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Chapter 13[1]9e


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Chapter 13[1]9e

  1. 1. <ul><li>Chapter 14 </li></ul><ul><li>The Action Arrow: Making It All Happe n </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  2. 2. Implementation <ul><li>The Action Arrow of the helping model highlights the difference between planning and action. </li></ul><ul><li>Stages I, II, III, and their nine tasks all revolve around planning for change, not change itself. </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  3. 3. In a book called True Success, Tom Morris (1994) lays down the conditions for achieving success. They include: <ul><li>determining what you want — that is, a goal or a set of goals &quot;powerfully imagined,&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>focus and concentration in preparation and planning, </li></ul><ul><li>the confidence or belief in oneself to see the goal through, that is, self-efficacy, </li></ul><ul><li>a commitment of emotional energy, </li></ul><ul><li>being consistent, stubborn, and persistent in the pursuit of the goal, </li></ul><ul><li>the kind of integrity that inspires trust and gets people pulling for you, </li></ul><ul><li>a capacity to enjoy the process of getting there. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the counselor is to help clients engage in all these internal and external behaviors in the interest of goal accomplishment. </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  4. 4. Moving From Planning Into Action <ul><li>A strategy is a practical plan to accomplish some objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics is the art of adapting a plan to the immediate situation. This includes being able to change the plan on the spot to handle unforeseen complications </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics is the art of being able to provide the resources needed for the implementation of a plan in a timely way. </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  5. 5. Principles of Effective Implementation <ul><li>Help clients avoid imprudent action </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients overcome procrastination. </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients identify possible obstacles to and resources for implementing plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients find incentives and the rewards for sustained action. </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients develop action‑focused self‑contracts and agreements. </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  6. 6. Tapping Into Social Support <ul><li>Challenging Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback from Significant Others </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmatory feedback. Through confirmatory feedback, significant others— </li></ul><ul><li>such as helpers, relatives, friends, and colleagues—let clients know that they </li></ul><ul><li>are on course; that is, moving successfully through the steps of an action program toward a goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective feedback. Through corrective feedback, significant others let clients </li></ul><ul><li>know that they have wandered off course and specify what they need to do to </li></ul><ul><li>get back on. </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  7. 7. Questions on Implementing Plans <ul><li>Now that I have a plan, how do I move into action? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of self‑starter am I? How can I improve? </li></ul><ul><li>What obstacles lie in my way? Which are critical? </li></ul><ul><li>How can I manage these obstacles? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I keep my efforts from flagging? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I do when I feel like giving up? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of support will help me to keep going? </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  8. 8. The Shadow Side of Implementing Change <ul><li>Helpers as reluctant agents of change </li></ul><ul><li>Client inertia: reluctance to get started </li></ul><ul><li>Entropy: The tendency of things to fall apart </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  9. 9. Client Inertia: Reluctance to Get Started <ul><li>Passivity </li></ul><ul><li>Learned helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Disabling self‑talk </li></ul><ul><li>Vicious circles </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganization </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  10. 10. Entropy: The Tendency of Things to Fall Apart <ul><li>Self-regulatory failure: Programs for constructive change, even those that start strong, often dwindle and disappear. </li></ul><ul><li>False hope: People often believe that they can change more than they actually can. That is, their goals are unrealistic. False expectations lead people to reject more modest goals that they could actually achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Discretionary change: Change that is not forced in one way or another is poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Decay curve: Attrition, noncompliance, and relapse are the name of the game. Many people think that change will be easy. </li></ul><ul><li>People are often unrealistic about how life-enhancing successful change efforts will be. </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  11. 11. Resilience Revisited <ul><li>People’s ability to hold themselves together, bounce back, and grow. </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  12. 12. Getting Along Without a Helper <ul><li>The counselor helps clients with their plans for constructive change and then clients, using their own initiative and resources, take responsibility for the plans and pursue them on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Clients continue to see a helper regularly in the implementation phase until the desired changes are “in place.” Then they move on using their own internal and external resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Clients, after spending some time with a helper, join some kind of self-help group to get the kind of support they need to continue a change program successfully. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be complemented by an occasional one-to-one session with the helper. </li></ul><ul><li>Clients continue to see a helper occasionally, as the need arises. </li></ul><ul><li>Some clients, with debilitating psychological conditions such as bipolar or manic-depressive disorders, may need ongoing help throughout their lives. </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  13. 13. Action Arrow Guidelines for Implementing Change (Part 1) <ul><li>Understand how widespread both inertia and entropy are and how they are affecting this client. </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients become effective tacticians. </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients form implementation intentions, especially when obstacles to goal attainment are foreseen. </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients avoid both procrastination and imprudent action. </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients develop contingency plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients discover and manage obstacles to action. </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients discover resources that will enable them to begin acting, to persist, and to accomplish their goals. </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning
  14. 14. Action Arrow Guidelines for Implementing Change (Part 2) <ul><li>Help clients find the incentives and the rewards they need to persevere in action. </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients acquire the skills they need to act and to sustain goal-accomplishing action. </li></ul><ul><li>Help clients develop a social support and challenge system in their day-to-day lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare clients to get along without a helper. </li></ul><ul><li>Come to grips with the fact that helpers need to become agents of change in their own lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Face up to the fact that not every client wants to change. </li></ul>Copyright 2010 ©Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning