Print <br />Awareness<br />Refer to your handouts<br />
  69. 69. Session Three continued<br />Assignments<br />Complete the Minute paper – return it. <br />Download and review the Phonological and<br />Alphabetic Principle files from the CtDiR<br />Group site or that I send to you via email.<br />Begin preparation of large flashcards of <br />words from the text and for things in your <br />classrooms.<br />Bring the Handouts to the next session<br />
  70. 70. Classroom Based Learning<br />Strategies and Activities<br />Phonological Awareness<br />Phonemic Awareness<br />Alphabetic Principle<br />Alphabetic Understanding<br />Phonological Recoding<br />Session Four<br />
  71. 71. Phonemic Awareness<br />As children begin to learn to read, it becomes necessary for them to be able to explicitly identify the smaller units of speech (i.e. phonemes) in order to be able to make the connections between orthographic representations and the sounds that they represent. <br />Individuals who have developed phonemic awareness will be able to identify the “beginning sound” of please as /p/, and to segment the word into its component phonemes: /p/–/l/–/i/–/z/.<br />Session Four continued<br />
  72. 72. Session Four continued<br />Strategies and Activities for <br />Teaching Phonemic Awareness<br />Refer to your handouts<br />
  73. 73. Session Four continued<br />Break Time!<br />Please fill in the Muddiest Point form and<br />return it to me after the break. Thanks.<br />
  74. 74. Phonological Awareness<br />Children, who have been given lots of practice with Phonemic Awareness and onsets and rimes (or body/coda) to generate word families, have a larger bank of words to draw upon and a means to decode many unfamiliar words.<br />Over 500 words can be generated from the following 37 rimes or codas! <br />Session Four continued<br />
  75. 75. Session Four continued<br />Adapted From A Handbook Of Effective Instruction In Literacy - Rasinski and Padak<br />Kent State University – The / indicates where the body separates the coda.<br />
  76. 76. Alphabetic Principle<br />Alphabetic Understanding<br />Alphabetic Decoding<br />Refer to your handouts<br />Session Four continued<br />
  77. 77. Assignments<br />Download and review the Fluency, <br />Vocabulary and Comprehension files <br />from the CtDiR Group site or that I send to <br />you via email.<br />Bring the Handouts to the next<br />session<br />Session Four continued<br />
  78. 78. Classroom Based Learning<br />Strategies and Activities<br />Vocabulary<br />Fluency and Comprehension<br />Putting It All Together<br />Syllabus and Content<br />Outline of Research Project<br />Conclusion<br />Session Five<br />
  79. 79. Session Five continued<br />Strategies and Activities<br />Vocabulary – The Critical Element<br />Principles and Practice <br />Fluency<br />Songs, Chants & Read Alouds<br />Comprehension<br />Questioning Strategies<br />Refer to your handouts<br />
  80. 80. Session Five continued<br />Vocabulary Principles & Practice<br />Explicitly teach vocabulary<br />Critical to reading comprehension <br />Often neglected component of instruction for ELLs<br />Scaffold reading by asking frequent Questions to check and clarify<br />Critical to mastery<br />
  81. 81. Session Five continued<br />The Language of Instruction Matters.<br />TEACH in L1 to TRANSFER and BUILDskills and knowledge.<br />Components of L1 are the foundation<br />Phonological (Alphabetic Principle) skills transfer regardless of language of instruction<br />Word reading and background knowledge require instruction in primary language first<br />Reading Rockets/Colorin Colorado 2001<br />
  82. 82. Correction<br />Technical mistakes should be corrected<br />Correct with PRAISE<br />Don’t over correct<br />DO NOT LABEL students<br />Assess individually and OFTEN<br />Provide extra instruction time – not less<br />Session Five continued<br />
  83. 83. Session Five continued<br />Give extra time for practice especially for words and sounds as these lay the foundation for literacy development <br />Make sure EVERY student ‘gets it’ before increasing the complexity of the learning material <br />Start small and simple to build student confidence - PRACTICAL<br />Make EVERYTHINGRELEVANT for the learners<br />INTEGRATE abilities, content, skills and they will stay MEANINGFULLY ENGAGED (PRIME©)<br />
  84. 84. Translating Exercises<br />English/L1 – <br />Common Alphabet<br />Words in Common - Cognates<br />Classroom Language & Labels<br />Refer to your handouts<br />Session Five continued<br />
  85. 85. Fluency and Comprehension<br />Songs<br />Chants<br />Read Alouds<br />Questioning, Assessment<br />Focused Review & Practice<br />Session Five continued<br />
  86. 86. Session Five continued<br />Break Time!<br />Please fill in the Muddiest Point Form and <br />return it to me after the break. Thanks.<br />
  87. 87. Session Five continued<br />Putting It All Together<br />Review of Existing Programs for Content and Syllabus<br />Prescriptive and Inflexible<br />C-A-T CAT<br />Open Court Reading<br />Scientifically based and context appropriate<br />Tampa Reads • MES-English<br />English Raven • RAZ <br />
  88. 88. Session Five continued<br />The Syllabus<br />Content and Sequence<br />Alphabetic Code<br />Teach letters 4 at a time in sequence<br />Teach sounds of letters but not as focus<br />Illustrate the letters in pictures, etc.<br />Distinguish capital from small letters<br />Introduce sight words<br />Always explain in L1 for comprehension<br />Teach text and word awareness skills (use text)<br />Begin copying & writing of letters<br />Make sure all students have a complete grasp before moving on<br />
  89. 89. Phonological Awareness<br />Phonemic Awareness - Teach as focus<br />Teach consonants and consonant blends first (Tampa Reads program)<br />Teach single vowels with two consonants<br />Teach simple sound manipulations<br />Always ensure vocabulary understanding<br />Assess students as a class and individually often<br />Introduce concepts of larger pieces of speech (chunks) and words (syllables)<br />Reinforce Alphabetic Code and Concepts of Print (use text)<br />Session Five continued<br />
  90. 90. Alphabetic Principle<br />Teach letter sound identity with written letters including digraphs<br />Teach blends, 2 consonant endings, double vowels, vowel blends<br />Teach manipulations of letters<br />Introduce sight words<br />Teach long vowels and silent ‘e’<br />Teach ‘r’ controlled vowels<br />Know and teach the AP rules as they arise. <br />Practice writing and spelling as you go.<br />Session Five continued<br />
  91. 91. Vocabulary, Fluency Comprehension<br />Begin VFC activities from the start<br />Always ensure ALL students understand the meaning of the words they are expected to work with except when another skill development which doesn’t require it is in focus.<br />Vocabulary and Comprehension are the CORE, fluency activities will help build both.<br />Expose students to books from the start<br />Make weekly trips to the library with some specific purpose mandatory.<br />Elicit the help and cooperation of EVERYONE in the school community.<br />Session Five continued<br />BE <br />A <br />PRIME©<br />TEACHER ! Practical, Relevant, Integrated, Meaningful, Enriching<br />
  92. 92. Outline of Research Project:<br />(designated school)<br />1 full class using a computer based program<br />½ of another class receiving intensive Early Reading Instruction<br />½ receiving regular class Instruction (control)<br />Other schools may be included<br />Year long monitoring with regular progress assessments<br />Session Five continued<br />
  93. 93. Course Summary<br />Community and Parent Involvement<br />Schedule of Follow-up Visits<br />Conclusion<br />Session Five continued<br />
  94. 94. Early Literacy and Reading Instruction<br /> For more information PLEASE contact :<br />William M. Tweedie<br />EFL Education Specialist<br />william.tweedie@yahoo.ca<br />http://asia.groups.yahoo.com/group/Connecting_the_Dots_in_Rompin<br />