Forensic Serology: Blood Written By: Alice Yang Period 7 Instructor Mary Villani
The Forensic Serologist <ul><li>The forensic serologist studies body  </li></ul><ul><li>fluids such as semen, saliva, and ...
Blood Evidence <ul><li>Blood is the most  well-known and </li></ul><ul><li>significant evidence in the modern </li></ul><u...
Forensic Value of Blood <ul><li>In forensic science, blood has always been  </li></ul><ul><li>considered class evidence. H...
Nature of Blood:  General Characteristics <ul><li>Blood is a slightly alkaline fluid that  </li></ul><ul><li>circulates th...
Nature of Blood: Serum <ul><li>Serum is characterized by its yellow hue,  </li></ul><ul><li>and contains white blood cells...
Nature of Blood: Red Blood Cells <ul><li>Red blood cells, the most prevalent blood </li></ul><ul><li>cells in the human bo...
Blood Grouping <ul><li>The A-B-O system of blood typing was  </li></ul><ul><li>discovered in 1901 by Dr. Karl Landsteiner....
Blood Typing <ul><li>Blood typing requires two antiserums:  </li></ul><ul><li>anti-A and anti-B. By inserting a droplet of...
Rh Factor <ul><li>Blood can also be categorized using the Rh  </li></ul><ul><li>(Rhesus disease) factor.  If an individual...
Individualization of Blood <ul><li>The potential for the individualization of  </li></ul><ul><li>blood is based on the typ...
Secretors <ul><li>In 1925, a blood-related discovery valuable  </li></ul><ul><li>to forensic science was made.   </li></ul...
Bloodstain Analysis:  The General Questions <ul><li>During bloodstain analysis, the forensic  </li></ul><ul><li>investigat...
Bloodstain Analysis:  Blood or not? <ul><li>To determine whether or not blood is  </li></ul><ul><li>present at a crime sce...
Bloodstain Analysis:  Blood or not?   <ul><li>In order to detect invisible bloodstains,  </li></ul><ul><li>forensic invest...
Bloodstain Analysis: Animal Blood? <ul><li>To determine whether blood at the crime  </li></ul><ul><li>scene originated fro...
Bloodstain Analysis: Animal Blood? <ul><li>To determine whether blood is animal or  </li></ul><ul><li>human in origin, the...
Bloodstain Analysis: Human Blood? <ul><li>To confirm whether blood is human in   </li></ul><ul><li>origin, the forensic in...
Bloodstain Analysis: Age, Sex, & Race <ul><li>To estimate the age, sex, and race using  </li></ul><ul><li>blood found at t...
Blood & Crime Scene: Wet vs. Dry Blood <ul><li>Wet blood is more significant than dried  </li></ul><ul><li>blood because t...
Projection of Blood <ul><li>Forensic investigators can determine how </li></ul><ul><li>blood was projected from the body b...
Blood & Crime Scene: Categories of Blood Patterns <ul><li>Pools of blood have evidentiary value in   </li></ul><ul><li>col...
Blood & Crime Scene: Categories of Blood Patterns <ul><li>A blood smear on the wall or floor can  </li></ul><ul><li>indica...
Blood & DNA Testing <ul><li>Blood is used in DNA testing, as shown by  </li></ul><ul><li>the following steps: </li></ul><u...
Blood & Crime Scene <ul><li>Regardless of what type of  analysis is used  </li></ul><ul><li>on the blood at  the  crime sc...
Court Significance <ul><li>Experts in bloodstain examination are  </li></ul><ul><li>usually law enforcement personnel. In ...
References <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/serology/3.html </li></ul><u...
References <ul><li>Slide 6 : http://www.antibody.com/images/CD4.gif </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 7 : http://web.indstate.edu/th...
References <ul><li>Slide 19 : </li></ul><ul><li>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/0d/BPA_ellipse_example.jp...
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Forensic Serology: BLOOD

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Forensic Serology: BLOOD

  1. 1. Forensic Serology: Blood Written By: Alice Yang Period 7 Instructor Mary Villani
  2. 2. The Forensic Serologist <ul><li>The forensic serologist studies body </li></ul><ul><li>fluids such as semen, saliva, and blood </li></ul><ul><li>mainly for identification purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Role(s) : </li></ul><ul><li>• Establishing type and characteristics of </li></ul><ul><li>blood </li></ul><ul><li>• Blood testing </li></ul><ul><li>• Examination of bloodstains </li></ul><ul><li>• DNA typing </li></ul><ul><li>• Preparation of court testimony & </li></ul><ul><li>evidence </li></ul>
  3. 3. Blood Evidence <ul><li>Blood is the most well-known and </li></ul><ul><li>significant evidence in the modern </li></ul><ul><li>criminal justice system. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood evidence is important to the forensic </li></ul><ul><li>investigator because : </li></ul><ul><li>• It can link a victim to a suspect </li></ul><ul><li>(Locard’s Exchange Principle] </li></ul><ul><li>• Bloodstain patterns can reveal a great </li></ul><ul><li>deal about position and movement during </li></ul><ul><li>the crime </li></ul><ul><li>• It has managed to destroy self-defense </li></ul><ul><li>arguments of suspects </li></ul>
  4. 4. Forensic Value of Blood <ul><li>In forensic science, blood has always been </li></ul><ul><li>considered class evidence. However, </li></ul><ul><li>individualized blood evidence is possible </li></ul><ul><li>in the near future. In fact, in some cases, </li></ul><ul><li>forensic serologists were able to link a </li></ul><ul><li>single perpetrator to a bloodstain with </li></ul><ul><li>strong probability estimates. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nature of Blood: General Characteristics <ul><li>Blood is a slightly alkaline fluid that </li></ul><ul><li>circulates throughout our bodies, </li></ul><ul><li>nourishing our cells, and transporting </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen and waste. The fluid portion of </li></ul><ul><li>blood consists of plasma and serum, while </li></ul><ul><li>the non-fluid portion consists of red blood </li></ul><ul><li>cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood is composed of : </li></ul><ul><li>• Water </li></ul><ul><li>• Cells </li></ul><ul><li>• Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>• Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>• Other inorganic substances </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nature of Blood: Serum <ul><li>Serum is characterized by its yellow hue, </li></ul><ul><li>and contains white blood cells and </li></ul><ul><li>platelets. Forensic analysts are able to </li></ul><ul><li>determine the freshness of a blood sample </li></ul><ul><li>by examining serum because it clots </li></ul><ul><li>several minutes after exposure to air. A </li></ul><ul><li>centrifuge can be used to separate the </li></ul><ul><li>clotted material from the serum portion. In </li></ul><ul><li>addition, serum contains antibodies , </li></ul><ul><li>proteins floating in blood fluid, which have </li></ul><ul><li>significant forensic implications. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nature of Blood: Red Blood Cells <ul><li>Red blood cells, the most prevalent blood </li></ul><ul><li>cells in the human body, are the primary </li></ul><ul><li>means of delivering oxygen from the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>to the body’s tissues via the blood. For red </li></ul><ul><li>blood cells, the forensic analyst </li></ul><ul><li>searches for smaller chemical substances </li></ul><ul><li>residing on their surfaces, such as </li></ul><ul><li>antigens , which also tend to have </li></ul><ul><li>important forensic implications. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Blood Grouping <ul><li>The A-B-O system of blood typing was </li></ul><ul><li>discovered in 1901 by Dr. Karl Landsteiner. </li></ul><ul><li>During the late 1930s, a series of </li></ul><ul><li>antigen-antibody reactions were </li></ul><ul><li>discovered in blood, the most common </li></ul><ul><li>ones being ABH, MN, Rh, and Gm. There are </li></ul><ul><li>more than 256 antigens, and twenty-three </li></ul><ul><li>blood group systems based on association </li></ul><ul><li>with these antigens. A fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>principle of serology is that for every </li></ul><ul><li>antigen, there exists a specific antibody. In </li></ul><ul><li>fact, all blood groups are defined by the </li></ul><ul><li>antigens on their red blood cells and the </li></ul><ul><li>antibodies in their serum. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Blood Typing <ul><li>Blood typing requires two antiserums: </li></ul><ul><li>anti-A and anti-B. By inserting a droplet of </li></ul><ul><li>these antiserums in samples of blood, one </li></ul><ul><li>can determine which samples maintain a </li></ul><ul><li>normal appearance and which samples </li></ul><ul><li>become clotted, or agglutinated, under </li></ul><ul><li>microscopic examination. Type-A blood will </li></ul><ul><li>be agglutinated by anti-A serum; Type-B </li></ul><ul><li>blood will be agglutinated by anti-B serum; </li></ul><ul><li>Type-AB blood by both; and Type-O blood by </li></ul><ul><li>neither. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rh Factor <ul><li>Blood can also be categorized using the Rh </li></ul><ul><li>(Rhesus disease) factor.  If an individual </li></ul><ul><li>has a positive Rh factor, this means that </li></ul><ul><li>his/her blood contains a protein that is </li></ul><ul><li>also found in Rhesus monkeys.  </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 85% of the population has a </li></ul><ul><li>positive Rh factor, and doctors are trained </li></ul><ul><li>to monitor closely any woman who is Rh </li></ul><ul><li>negative and becomes pregnant. The Rh </li></ul><ul><li>factor, like other antigens, can be found on </li></ul><ul><li>the surface of red blood cells.  </li></ul>
  11. 11. Individualization of Blood <ul><li>The potential for the individualization of </li></ul><ul><li>blood is based on the typing of proteins an d </li></ul><ul><li>enzymes. Blood proteins and enzymes have </li></ul><ul><li>the quality of being polymorphisms or </li></ul><ul><li>iso-enzymes , which means they exist in </li></ul><ul><li>several forms and variants. Most people </li></ul><ul><li>are familiar with at least one common </li></ul><ul><li>polymorphism in blood: Hb, which causes </li></ul><ul><li>sickle-cell anemia. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Secretors <ul><li>In 1925, a blood-related discovery valuable </li></ul><ul><li>to forensic science was made. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately eighty-percent of the human </li></ul><ul><li>population was found to be &quot;secretors,&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>individuals whose specific types of </li></ul><ul><li>antigens, proteins, antibodies, and </li></ul><ul><li>enzymes characteristic of their blood can </li></ul><ul><li>be found in other bodily fluids and </li></ul><ul><li>tissues.  In the case of a secretor, </li></ul><ul><li>investigators can conclude the blood type </li></ul><ul><li>by examining the saliva, teardrops, skin </li></ul><ul><li>tissue, urine, or semen. In a rape case, for </li></ul><ul><li>example, where the perpetrator is a </li></ul><ul><li>secretor, potential suspects can be </li></ul><ul><li>narrowed down through blood type </li></ul><ul><li>analysis. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bloodstain Analysis: The General Questions <ul><li>During bloodstain analysis, the forensic </li></ul><ul><li>investigator uses these five specific </li></ul><ul><li>questions as guidelines for determining </li></ul><ul><li>the nature of a crime. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Is the sample blood? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Is the sample animal blood? </li></ul><ul><li>3. If the sample is animal blood, from what </li></ul><ul><li>species did it come from ? </li></ul><ul><li>4. If the sample is human blood, what type </li></ul><ul><li>is it ? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Can the sex, age, and race of the source </li></ul><ul><li>of blood be determined? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bloodstain Analysis: Blood or not? <ul><li>To determine whether or not blood is </li></ul><ul><li>present at a crime scene, forensic </li></ul><ul><li>investigators use color or crystalline tests. </li></ul><ul><li>In the past, police investigators were </li></ul><ul><li>trusted to verify the presence or absence of </li></ul><ul><li>blood, but Miller v. Pate (1967) enforced that </li></ul><ul><li>physical tests should be completed in the </li></ul><ul><li>search for blood. The B enzidine test was </li></ul><ul><li>widely implemented until it was discovered </li></ul><ul><li>to be a known carcinogen. The current </li></ul><ul><li>Kastle-Meyer test , which uses the </li></ul><ul><li>chemical, phenolphthalein, operates on the </li></ul><ul><li>fact that when phenolphthalein comes in </li></ul><ul><li>contact with hemoglobin, it releases </li></ul><ul><li>peroxidase enzymes that cause a bright </li></ul><ul><li>pink color to appear.  </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bloodstain Analysis: Blood or not? <ul><li>In order to detect invisible bloodstains, </li></ul><ul><li>forensic investigators use the luminol test . </li></ul><ul><li>Luminol, a chemical sprayed on carpets </li></ul><ul><li>and furniture, reveals a slightly </li></ul><ul><li>phosphorescent light in the dark where </li></ul><ul><li>bloodstains (and other stains) are present. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-dried blood has a tendency to </li></ul><ul><li>crystallize, or can be made to crystallize </li></ul><ul><li>with various saline-acid mixtures. The </li></ul><ul><li>names of various crystal tests are the </li></ul><ul><li>Teichman test , the Takayama test , and </li></ul><ul><li>Wagenhaar test .  </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bloodstain Analysis: Animal Blood? <ul><li>To determine whether blood at the crime </li></ul><ul><li>scene originated from an animal, forensic </li></ul><ul><li>investigators use antiserum or gel tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing whether or not blood is animal </li></ul><ul><li>blood is significant because any possibility </li></ul><ul><li>of an injury to the household pet, caused by </li></ul><ul><li>a perpetrator or another animal, must be </li></ul><ul><li>eliminated. Pets generally spread human </li></ul><ul><li>bloodstains throughout the crime scene, </li></ul><ul><li>but the pet can be a victim, perpetrator, or </li></ul><ul><li>witness (through the cross transfer of </li></ul><ul><li>evidence between the animal’s DNA and the </li></ul><ul><li>perpetrator). Veterinary forensics may be a </li></ul><ul><li>necessary unit if pets are involved in the </li></ul><ul><li>crime. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bloodstain Analysis: Animal Blood? <ul><li>To determine whether blood is animal or </li></ul><ul><li>human in origin, the precipitin test is </li></ul><ul><li>conducted. This process involves injecting </li></ul><ul><li>an animal, usually a rabbit, with human </li></ul><ul><li>blood. The rabbit's body creates </li></ul><ul><li>anti-human antibodies, which are then </li></ul><ul><li>extracted from the rabbit's serum. If this </li></ul><ul><li>antiserum is then placed on a sample from </li></ul><ul><li>the crime scene, and the blood displays </li></ul><ul><li>clotting, the forensic investigator can </li></ul><ul><li>conclude that the blood is human blood. </li></ul><ul><li>The same procedure of creating and </li></ul><ul><li>extracting antiserum can be applied to </li></ul><ul><li>every known animal. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Bloodstain Analysis: Human Blood? <ul><li>To confirm whether blood is human in </li></ul><ul><li>origin, the forensic investigator must first </li></ul><ul><li>determine that he has an adequate and </li></ul><ul><li>quality blood sample. A blood sample that </li></ul><ul><li>meets these requirements can undergo </li></ul><ul><li>direct typing using the A-B-O system. If </li></ul><ul><li>severely dried stains are uncovered, </li></ul><ul><li>indirect typing should be completed using </li></ul><ul><li>techniques such as the absorption-elution </li></ul><ul><li>test . During this test, the forensic scientist </li></ul><ul><li>adds compatible antiserum antibodies to a </li></ul><ul><li>sample, heats the sample to break the </li></ul><ul><li>antibody-antigen bonds, and finally inserts </li></ul><ul><li>known red blood cells from standard blood </li></ul><ul><li>groups to see what coagulates. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Bloodstain Analysis: Age, Sex, & Race <ul><li>To estimate the age, sex, and race using </li></ul><ul><li>blood found at the crime scene, the </li></ul><ul><li>forensic scientist uses various color and </li></ul><ul><li>nitrate tests, and applies heredity </li></ul><ul><li>principles to his tests. Unfortunately, no </li></ul><ul><li>exact determinations are possible. </li></ul><ul><li>However, clotting and crystallization can </li></ul><ul><li>help approximate age, testosterone and </li></ul><ul><li>chromosome testing can help determine </li></ul><ul><li>sex, and certain racial genetic markers </li></ul><ul><li>involving protein and enzyme tests can </li></ul><ul><li>help establish race. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Blood & Crime Scene: Wet vs. Dry Blood <ul><li>Wet blood is more significant than dried </li></ul><ul><li>blood because the forensic scientist can </li></ul><ul><li>perform more tests in order to gain insight </li></ul><ul><li>to the happenings of the crime. For </li></ul><ul><li>example, alcohol and drug content can be </li></ul><ul><li>determined from wet blood only. Blood </li></ul><ul><li>begins to dry after three to five minutes of </li></ul><ul><li>exposure to air. As it dries, it changes color </li></ul><ul><li>from a deep red towards brown and black. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood can be categorized into pools, drops, </li></ul><ul><li>smears, or crusts. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Projection of Blood <ul><li>Forensic investigators can determine how </li></ul><ul><li>blood was projected from the body by </li></ul><ul><li>examining factors such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Type of injuries </li></ul><ul><li>The order in which the wounds were received </li></ul><ul><li>Whose blood is present </li></ul><ul><li>The type of weapon that caused the injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the victim was in motion or lying still when the injury was inflicted </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the victim was moved after the injury was inflicted </li></ul><ul><li>How far the blood drops fell before hitting the surface where they were found. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Blood & Crime Scene: Categories of Blood Patterns <ul><li>Pools of blood have evidentiary value in </li></ul><ul><li>collecting a wet sample. Drops of blood can </li></ul><ul><li>reveal the height and angle from which the </li></ul><ul><li>blood fell onto the surface . According to </li></ul><ul><li>forensic scientists, the blood spatter </li></ul><ul><li>analysis claims that blood which falls </li></ul><ul><li>perpendicular to the floor from a distance </li></ul><ul><li>of zero to two feet would create a circular </li></ul><ul><li>drop with slightly frayed edges. Drops from </li></ul><ul><li>a higher distance would have more distinct </li></ul><ul><li>tendrils extending off the edges. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Blood & Crime Scene: Categories of Blood Patterns <ul><li>A blood smear on the wall or floor can </li></ul><ul><li>indicate the direction of force of the </li></ul><ul><li>blow.  The direction of force is always in the </li></ul><ul><li>direction towards the tail, or smaller end, of </li></ul><ul><li>the smear. In other words, the largest area </li></ul><ul><li>of the smear is the point of origin. Blood </li></ul><ul><li>crusts must be tested with crystalline </li></ul><ul><li>techniques to verify that they are actually </li></ul><ul><li>blood. Refrigerated red blood cells have a </li></ul><ul><li>shelf life of about forty-two days, and the </li></ul><ul><li>serum containing white blood cells can be </li></ul><ul><li>refrigerated much longer, almost up to a </li></ul><ul><li>year.  DNA can be extracted from blood (if </li></ul><ul><li>white blood cells which always contain a </li></ul><ul><li>nucleus are present), and also from sperm, </li></ul><ul><li>bone marrow, tooth pulp, and hair roots. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Blood & DNA Testing <ul><li>Blood is used in DNA testing, as shown by </li></ul><ul><li>the following steps: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Blood samples are collected from the </li></ul><ul><li>victim, defendant, and crime scene. </li></ul><ul><li>2. White blood cells are separated from red </li></ul><ul><li>blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>3. DNA is extracted from the nuclei of white </li></ul><ul><li>blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>4. A restrictive enzyme is used to cut </li></ul><ul><li>fragments of the DNA strand. </li></ul><ul><li>5. DNA fragments are put into a bed of gel </li></ul><ul><li>with electrodes at either end. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Electric current sorts DNA fragments by </li></ul><ul><li>length. </li></ul><ul><li>7. An absorbent blotter soaks up the imprint; it </li></ul><ul><li>is radioactively treated, and an X-ray </li></ul><ul><li>photograph, called an autoradiograph, is </li></ul><ul><li>produced. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Blood & Crime Scene <ul><li>Regardless of what type of analysis is used </li></ul><ul><li>on the blood at the crime scene, care must </li></ul><ul><li>be taken to handle it properly and to </li></ul><ul><li>prevent putrefaction.  Photo graphs and </li></ul><ul><li>notes should be taken before any blood is </li></ul><ul><li>lifted.  Samples should not be exposed to </li></ul><ul><li>heat, moisture, or bacterial contamination, </li></ul><ul><li>b ecause th ese factors can shorten the </li></ul><ul><li>survival time of proteins, enzymes, and </li></ul><ul><li>antigens.  Delays in bringing samples to the </li></ul><ul><li>lab must be avoided at all cost, because it </li></ul><ul><li>can diminish evidential value. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Court Significance <ul><li>Experts in bloodstain examination are </li></ul><ul><li>usually law enforcement personnel. In </li></ul><ul><li>certain jurisdictions, a police investigator </li></ul><ul><li>or blood specialist may testify on the core </li></ul><ul><li>issue because blood evidence is usually a </li></ul><ul><li>vital aspect of the crime scene. </li></ul><ul><li>An expert in bloodstain examination has : </li></ul><ul><li>• Completed specialized training </li></ul><ul><li>• Conducted a sufficient number of </li></ul><ul><li>examinations </li></ul><ul><li>• Accumulated enough reference patterns </li></ul><ul><li>to reinforce an argument </li></ul>
  27. 27. References <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/serology/3.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.policensw.com/info/forensic/forensic6a.html </li></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 1 : http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/oct2004/images/2004_10/kienker02.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 2 : </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.separationsnow.com/FCKeditor/UserFiles/Image/sepNOW_ezines_2006/0602 </li></ul><ul><li>_dep.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 3 : http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/CrimeLab/images/dna%20feathered.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 4 : </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ecmagazine.net/Winter0607/winter06webphotos/Blood%20Serum. </li></ul><ul><li>Pg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 5 : </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.freewebs.com/soaring_sphincter_travel_agency/red%20blood%20cells.bmp </li></ul>
  28. 28. References <ul><li>Slide 6 : http://www.antibody.com/images/CD4.gif </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 7 : http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/PSP/blood/bld-type.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 8 : http://www.dnr.state.md.us/education/horseshoecrab/2005art/testtube2.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 9 : http://science.uwe.ac.uk/projectshowcase/blood_cells%20copy.JPG </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 10 : http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/MKG_Global_Images/testtube_blood.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 11 : http://www.ronsmithandassociates.com/bloodstain.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 12 : http://www.ct.gov/dps/cwp/view.asp?a=2155&Q=315022&PM=1 </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 13 : http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/luminol-crimescene.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 14 : http://wwwimage.cbsnews.com/images/2007/12/18/image3627828g.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 15 : http://diverge.hunter.cuny.edu/~weigang/Images/18-03_precipitin_1.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 16 : http://www.eko.de/~eko_web/img_files/mibi_top3.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 17 : http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/00206/images/bloodanalysis.JPG </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 18 : http://www.wagnerandson.com/images/drop114.jpg </li></ul>
  29. 29. References <ul><li>Slide 19 : </li></ul><ul><li>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/0/0d/BPA_ellipse_example.jpg/350px- </li></ul><ul><li>BPA_ellipse_example.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 20 : http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/a/a7/BPA_AOI.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 21 : http://bodmas.org/blog/images/secondary_wavelet_spatter.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 22 : http://www.spaceflight.esa.int/users/images/gbf/ep-trom-samp.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 23 : </li></ul><ul><li>http://www1.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/4166625/2/istockphoto_4166625 </li></ul><ul><li>_close_up_crime_scene.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 24 : http://www.justice.gov.gu/images/gavel.jpg </li></ul>

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